Sunday, January 20, 2013

Sun, Jan 20, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog: Catacomb, Isaiah 62:1-5, Psalms 96:1-10, John 2:1-12, St Fabian, Catholic Catechism Chapter 2:3-IV The Canon of Scripture

Sunday, January 20, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog:

Catacomb, Isaiah 62:1-5, Psalms 96:1-10, John 2:1-12, St Fabian, Catholic Catechism Chapter 2:3-IV The Canon of Scripture

Good Day Bloggers!  Happy Mardi Gras!
Wishing everyone a Blessed Week!

Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. Its your choice whether to rise towards eternal light or lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to Purgatory and/or Heaven is our Soul, our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


January 02, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
 "Dear children, with much love and patience I strive to make your hearts like unto mine. I strive, by my example, to teach you humility, wisdom and love because I need you; I cannot do without you my children. According to God's will I am choosing you, by His strength I am strengthening you. Therefore, my children, do not be afraid to open your hearts to me. I will give them to my Son and in return, He will give you the gift of Divine peace. You will carry it to all those whom you meet, you will witness God's love with your life and you will give the gift of my Son through yourselves. Through reconciliation, fasting and prayer, I will lead you. Immeasurable is my love. Do not be afraid. My children, pray for the shepherds. May your lips be shut to every judgment, because do not forget that my Son has chosen them and only He has the right to judge. Thank you."

December 25, 2012 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
Our Lady came with little Jesus in her arms and she did not give a message, but little Jesus began to speak and said : “I am your peace, live my commandments.” With a sign of the cross, Our Lady and little Jesus blessed us together.

December 2, 2012 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
Dear children, with motherly love and motherly patience anew I call you to live according to my Son, to spread His peace and His love, so that, as my apostles, you may accept God's truth with all your heart and pray for the Holy Spirit to guide you. Then you will be able to faithfully serve my Son, and show His love to others with your life. According to the love of my Son and my love, as a mother, I strive to bring all of my strayed children into my motherly embrace and to show them the way of faith. My children, help me in my motherly battle and pray with me that sinners may become aware of their sins and repent sincerely. Pray also for those whom my Son has chosen and consecrated in His name. Thank you." 


Today's Word:  catacomb   cat·a·comb [kat-uh-kohm]

Origin: before 900; Middle English catacombe, Old English catacumbe  < Late Latin catacumbās  (accusative plural); of disputed orig.; perhaps < Greek *katakýmbās,  equivalent to kata- cata- + kýmbās,  accusative plural of kýmbē  hollow, cup

1. Usually, catacombs. an underground cemetery, especially one consisting of tunnels and rooms with recesses dug out for coffins and tombs.
2. the Catacombs, the subterranean burial chambers of the early Christians in and near Rome, Italy.
3. an underground passageway, especially one full of twists and turns.


Today's Old Testament Reading -  Psalms 96:1-10

1 Sing a new song to Yahweh! Sing to Yahweh, all the earth!
2 Sing to Yahweh, bless his name! Proclaim his salvation day after day,
3 declare his glory among the nations, his marvels to every people!
7 Give to Yahweh, families of nations, give to Yahweh glory and power,
8 give to Yahweh the glory due to his name! Bring an offering and enter his courts,
9 adore Yahweh in the splendour of his holiness. Tremble before him, all the earth.
10 Say among the nations, 'Yahweh is king.' The world is set firm, it cannot be moved. He will judge the nations with justice.


Today's Epistle -   Isaiah 62:1-5

1 About Zion I will not be silent, about Jerusalem I shall not rest until saving justice dawns for her like a bright light and her salvation like a blazing torch.
2 The nations will then see your saving justice, and all kings your glory, and you will be called a new name which Yahweh's mouth will reveal.
3 You will be a crown of splendour in Yahweh's hand, a princely diadem in the hand of your God.
4 No more will you be known as 'Forsaken' or your country be known as 'Desolation'; instead, you will be called 'My Delight is in her' and your country 'The Wedded'; for Yahweh will take delight in you and your country will have its wedding.
5 Like a young man marrying a virgin, your rebuilder will wed you, and as the bridegroom rejoices in his bride, so will your God rejoice in you.


Today's Gospel Reading -  John 2:1-12

The First Miracle of Jesus“Do whatever He tells you!”John 2, 1-12

1. Opening prayer
Lord Jesus, send your Spirit to help us to read the Scriptures with the same mind that you read them to the disciples on the way to Emmaus. In the light of the Word, written in the Bible, you helped them to discover the presence of God in the disturbing events of your sentence and death. Thus, the cross that seemed to be the end of all hope became for them the source of life and of resurrection.

Create in us silence so that we may listen to your voice in Creation and in the Scriptures, in events and in people, above all in the poor and suffering. May your word guide us so that we too, like the two disciples from Emmaus, may experience the force of your resurrection and witness to others that you are alive in our midst as source of fraternity, justice and peace. We ask this of you, Jesus, son of Mary, who revealed to us the Father and sent us your Spirit. Amen.

