Wednesday, November 14, 2012

Wed, Nov 14, 2012 - Litany Lane Blog: Moral, Psalms 23:1-6, Titus 3:1-7, Luke 17:1-10, Saint Lawrence O'Toole, Dublin Ireland, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin

Wednesday, November 14, 2012 - Litany Lane Blog:
Moral, Psalms 23:1-6, Titus 3:1-7, Luke 17:1-10, Saint Lawrence O'Toole,  Dublin Ireland,  Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin

Good Day Bloggers! 
Wishing everyone a Blessed Week!
Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift knowledge and free will as well, make the most of it. Life on earth is a stepping to our eternal home in Heaven. Its your choice whether to rise towards eternal light or lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to Purgatory and/or Heaven is our Soul, our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


November 02, 2012 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:

"Dear children, as a mother I implore you to persevere as my apostles. I am praying to my Son to give you Divine wisdom and strength. I am praying that you may discern everything around you according to God’s truth and to strongly resist everything that wants to distance you from my Son. I am praying that you may witness the love of the Heavenly Father according to my Son. My children, great grace has been given to you to be witnesses of God’s love. Do not take the given responsibility lightly. Do not sadden my motherly heart. As a mother I desire to rely on my children, on my apostles. Through fasting and prayer you are opening the way for me to pray to my Son for Him to be beside you and for His name to be holy through you. Pray for the shepherds because none of this would be possible without them. Thank you."

October 25, 2012 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:

"Dear children! Today I call you to pray for my intentions. Renew fasting and prayer because Satan is cunning and attracts many hearts to sin and perdition. I call you, little children, to holiness and to live in grace. Adore my Son so that He may fill you with His peace and love for which you yearn. Thank you for having responded to my call." ~ Blessed Virgin Mary

October 02, 2012 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:

"Dear children; I am calling you and am coming among you because I need you. I need apostles with a pure heart. I am praying, and you should also pray, that the Holy Spirit may enable and lead you, that He may illuminate you and fill you with love and humility. Pray that He may fill you with grace and mercy. Only then will you understand me, my children. Only then will you understand my pain because of those who have not come to know the love of God. Then you will be able to help me. You will be my light-bearers of God’s love. You will illuminate the way for those who have been given eyes but do not want to see. I desire for all of my children to see my Son. I desire for all of my children to experience His Kingdom. Again I call you and implore you to pray for those whom my Son has called. Thank you."
~ Blessed Virgin Mary


Today's Word:  moral  mor·al  [mawr-uhl]

Origin:  1300–50; Middle English  < Latin mōrālis,  equivalent to mōr-  (stem of mōs ) usage, custom + -ālis -al1
1. of, pertaining to, or concerned with the principles or rules of right conduct or the distinction between right and wrong; ethical: moral attitudes.
2. expressing or conveying truths or counsel as to right conduct, as a speaker or a literary work; moralizing: a moral novel.
3. founded on the fundamental principles of right conduct rather than on legalities, enactment, or custom: moral obligations.
4. capable of conforming to the rules of right conduct: a moral being.
5. conforming to the rules of right conduct ( opposed to immoral): a moral man.


Today's Old Testament Reading -  Psalms 23:1-6

1 [Psalm Of David] Yahweh is my shepherd, I lack nothing.
2 In grassy meadows he lets me lie. By tranquil streams he leads me
3 to restore my spirit. He guides me in paths of saving justice as befits his name.
4 Even were I to walk in a ravine as dark as death I should fear no danger, for you are at my side. Your staff and your crook are there to soothe me.
5 You prepare a table for me under the eyes of my enemies; you anoint my head with oil; my cup brims over.
6 Kindness and faithful love pursue me every day of my life. I make my home in the house of Yahweh for all time to come.


Today's Epistle -  Titus 3:1-7

1 Remind them to be obedient to the officials in authority; to be ready to do good at every opportunity;
2 not to go slandering other people but to be peaceable and gentle, and always polite to people of all kinds.
3 There was a time when we too were ignorant, disobedient and misled and enslaved by different passions and dissipations; we lived then in wickedness and malice, hating each other and hateful ourselves.
4 But when the kindness and love of God our Saviour for humanity were revealed,
5 it was not because of any upright actions we had done ourselves; it was for no reason except his own faithful love that he saved us, by means of the cleansing water of rebirth and renewal in the Holy Spirit
6 which he has so generously poured over us through Jesus Christ our Saviour;
7 so that, justified by his grace, we should become heirs in hope of eternal life.


Today's Gospel Reading - Luke 17:11-19

Now it happened that on the way to Jerusalem Jesus was travelling in the borderlands of Samaria and Galilee. As he entered one of the villages, ten men suffering from a virulent skin-disease came to meet him. They stood some way off and called to him, 'Jesus! Master! Take pity on us.' When he saw them he said, 'Go and show yourselves to the priests.' Now as they were going away they were cleansed. Finding himself cured, one of them turned back praising God at the top of his voice and threw himself prostrate at the feet of Jesus and thanked him. The man was a Samaritan. This led Jesus to say, 'Were not all ten made clean? The other nine, where are they? It seems that no one has come back to give praise to God, except this foreigner.' And he said to the man, 'Stand up and go on your way. Your faith has saved you.'

• In today’s Gospel, Luke gives an account of the cure of the ten lepers, of whom only one thanked Jesus. And he was a Samaritan! Gratitude is another theme which is very typical of Luke: to live in an attitude of gratitude and to praise God for everything which we receive from Him. This is why Luke says many times that people were admired and praised God for the things that Jesus did (Lk 2, 28.38; 5, 25.26; 7, 16; 13, 13; 17, 15.18; 18, 43; 19, 37; etc). The Gospel of Luke gives us several canticles and hymns which express this experience of gratitude and of thanksgiving (Lk 1, 46-55; 1, 68-79; 2, 29-32).