2. Reading

a) A key to the reading:
The Gospel of this second Sunday of ordinary Time places us before the celebration of the Wedding at Cana, in Galilee. At that time, just as now, everybody likes feasts: the feast for a marriage or for a Baptism, the birthday party, the feast of the Patron or Patroness of the Church, the feast at the end of the year, the feast and more feast… There are some feasts which remain engraved in our memory and, which with time, always acquire a more profound significance. Other feasts, we forget. We no longer remember them because they have lost their significance. The feast of the Wedding of Cana, as it has been described in the Gospel of John (Jn 2, 1-12), has remained alive in the memory of the Christian people, and it has given a few a more profound sense.

To understand this progressive discovery of the significance of the Wedding at Cana we must remember that the Gospel of John is different from the other Gospels. John describes the facts of the life of Jesus in such a way that the readers discover in them a more profound dimension, which only faith can perceive. John, at the same time, presents a photograph and the X-Rays. This is why, during the reading, it is good to be very attentive to the details of the text, especially to the two following things: (i) to the attitudes and to the behaviour of the persons and (ii) to what is lacking and to the abundance which appear in the Wedding at Cana.

b)    A division of the text to help in the reading:
John 2, 1-2: Feast of the Wedding. Mary is present, Jesus is the one who has been invited.
John 2, 3-5: Jesus and His Mother before the lack of wine.
John 2, 6: The jars for the ablutions are empty.
John 2, 7-8: The initiative of Jesus and of the servants.
John 2, 9-10: The discovery of the sign by the president of the feast.
John 2, 11-12: The comment of the Evangelist.

c) The Gospel: John 2:2-12

1 On the third day there was a wedding at Cana in Galilee. The mother of Jesus was there, 2 and Jesus and his disciples had also been invited. 3 And they ran out of wine, since the wine provided for the feast had all been used, and the mother of Jesus said to him, 'They have no wine.' 4 Jesus said, 'Woman, what do you want from me? My hour has not come yet.' 5 His mother said to the servants, 'Do whatever he tells you.'
6 There were six stone water jars standing there, meant for the ablutions that are customary among the Jews: each could hold twenty or thirty gallons. 7 Jesus said to the servants, 'Fill the jars with water,' and they filled them to the brim. 8 Then he said to them, 'Draw some out now and take it to the president of the feast.' 9 They did this; the president tasted the water, and it had turned into wine. Having no idea where it came from -- though the servants who had drawn the water knew -- the president of the feast called the bridegroom 10 and said, 'Everyone serves good wine first and the worse wine when the guests are well wined; but you have kept the best wine till now.' 11 This was the first of Jesus' signs: it was at Cana in Galilee. He revealed his glory, and his disciples believed in him.
12 After this he went down to Capernaum with his mother and his brothers and his disciples, but they stayed there only a few days.

3. A moment of prayerful silence
so that the Word of God may penetrate and enlighten our life.

4. Some questions
to help us in our personal reflection.
a) Which point in this text pleased you the most and which one impressed you the most? Why?
b) What struck you in the attitude and in the behaviour of the persons? Why?
c) Which type of lack and of abundance was there in the feast? Which is the significance of this detail?
d) What did Jesus do and how did He do it to offer wine in abundance?
e) Jesus begins the announcement of the Kingdom in a Wedding feast. What does He want to teach us with this gesture?
f) Which is the message of this text for us today?

5. For those who wish to go deeper into the theme

a)    The context in order to understand the photograph and the X-Rays:
When we say “Photograph”, we indicate the facts in themselves, just as they appear before our eyes. When we say “X-Rays”, we indicate a more profound dimension, invisible to our eyes, which is enclosed in the facts that only faith makes us perceive and reveals to us.

It is in the way in which John describes the facts that he takes an X-Ray of the words and the gestures of Jesus. Through these small details and references, he makes evident the symbolical dimension and, in doing this, he helps us to penetrate deeper into the mystery of the person and the message of Jesus. In the Wedding at Cana, in Galilee, there is the change of the water of the ablutions of the Jews into the wine for the Wedding feast. Let us look closely at the details with which John describes the feast, in a way that we can understand the more profound significance of this beautiful and very well known episode.

b) Comment on the text:

John 2, 1-2: Feast of the wedding. Jesus has been invited.In the Old Testament, the wedding feast was a symbol of God’s love for His people. That was what everyone expected in the future (Hos 2, 21-22; Is 62, 4-5). And it is precisely in a wedding feast, around a family and a community, that Jesus fulfils his “first sign” (Jn 2, 11). The Mother of Jesus was also in the feast. Jesus and His disciples had been invited. That is, the Mother of Jesus forms part of the feast. This symbolizes the Old Testament. Together with His disciples He is the New Testament which is arriving: The Mother of Jesus will help to pass from the Old Testament to the New Testament.