• Luke 17, 11: Jesus on his way to Jerusalem. Luke recalls that Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem, passing through Samaria to go to Galilee. From the beginning of his journey (Lk 9, 52) up until now (Lk 17, 11), Jesus walks through Samaria. It is only now that he is leaving Samaria, passing through Galilee in order to reach Jerusalem. That means that the important teachings given in these last chapters from the 9th to the 17th were all given on a territory which was not Jewish. To hear that must have been a great joy for Luke’s communities, which were from Paganism. Jesus the pilgrim continues his journey toward Jerusalem. He continues to eliminate the differences or inequalities which men have created. He continues on the long and painful road of the periphery toward the capital city, from a religion closed up in itself toward an open religion which knows how to accept others as brothers and sisters, sons and daughters of the same Father. This openness is manifested also in the acceptance given to the ten lepers.

• Luke 17, 12-13: The calling out of the lepers. Ten lepers went close to Jesus; they stopped at a distance and called out: “Jesus, Master! Take pity on us!" The leper was a person who was excluded; was marginalized and despised; and had no right to live with the family. According to the law of purity, lepers had to go around with torn clothes and uncombed hair, calling out: “Impure! Impure!” (Lv 13, 45-46). For the lepers to look for a cure meant the same thing as to seek purity in order to be able to be integrated again into the community. They could not get close to others (Lv 13, 45-46). Anyone who was touched by a leper became unclean and that prevented him from being able to address himself to God. By means of crying out they expressed their faith in Jesus who could cure them and give them back purity. To obtain purity meant to feel again accepted by God and be able to address him to receive the blessings promised to Abraham.

• Luke 17, 14: The response of Jesus and the cure. Jesus answered: "Go and show yourselves to the priest!” (cf. Mk 1, 44). The priest had to verify the cure and bear witness to the purity of the one who had been cured (Lv 14,1-32). The response of Jesus demanded great faith on the part of the lepers. They had to go to the priest as if they had already been cured, when in reality their bodies continued to be covered with leprosy. But they believed in Jesus’ word and went to the priest. And it happened that, along the way, the cure took place. They were purified. This cure recalls the story of the purification of Naaman from Syria (2 K 5, 9-10). The prophet Elisha orders the man to go and wash in the Jordan. Namaan had to believe in the word of the prophet. Jesus orders the ten lepers to present themselves to the priests. They should believe in the word of Jesus.

• Luke 17, 15-16: Reaction of the Samaritan. “One of them, seeing himself cured, turned back praising God at the top of his voice; and threw himself prostrate at the feet of Jesus and thanked him. The man was a Samaritan”. Why did the others not return? Why only the Samaritan? According to the opinion of the Jews of Jerusalem, the Samaritan did not observe the law as he should. Among the Jews there was the tendency to observe the law in order to be able to merit or deserve or acquire justice. Thanks to the observance, they already had accumulated merits and credit before God. Gratitude and gratuity do not form part of the vocabulary of the persons who live their relationship with God in this way. Perhaps this is the reason why they do not thank God for the benefits received. In the parable of yesterday’s Gospel, Jesus had formulated the same question: “Must he be grateful to the servant for doing what he was told?” (Lk 17, 9) And the answer was: “No!” The Samaritan represents the persons who have a clear conscience that we, human beings, have no merits or rights before God. Everything is grace, beginning from the gift of one’s own life!

• Luke 17, 17-19: The final observation of Jesus. Jesus observes: “Were not all ten made clean? The other nine, where are they? It seems that no one has come back to give praise to God except this foreigner?” For Jesus, to thank the others for the benefit received is a way of rendering praise that is due to God. On this point, the Samaritans gave a lesson to the Jews. Today the poor are those who carry out the role of the Samaritan, and help us to rediscover this dimension of gratuity of life. Everything that we receive should be considered as a gift from God who comes to us through the brother and the sister.

• The welcome given to the Samaritan in the Gospel of Luke. For Luke, the place which Jesus gave to the Samaritans is the same as that which the communities had to reserve for the pagans. Jesus presents a Samaritan as a model of gratitude (Lk 17, 17-19) and of love toward neighbour (Lk 10, 30-33). This must have been quite shocking, because for the Jews, the Samaritans or pagans were the same thing. They could have no access inside the Temple of Jerusalem, nor participate in the worship. They were considered as bearers of impurity, they were impure from birth, from the cradle. For Luke, instead the Good News of Jesus is addressed in the first place to the persons of these groups who were considered unworthy to receive it. The salvation of God which reaches us through Jesus is purely a gift. It does not depend on the merits of any one.

 Personal questions
• And you, do you generally thank persons? Do you thank out of conviction or simply because of custom? And in prayer: do you give thanks or do you forget?
• To live with gratitude is a sign of the presence of the Kingdom in our midst. How can we transmit to others the importance of living in gratitude and in gratuity?

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  Saint Lawrence O'Toole

Feast Day:  November 14
Patron Saint: Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin

St Laurence O'Toole
Lorcán Ua Tuathail, also known as St Laurence O'Toole, was born at Castledermot, Ireland, in 1128, and died at Eu, Normandy, on 14 November 1180; he was canonized in 1225 by Pope Honorius III.

He was one of four sons of an O'Byrne princess and Muirchertach Ua Tuathail. The family were of the Uí Muiredaig branch of the Uí Dúnlainge kindred and took their name from Tuathal mac Augaire, King of Leinster, who died in 958. They resided at Maistiu (Mullaghmast) in what is now County Kildare.

However by the time of his son's birth Muirchertach was subordinate to the new kings of Leinster, the Uí Cheinnselaig. The king from 1126 was Diarmait Mac Murchada. At the age of 10 he was sent to Diarmait as a hostage for his father. However at one point Muirchertach's loyalty to Diarmait must have become suspect as Lorcán was imprisoned for some two years in extreme austerity and barely given enough to live on. Due to the intercession of the abbot of Glendalough - members of Lorcán's family had been buried at one of its churches for generations - relations were amicably restored between Diarmait and Muirchertach.

One result of his confinement was the strengthening of Lorcan's wish to enter the religious life. The story goes that when Muirchertach arrived at Glendalough for Lorcán, he stated that he would draw lots to have one of his sons made a priest, at which Lorcán laughed as he had long thought of doing so. No lots were drawn, and Lorcán stayed at Glendalough. In time he rose to become Abbot of Glendalough at the age of 26 in 1154. He was well regarded by both the community in Glendalough and its secular neighbours for sanctity and charity to the poor.

Archbishop of Dublin

When he was 32 he was elected unanimously Archbishop of Dublin following the death of Archbishop Gregory in 1162, at the Synod of Clane. He was the first Irishman to be appointed to the See of this town ruled by Danes and Norwegians; it is notable that his nomination was backed not only by the High King Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (Rory O'Connor), Diarmait Mac Murchada (who had by then been married to Lorcán's sister, Mor) and the community at Glendalough, but also by the clergy and population of Dublin itself. He would later endear himself to the people of Dublin with his exertions during a famine which struck the city. He would also play a prominent part in the Irish Church Reform Movement of the 12th century, as well as rebuilding Christ Church Cathedral, several parish churches and emphasising the use of Gregorian Chant.

Exile of Diarmait and the coming of the Normans

In 1166, Lawrence's brother-in-law Diarmait was deposed as King of Leinster by an alliance of Irish kings and princes, led by High King Ruaidri Ua Conchobair and King Tigernan Ua Ruairc of Breifne. Diarmait had in 1152 abducted Dervorgilla, Ua Ruairc's wife and on the death of Diarmait's protector, High King Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in 1166, he paid the price. Exiled and with only a half-hearted promise of help from Henry II of England, after much wandering in Wales, England and France, he returned to Ireland with a group of penniless and down-on-their-luck Norman, Flemish and Welsh allies to help him regain his kingdom. The expedition succeeded beyond their wildest dreams; Diarmait was reinstated as King of Leinster, the Norse towns of Wexford, Waterford and Dublin captured, and the Irish under the High King defeated. To seal the alliance, Diarmait offered his daughter, Aoife — who was also Lorcán's niece — in marriage to the leader of the Normans, Strongbow. The last years of Lorcán's life were defined by these events and those that were consequent upon it. He had been in negotiations with Diarmait when he and his allies laid siege to Dublin after a band of Norman knights seized the town. He acted again as mediator when the King of Dublin unsuccessfully tried to recapture his town and again when Ua Conchobair laid siege.

Synod of Cashel

The arrival of Henry II of England as Lord of Ireland in Dublin on 11 November 1171 served a number of purposes: first, to rein in his erstwhile Norman subjects before they established a rival Norman kingdom of their own; second, to receive the submission of the Irish kings and princes; third, to arrange a synod at Cashel. This was to bring Ireland in line with Church observances as practised in Henry's other domains in England and France. Two of the statutes proclaimed concerned the marriage laws of the Irish clergy and the granting of the Rock of Cashel to the Church. It was also used to try to bring the Church of Ireland under the jurisdiction of Canterbury and in the process Pope Alexander III confirmed Pope Adrian IV's donation of Ireland to Henry in 1172. The implications of all this only seems to have sunk in after Henry's departure in April 1172 and to this end Ua Conchobair sent Ua Tuathail — accompanied by Catholicus, Abbot of Clonfert — to London to negotiate a settlement with Henry.

Treaty of Windsor

The Treaty of Windsor was a pact between Ua Conchobair and Henry II which acknowledged Henry's right to the Lordship of Leinster, Meath and such areas then occupied by his Norman subjects. Lorcán was able to get Henry to acknowledge Ua Conchobair's right to the High Kingship and to his lands. However, in so doing, Lorcán had to cede to Henry Ua Conchobair's tribute to him. During the negotiations, Lorcán was saying mass at the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury when he was attacked by a madman. The man had heard of the archbishop's reputation and had the idea of giving the Church another martyr; he struck Lorcán on the head, before the altar, with a club. Unlike Becket, Ua Tuathail, though knocked to the ground, was able to recover and finish the mass.

Last years and death in Normandy

Ua Tuathail's heart in Christ Church Cathedral
Archbishop Lorcán left Ireland in 1179 to attend the Third Council of the Lateran in Rome, accompanied by five other bishops. From Pope Alexander III he received a papal bull, confirming the rights and privileges of the See of Dublin. Alexander also named him as papal legate. On his return to Ireland he kept up the pace of reform to such an extent that as many as 150 clerics were withdrawn from their offices for various abuses and sent to Rome.

In 1180, he left Ireland for the last time, taking with him a son of Ua Conchobair's as a hostage to Henry. He meant to admonish Henry for incursions against Ua Conchobair, contrary to the Treaty of Windsor. After a stay at the Monastery of Abingdon south of Oxford - necessitated by a closure of the ports - he landed at Le Tréport, Normandy, at a cove named after him, Saint-Laurent. He fell ill and was conveyed to St. Victor's Abbey at Eu. Mortally ill, it was suggested that he should make his will, to which he replied: "God knows, I have not a penny under the sun to leave anyone." His last thoughts were of his people in Dublin: "Alas, you poor, foolish people, what will you do now? Who will take care of you in your trouble? Who will help you?"

Ua Tuathail was well known as an ascetic, wore a hair shirt, never ate meat, and fasted every Friday on bread and water. In contrast to this, it is said that when he entertained, his guests lacked for nothing while he drank water coloured to look like wine so as not to spoil the feast. Each Lent he returned to Glendalough to make a forty days' retreat in St. Kevin's Cave on a precipice of Lugduff Mountain over the Upper Lake. Due to the claimed great number of miracles that rapidly occurred either at his tomb or through his intercession, he was canonized only 45 years after his death.

St Laurence's skull was brought to England in 1442 by a nobleman named Sir Rowland Standish (relation of Myles Standish) who had fought at Agincourt. The bones were interred at the parish church of Chorley in England, now named St. Laurence's. The bones disappeared in the Reformation under Henry VIII's rule. Although mainly revered by Roman Catholics, his heart was preserved in the Anglican-affiliated Church of Ireland's Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin from the 13th century until March 3, 2012 when it was stolen. The Dean of Christ Church Cathedral and the Diocese of Dublin and Glendalough, the Most Reverend Dermot Dunne stated "I am devastated that one of the treasured artifacts of the cathedral is stolen". He added "It has no economic value but it is a priceless treasure that links our present foundation with its founding father."


    • St. Lawrence O'Toole". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.


        Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane


        Today's  Snippet  I:  Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin

        Christ Church Cathedral
        The Metropolitan Archdiocese of Dublin, (Irish: Ard-Deoise Bhaile Átha Cliath), is a Roman Catholic archdiocese in eastern Ireland centred around the republic's capital city – Dublin. The see of Dublin was raised to the status of a Metropolitan Province by the Synod of Kells in 1152. Its jurisdiction includes much of the secular Province of Leinster. The patron saint is its second archbishop, Saint Lorcán Ua Tuathail (Anglicised as St Laurence O'Toole). Its suffragan dioceses are Kildare and Leighlin, Ferns and Ossory. Altogether it covers an area of 698,277 statute acres.

        The Province of Dublin, is one of the four ecclesiastical provinces that together form the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland. Its metropolitan bishop is the Archbishop of Dublin. The geographical remit of the province includes all of counties Fingal, South Dublin, Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown, most of County Wicklow, much of County Kildare and fragments of counties Carlow, Wexford and Laois. The suffragan dioceses of the province are:
        • Ferns
        • Kildare and Leighlin
        • Ossory.


        Pre-diocesan ecclesiastical history

        The Dublin area was Christian long before the formal establishment of the diocese. There are vestigial remains and memory of monasteries that were famous before that time at Finglas, Glasnevin, Glendalough, Kilnamanagh, Rathmichael, Swords, Tallaght, among others. They witness to the faith of earlier generations and to a flourishing Church life. Several of these functioned as "head churches", the most important of which was Glendalough.

        The monastic basis of the early church power vested the greatest authority in the abbots of the major communities. While there were bishops, they were not organised dioceses in the modern sense. In many cases, the offices of abbot and bishop were often comprised in one person. Although Ware's Antiquities of Ireland mentions "Bishops of Dublin" dating as far back as 633, the Diocese of Dublin per se is not considered to have begun until 1038. When formal organised dioceses began to emerge in Ireland, all of the current Diocese of Dublin, and more, was comprised within the Diocese of Glendalough.

        The Danish Diocese of Dublin

        Following a reverted conversion by one Norse King of Dublin, Sitric, his son Godfrey became Christian in 943, and the Kingdom of Dublin sought to have a bishop of their own in the eleventh century, notably under Sitric MacAulaf, who had been on pilgrimage to Rome. He sent his chosen candidate, Donat (or Donagh or Donatus) to be consecrated in Canterbury in 1028, and the new prelate had his Diocese of Dublin as a small territory within the walled city, over which he presided until 1074. This new diocese was not part of the church in Ireland but rather part of the Norse Province of Canterbury. Sitric also provided for the building of Christ Church Cathedral in 1028 "with the lands of Baldoyle, Raheny and Portrane for its maintenance."

        At the Synod of Rathbreasail, convened in 1111 on papal authority by Gillebert (Gilbert), Bishop of Limerick, the number of dioceses in Ireland was fixed at twenty-four. Dublin was not included, the city being described as lying in the Diocese of Glendalough. However, the Danish bishopric continued, still attached to Canterbury.

        Synod of Kells, 1152

        In 1151, Pope Eugene III commissioned Cardinal Paparo to go to Ireland and establish four ecclesiastical provinces, appointing to each a metropolitan. At the general synod of Kells in 1152, the metropolitan provinces of Armagh, Dublin, Cashel, and Tuam, were created which were roughly co-extensive with their contemporary civil counterparts.

        In a document drawn up by the then Archbishop of Tuam in 1214, the cardinal is described as finding both a bishop based in Dublin (who exercised his episcopal office within the city walls only) and "He found in the same Diocese another church in the mountains, which likewise had the name of a city [Glendalough] and had a certain chorepiscopus. But he delivered the pallium to Dublin which was the best city and appointed that the diocese (Glendalough) in which both these cities were should be divided, and that one part thereof should fall to the metropolitan." The part of northern County Dublin known as Fingall was taken from Glendalough Diocese and attached to Dublin. The new archdiocese had 40 parishes grouped in deanaries that were based on the old senior monasteries. All dependence by Dublin upon English churches, such as Canterbury, ended.

        Early archbishops

        The founding Archbishop – Gregory – was consecrated at Lambeth. His suffragan sees were Kildare, Ossory, Leighlin, Ferns and Glendalough. The second archbishop, from 1161 to 1179, was Saint Laurence O'Toole, previously Abbot of Glendalough, who had been elected as Bishop of Glendalough in 1162. During his time in office, the presence of the Church grew in Dublin city (by 1170 there were six churches other than the cathedral within the walls) and religious orders from the continent came to Ireland (Augustinians, Dominicans, Franciscans and Carmelites had houses in Dublin, and the great convent of Grace Dieu, near Donabate, was also founded). As part of this trend, Laurence installed a community of canons to minister according to the Aroasian (reformed Augustinian) Rule in the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity (later known as Christ Church). The Abbey of Saint Mary, one of the most important religious houses in Ireland for centuries, was founded in Dublin at that time, first under the Benedictine Rule, then passing to the Cistercians.

        Norman period

        Ireland's political scene was changed permanently by the coming of the Normans and the influence of the English Crown. Saint Laurence's successor was a Norman, and from then onward to the time of the Reformation, Dublin's archbishops were all either Norman or English. In 1185, the Pope had granted a petition to merge the Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough, to take effect on the death of the then Bishop of Glendalough. The union took effect in 1216, with the approval of Pope Innocent III, and the dioceses have remained merged ever since.

        Dublin acquired a second cathedral, St Patrick's, built outside the city walls by an archbishop anxious to keep his freedom of action from the city's government, and chartered in 1191. In addition to his palace of Saint Sepulchre (where Kevin Street Garda station is situated today) the archbishop had his castle at Swords. The abbot of Saint Mary's Abbey had his castle at Bulloch Harbour near Dalkey, where he levied customs duties on all imported goods. At that time, Dalkey was a busy commercial port.

        Medieval parish churches can be traced outside the city and towns. Tully, which dated from very ancient times, Kilgobbin, Kill of the Grange, Kilbarrack, Raheny, Howth, Grange Abbey, are examples. Their ruined walls seem small to modern eyes, but population was sparse in those days and simple buildings were adequate, many roofed with thatch.

        Medieval times also saw many pilgrimages and in addition to Glendalough, pilgrimages were made regularly to Our Lady's Shrine at Trim in County Meath, and overseas, for example to Rome, and to the great shrine of Saint James, at Compostela in Spain, assembling at Saint James' Church and leaving the city by Saint James' Gate, as was the custom in other European cities as well.

        Reformation period

        Archbishop Alen was murdered in 1534 during the rebellion of "Silken Thomas". From the excommunication of Henry VIII in 1538 no archbishop was nominated by Rome until Hugh Curwen in 1555, under Queen Mary. The uneven process of the Reformation in the sixteenth century led to the final division between the Papacy and the English administration in 1570, under the bull "Regnans in Excelsis". Subsequently the Penal Laws led on to persecution and deprivation for the church in Ireland, with churches and other property lost, priests driven into hiding, martyrs and restrictions on aspects of ordinary life for those who remained loyal Catholics.

        Dublin also had its martyrs, such as Blessed Francis Taylor, Mayor of Dublin, and Blessed Margaret Bermingham – Mrs. Ball – and Archbishop Peter Talbot, who died in prison for the Faith, a contemporary of Saint Oliver Plunkett. Others from outside Dublin were martyred here for the Faith, such as Blessed Dermot O'Hurley, Archbishop of Cashel who is buried in the little churchyard of Saint Kevin's, off Camden Street, Blessed Conor O'Devany of the Diocese of Down and Connor, and Blessed Patrick O'Loughran, a priest of County Tyrone. These deaths for the Faith made a great impression on Dublin's people, and strengthened their attachment to the faith of their ancestors for generations to come.

        As persecution eased, little Mass houses were opened here and there, usually off the beaten track. Some which have since entirely disappeared are marked on maps as far back as the eighteenth century, and the memory of "Mass paths" in certain country places has lasted until today. The buildings were usually of very simple design, of mud walls and thatch roofs, with the most primitive of furnishings, and similar tales were repeated all over Ireland – as the saying went "The King born in a stable held court in a shack."

        18th and 19th centuries

        The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were a time of reconstruction and revival, as the Penal Laws were gradually relaxed. In the 1770s and 1780s Archbishop Carpenter issued instructions about prayers to be said in the diocese in Irish and English, both languages being in common use among ordinary people. The 1800s saw the great work of the new religious congregations, such as the Sisters of Charity under Mary Aikenhead, Catherine McAuley with her House of Mercy in Baggot Street, and Margaret Aylward with the Holy Faith Sisters, Blessed Edmund Rice from Waterford, with O'Connell Schools in Richmond Street and the School in Hannover Street which later moved to Westland Row.

        Daniel O'Connell was the leader of many initiatives to regain Catholic freedom of worship. In these years Archbishop Daniel Murray oversaw the ongoing work of renewal.

        Dr. Murray played a special role when the Loreto Sisters, the Irish branch of the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary, was founded by his devoted friend Mother Frances ("Fanny") Ball, as a name associated with so much suffering for the Faith came back three centuries later to rejoice in its restoring.

        The restoration of Catholic education led to missionary work, the Jesuits at the Catholic University and at Milltown Park, the Holy Ghost Fathers at Kimmage Manor and Blackrock must be remembered among many others.

        Modern times

        Since the 1950s, an increase of population to more than a million adherents doubled the number of parishes to the present total of 200. In all parishes, lay men and women are being trained to take an increased role in the running of Church affairs in future years.


        Today's  Snippet  II:  Dublin, Ireland

        Panoramic of Dublin Ireland

        Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", pronounced [blʲaˈklʲiə] or Áth Cliath, [aː klʲiə], occasionally Duibhlinn) is the capital and most populous city of Ireland. The English name for the city is derived from the Irish name Dubhlinn, meaning "black pool". Dublin is situated near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and the centre of the Dublin Region.

        Originally founded as a Viking settlement, it evolved into the Kingdom of Dublin and became the island's principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century; it was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire and the fifth largest in Europe. Dublin entered a period of stagnation following the Act of Union of 1800, but it remained the economic centre for most of the island. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, the new parliament, the Oireachtas, was located in Leinster House. Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State and later the Republic of Ireland.

        Similar to the cities of Cork, Limerick, Galway, and Waterford—Dublin is administered separately from its respective County with its own City Council. The city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha-", placing Dublin among the top 30 cities in the world. It is a historical and contemporary cultural centre for the country, as well as a modern centre of education, the arts, administration, economy, and industry.


        Father Mathew Bridge is understood to be near the ancient "Ford of the Hurdles" (Baile Átha Cliath), the original crossing point on the River Liffey.
        Although the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, the writings of Ptolemy (the Egyptian astronomer and cartographer) in about 140 AD provide possibly the earliest reference to a settlement there. He called the settlement Eblana Civitas.

        The name Dublin comes from the Irish name Dubhlinn or Duibhlinn, meaning "black pool". This is made up of the elements dubh (black) and linn (pool). In most Irish dialects, dubh is pronounced [ˈd̪ˠʊvˠ]. The original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn. Other localities in Ireland also bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin, Divlin and Difflin. Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn. Those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin.

        Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, currently occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church.

        The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships; the Poddle connected the lake with the Liffey.

        This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne ("The Cattle Raid of Cooley") refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, which is called Ath Cliath".

        Middle Ages

        Dublin Castle was the fortified seat of British rule in Ireland until 1922.
        Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 9th century and, despite a number of rebellions by the native Irish, it remained largely under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough’s death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England reaffirmed his sovereignty by mounting a larger invasion in 1171 and pronouncing himself Lord of Ireland. Around this time, the county of the City of Dublin was established along with certain liberties adjacent to the city proper. This continued down to 1840 when the Barony of Dublin City was separated from the Barony of Dublin. Since 2001, both baronies have been redesignated the City of Dublin.

        Dublin Castle, which became the centre of Norman power in Ireland, was founded in 1204 as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England. Following the appointment of the first Lord Mayor of Dublin in 1229, the city expanded and had a population of 8,000 by the end of the 13th century. Dublin prospered as a trade centre, despite an attempt by King Robert I of Scotland to capture the city in 1317. It remained a relatively small walled medieval town during the 14th century and was under constant threat from the surrounding native clans. In 1348, the Black Death, a lethal plague which had ravaged Europe, took hold in Dublin and killed thousands over the following decade.

        Dublin was incorporated into the English Crown as The Pale, which was a narrow strip of English settlement along the eastern seaboard. The Tudor conquest of Ireland in the 16th century spelt a new era for Dublin, with the city enjoying a renewed prominence as the centre of administrative rule in Ireland. Determined to make Dublin a Protestant city, Queen Elizabeth I of England established Trinity College in 1592 as a solely Protestant university and ordered that the Catholic St. Patrick's and Christ Church cathedrals be converted to Protestant.

        The city had a population of 21,000 in 1640 before a plague in 1649–51 wiped out almost half of the city's inhabitants. However, the city prospered again soon after as a result of the wool and linen trade with England, reaching a population of over 50,000 in 1700.

        Early modern

        Henrietta Street, developed in the 1720s, is the earliest Georgian Street in Dublin.
        As the city continued to prosper during the 18th century, Georgian Dublin became, for a short period, the second largest city of the British Empire and the fifth largest city in Europe, with the population exceeding 130,000. The vast majority of Dublin's most notable architecture dates from this period, such as the Four Courts and the Custom House. Temple Bar and Grafton Street are two of the few remaining areas that were not affected by the wave of Georgian reconstruction and maintained their medieval character.

        Dublin grew even more dramatically during the 18th century, with the construction of many famous districts and buildings, such as Merrion Square, Parliament House and the Royal Exchange. The Wide Streets Commission was established in 1757 at the request of Dublin Corporation to govern architectural standards on the layout of streets, bridges and buildings. In 1759, the founding of the Guinness brewery resulted in a considerable economic gain for the city. For much of the time since its foundation, the brewery was Dublin's largest employer.

        Late modern and contemporary

        Dublin suffered a period of political and economic decline during the 19th century following the Act of Union of 1800, under which the seat of government was transferred to the Westminster Parliament in London. The city played no major role in the Industrial Revolution, but remained the centre of administration and a transport hub for most of the island. Ireland had no significant sources of coal, the fuel of the time, and Dublin was not a centre of ship manufacturing, the other main driver of industrial development in Britain and Ireland. Belfast developed faster than Dublin during this period on a mixture of international trade, factory-based linen cloth production and shipbuilding.

        The Easter Rising of 1916, the Irish War of Independence, and the subsequent Irish Civil War resulted in a significant amount of physical destruction in central Dublin. The Government of the Irish Free State rebuilt the city centre and located the new parliament, the Oireachtas, in Leinster House. Since the beginning of Norman rule in the 12th century, the city has functioned as the capital in varying geopolitical entities: Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541), Kingdom of Ireland (1541–1800), island as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922), and the Irish Republic (1919–1922). Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, it became the capital of the Irish Free State (1922–1949) and now is the capital of the Republic of Ireland. One of the memorials to commemorate that time is the Garden of Remembrance.

        Since 1997, the landscape of Dublin has changed immensely. The city was at the forefront of Ireland's rapid economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period, with enormous private sector and state development of housing, transport and business.



        Satellite image showing the River Liffey entering the Irish Sea as it divides Dublin into the Northside and the Southside.
        Dublin is situated at the mouth of the River Liffey and encompasses a land area of approximately 115 km2. It is bordered by a low mountain range to the south and surrounded by flat farmland to the north and west. The Liffey divides the city in two between the Northside and the Southside.

         Each of these is further divided by two lesser rivers – the River Tolka running northwest from Dubin Bay, and the River Dodder running southwest from the mouth of the Liffey. Two further water bodies – the Grand Canal on the southside and the Royal Canal on the northside – ring the inner city on their way to the west and the River Shannon.  The River Liffey bends at Leixlip from a predominantly east-west direction to a southwesterly route, and this point also marks the change from urban development to more agricultural land usage.

        A north-south division has traditionally existed, with the River Liffey as the divider. The Northside is generally seen as working class, while the Southside is seen as middle to upper-middle class. The divide is punctuated by examples of Dublin "sub-culture" stereotypes, with upper-middle class constituents seen as tending towards an accent and demeanour synonymous with the Southside, and working-class Dubliners seen as tending towards characteristics associated with Northside and inner-city areas. Dublin's economic divide is east-west as well as north-south. There are also social divisions evident between the coastal suburbs in the east of the city, including those on the northside, and the newer developments further to the west.


        Similar to much of northwest Europe, Dublin experiences a maritime climate with mild winters, cool summers, and a lack of temperature extremes. The average maximum January temperature is 8.8 °C (48 °F), while the average maximum July temperature is 20.2 °C (68 °F). On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is October with 76 mm (3 in) of rain, and the driest month is February with 46 mm (2 in). Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year.

        Dublin records the least amount of rainfall in Ireland, with the average annual precipitation in the city centre being 714 mm (28 in). The main precipitation in winter is rain; however snow showers do occur between November and March. Hail is more common than snow. The city experiences long summer days and short winter days. Strong Atlantic winds are most common in autumn. These winds can affect Dublin, but due to its easterly location it is least affected compared to other parts of the country. However conversely in winter, easterly winds render the city more prone to snow showers.

        Places of interest


        The Spire of Dublin rises behind the statue of Jim Larkin.
        Dublin has many landmarks and monuments dating back hundreds of years. One of the oldest is Dublin Castle, which was first founded as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England in 1204, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, when it was commanded that a castle be built with strong walls and good ditches for the defence of the city, the administration of justice, and the protection of the King’s treasure. Largely complete by 1230, the castle was of typical Norman courtyard design, with a central square without a keep, bounded on all sides by tall defensive walls and protected at each corner by a circular tower. Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the castle formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city, using the River Poddle as a natural means of defence.

        The Molly Malone statue, Grafton Street.
        One of Dublin's newest monuments is the Spire of Dublin, or officially titled "Monument of Light". It is a 121.2 metres (398 ft) conical spire made of stainless steel and is located on O'Connell Street. It replaces Nelson's Pillar and is intended to mark Dublin's place in the 21st century. The spire was designed by Ian Ritchie Architects, who sought an "Elegant and dynamic simplicity bridging art and technology". During the day it maintains its steel look, but at dusk the monument appears to merge into the sky. The base of the monument is lit and the top is illuminated to provide a beacon in the night sky across the city.

        Many people visit Trinity College, Dublin to see the Book of Kells in the library there. The Book of Kells is an illustrated manuscript created by Irish monks circa. 800 AD. The Ha'penny Bridge; an old iron footbridge over the River Liffey is one of the most photographed sights in Dublin and is considered to be one of Dublin's most iconic landmarks.

        Other popular landmarks and monuments include the Mansion House, the Anna Livia monument, the Molly Malone statue, Christ Church Cathedral, St Patrick's Cathedral, Saint Francis Xavier Church on Upper Gardiner Street near Mountjoy Square, The Custom House, and Áras an Uachtaráin. The Poolbeg Towers are also iconic features of Dublin and are visible in many spots around the city.


        Saint Stephen's Green
        Dublin has more green spaces per square kilometre than any other European capital city, with 97% of city residents living within 300 metres of a park area. The city council provides 2.96 hectares (7.3 acres) of public green space per 1,000 people and 255 playing fields. The council also plants approximately 5,000 trees annually and manages over 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres) of parks.

        St Stephen's Green is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street, and to a shopping centre named for it, while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies and the city terminus of one of Dublin's Luas tram lines. Saint Anne's Park is a public park and recreational facility, shared between Raheny and Clontarf, both suburbs on the North Side of Dublin. The park, the second largest municipal park in Dublin, is part of a former 2 km² (500 acre) estate assembled by members of the Guinness family, beginning with Benjamin Lee Guinness in 1835 (the largest municipal park is nearby (North) Bull Island, also shared between Clontarf and Raheny).


        National Museum of Ireland

        Dublin has a world famous literary history, having produced many prominent literary figures, including Nobel laureates William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett. Other influential writers and playwrights include Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift and the creator of Dracula, Bram Stoker. It is arguably most famous as the location of the greatest works of James Joyce, including Ulysses, which is set in Dublin and full of topical detail. Dubliners is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and typical characters of the city during the early 20th century. Other renowned writers include J. M. Synge, Seán O'Casey, Brendan Behan, Maeve Binchy, and Roddy Doyle. Ireland's biggest libraries and literary museums are found in Dublin, including the National Print Museum of Ireland and National Library of Ireland. In July 2010, Dublin was named as a UNESCO City of Literature, joining Edinburgh, Melbourne and Iowa City with the permanent title.

        There are several theatres within the city centre, and various world famous actors have emerged from the Dublin theatrical scene, including Noel Purcell, Sir Michael Gambon, Brendan Gleeson, Stephen Rea, Colin Farrell, Colm Meaney and Gabriel Byrne. The best known theatres include the Gaiety, Abbey, Olympia, Gate, and Grand Canal.

        The Gaiety specialises in musical and operatic productions, and is popular for opening its doors after the evening theatre production to host a variety of live music, dancing, and films. The Abbey was founded in 1904 by a group that included Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city's most famous writers, such as Synge, Yeats himself and George Bernard Shaw. The Gate was founded in 1928 to promote European and American Avant Garde works. The Grand Canal Theatre is a new 2,111 capacity theatre which opened in March 2010 in the Grand Canal Dock.

        Book of Kells
        Apart from being the focus of the country's literature and theatre, Dublin is also the focal point for much of Irish Art and the Irish artistic scene. The Book of Kells, a world-famous manuscript produced by Celtic Monks in AD 800 and an example of Insular art, is on display in Trinity College. The Chester Beatty Library houses the famous collection of manuscripts, miniature paintings, prints, drawings, rare books and decorative arts assembled by American mining millionaire (and honorary Irish citizen) Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875–1968). The collections date from 2700 BC onwards and are drawn from Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. Work by local artists is often put on public display around St. Stephen's Green, the main public park in the city centre. In addition large art galleries are found across the city, including the Irish Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, The City Arts Centre, The Douglas Hyde Gallery, The Project Arts Centre and The Royal Hibernian Academy. Three branches of the National Museum of Ireland are located in Dublin: Archaeology in Kildare Street, Decorative Arts and History in Collins Barracks and Natural History in Merrion Street. The same area is also home to many smaller museums such as Number 29 on Fitzwilliam St. and The Little Museum of Dublin on St. Stephen's Green. Dublin is home to the National College of Art and Design, which dates from 1746, and Dublin Institute of Design, founded in 1991.

        Dublin has long been a city with a strong underground arts scene. Temple Bar was the home of many artists in the 1980s, and spaces such as the Project Arts Centre were hubs for collectives and new exhibitions. The Guardian noted that Dublin's independent and underground arts flourished during the economic recession of 2010. Dublin also has many acclaimed dramatic, musical and operatic companies, including Festival Productions, Lyric Opera Productions, The Pioneers Musical & Dramatic Society, The Glasnevin Musical Society, Second Age Theatre Company, Opera Theatre Company, and Opera Ireland. Ireland is well known for its love of baroque music, which is highly acclaimed at Trinity College. Perhaps the most famous Dublin theatre company is the renowned Rathmines and Rathgar Musical Society, which has been in existence since 1913. It produced full scale productions of popular musicals and operettas including Oklahoma!, Carousel, The Mikado, Guys and Dolls, The Pirates of Penzance, Me and My Girl, My Fair Lady, The Yeoman of the Guard, Gigi, Fiddler on the Roof, The Gondoliers, Anything Goes, The Merry Widow, Iolanthe, The Producers and HMS Pinafore. At present, the society is performing a tribute concert to the works of Rodgers and Hammerstein at the National Concert Hall. The society recreated their 1913 production of The Mikado in November 2010 at the National Concert Hall.  Dublin is shortlisted to be World Design Capital 2014.  Taoiseach Enda Kenny was quoted to say that Dublin “would be an ideal candidate to host the World Design Capital in 2014”.


        Temple Bar
        Dublin has a vibrant nightlife and is reputedly one of Europe's most youthful cities, with an estimate of 50% of citizens being younger than 25. There are many pubs across the city centre, with the area around St. Stephen's Green and Grafton Street, especially Harcourt Street, Camden Street, Wexford Street and Leeson Street, having the most popular nightclubs and pubs.

        The best known area for nightlife is Temple Bar, south of the River Liffey. The area has become popular among tourists, including stag and hen parties from Britain. It was developed as Dublin's cultural quarter and does retain this spirit as a centre for small arts productions, photographic and artists' studios, and in the form of street performers and small music venues. However, it has been criticised as overpriced, false and dirty by Lonely Planet. In general, it is regarded by locals as tourist orientated with false "ye olde Irish" pretensions. The areas around Leeson Street, Harcourt Street, South William Street and Camden/George's Street are popular nightlife spots for locals.

        Live music is popularly played on streets and at venues throughout Dublin in general, and the city has produced several musicians and groups of international success, including U2, one member of Westlife, The Dubliners, The Thrills, Horslips, Jedward, The Boomtown Rats, Boyzone, Ronan Keating, Thin Lizzy, Paddy Casey, Sinéad O'Connor, The Script and My Bloody Valentine. The two best known cinemas in the city centre are the Savoy Cinema and the Cineworld Cinema, both north of the Liffey. Alternative and special-interest cinema can be found in the Irish Film Institute in Temple Bar, in the Screen Cinema on d'Olier Street and in the Lighthouse Cinema in Smithfield. Large modern multiscreen cinemas are located across suburban Dublin. The O2 venue in the Dublin Docklands has played host to many world renowned performers.


        Clerys on O'Connell Street.
        Dublin is a popular shopping destination for both locals and tourists. The city has numerous shopping districts, particularly around Grafton Street and Henry Street. The city centre is also the location of large department stores, most notably Arnotts, Brown Thomas and Clerys.

        Moore Street Market in Dublin.
        The city retains a thriving market culture, despite new shopping developments and the loss of some traditional market sites. Several historic locations, including Moore Street, remain one of the city's oldest trading districts.

        There has also been a significant growth in local farmers' markets and other markets. In 2007, Dublin Food Co-op relocated to a larger warehouse in The Liberties area, where it is home to many market and community events.

        Suburban Dublin has several modern retail centres, including Dundrum Town Centre, Blanchardstown Centre, The Square in Tallaght, Liffey Valley Shopping Centre in Clondalkin, Omni Shopping Centre in Santry, Nutgrove Shopping Centre in Rathfarnham, and Pavilions Shopping Centre in Swords.

        Irish language

        There are 10,469 students in the Dublin region attending the 31 gaelscoileanna (Irish-language primary schools) and 8 gaelcholáistí (Irish-language secondary schools). Dublin has the highest number of Irish-medium schools in the country. There may be also up to another 10,000 Gaeltacht speakers living in Dublin. Two Irish language radio stations Raidió na Life and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta both have studios in the city, and the online and DAB station Raidió Rí-Rá broadcasts from studios in the city. Many other radio stations in the city broadcast at least an hour of Irish language programming per week. Many Irish language agencies are also located in the capital. Conradh na Gaeilge offers language classes, has a book shop and is a regular meeting place for different groups. The closest Gaeltacht to Dublin is the Meath Gaeltacht of Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib which is 55 km (34 mi) away.


        • John Flynn and Jerry Kelleher, Dublin Journeys in America (High Table Publishing, 2003) ISBN 0-9544694-1-0
        • Hanne Hem, Dubliners, An Anthropologist's Account, Oslo, 1994
        • Pat Liddy, Dublin A Celebration – From the 1st to the 21st century (Dublin City Council, 2000) ISBN 0-946841-50-0
        • Maurice Craig, The Architecture of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1880 (Batsford, Paperback edition 1989) ISBN 0-7134-2587-3
        • Frank McDonald, Saving the City: How to Halt the Destruction of Dublin (Tomar Publishing, 1989) ISBN 1-871793-03-3
        • Edward McParland, Public Architecture in Ireland 1680–1760 (Yale University Press, 2001) ISBN 0-300-09064-1