John 2, 3-5: Jesus and His Mother before the lack of wineRight in the middle of the celebration, the wine is finished. The Mother of Jesus recognizes the limitations of the Old Testament and takes the initiative, in order that the New Testament may be manifested. She approaches Jesus and affirms: “They have no wine!” Here we have the photograph and the X-Ray. the Photo represents the Mother of Jesus like a person who is attentive to the problems of others and to become aware that the lack of wine would ruin the feast. She is not only aware of the problem, but also takes the an effective initiative to solve it. The X-Rays reveal the deepest dimension of the relationship between the Old Testament (the Mother of Jesus) and the New Testament (Jesus). The phrase, “They have no wine”!”, comes from the Old Testament, and awakens in Jesus the action which will bring to light the New one. Jesus says: “Woman, what do you want from me?” That is, which is the link between the Old and the New Testament? “My hour has not come yet!” Mary did not understand this response as negative, as a no, because she tells the servants: “Do whatever He tells you!” It is in doing that which Jesus teaches that one goes from the Old to the New Testament! The hour of Jesus, in which the passage from the Old to the New Testament will take place, is His Passion, Death and Resurrection. The change of the water into wine is the anticipated indication of what is new which will come from the Death and Resurrection of Jesus.

At the end of the first century, the first Christians discussed concerning the validity of the Old Testament. Some no longer wanted to know anything about the Old Testament. In the meeting of the apostles in Jerusalem, James defended the continuity of the use of the Old Testament (Acts 15, 13-21). In fact, at the beginning of the second century, Marcione rejected the Old Testament and remained only with the books of the New Testament. Some even affirmed that after the coming of the Holy Spirit, Jesus of Nazareth should no longer be remembered, but that we should speak only of the Risen Christ. In the name of the Holy Spirit, they said: “Anathema Jesus!” (I Co 12, 3).

John 2, 6: The jars for the ablutions are emptyIt is a question of a small detail, very significant. The jars were usually full, especially during a feast. Here they are empty! Why? The observance of the law of purification, symbolized by the six jars, has exhausted all their possibilities. The ancient law has already succeeded to prepare the people to be able to have the union of grace and justification before God. The jars, the old Covenant, are empty! They are no longer capable to generate a new life.

John 2, 7-8: Jesus and the servantsThe recommendation of the Mother of Jesus to the servants is the last order of the Old Testament: “Do whatever He tells you!” The Old Testament looks toward Jesus. From now on, the words and gestures and actions of Jesus will be the ones to direct our life. Jesus calls the servants and orders them to fill the six empty jars. In all, over six hundred litres! Immediately He orders them to draw from the jars and to take to the president of the ceremony. This initiative of Jesus takes place without the intervention of the president of the feast. Neither Jesus, nor His Mother, nor the servants were obviously the patrons. No one of them went to ask permission from the president or the bridegroom. Renewal passes for the persons who do not belong to the centre of power.

John 2, 9-10: Discovery of the sign by the president of the feastThe president of the feast tasted the water transformed into wine and said to the bridegroom: “Everyone serves good wine first. But you have kept the best wine until now!” The president of the feast, the Old Testament, recognizes publicly that the New is better! Where before there was water for the rite of the ablutions of the Jews, now there is abundant wine for the feast. There was a lot of wine! Over six hundred litres, and the feast was almost over! Which is the sense of this abundance? What was done with the wine which was left over? We are drinking it up until now!

John 2, 11-12: Comment of the EvangelistThis is the first sign. In the Fourth Gospel, the first sign takes place to help in the building up of the family, of the community, in order to mend the relationships between persons. Other six signs will follow. John does not use the word miracle, but the word sign. The word sign indicates that the actions of Jesus in behalf of the persons have a more profound value, that can only be discovered with the X-Rays of faith. The small community which had formed around Jesus that week, seeing the sign, was ready to perceive the more profound significance and “believe in Him”.

c) Extending the information:

* A much expected Wedding
In the Gospel of John, the beginning of the public life of Jesus takes place in a wedding feast, a moment of great joy and of great hope. For this same reason, the wedding at Cana has a very intense symbolical significance. In the Bible, matrimony is the image used to signify the realization of the perfect union between God and His people. This marriage between God and His people was expected for a long time, for over eight hundred years!

It was prophet Hosea (toward the year 750 BC) that, for the first time, he represented the hope of this marriage when he narrates the parable of the infidelity of the people before the proposal of Yahweh. The monarchy in Israel had abandoned Yahweh and his mercy, leading the people towards false gods. But the Prophet, sure of God’s love, says that the people will be led once again to the desert to listen to the following promise from God: “I shall betroth you to myself forever, I shall betroth you in uprightness and justice, and faithful love and tenderness,. Yes, I shall betroth you to myself in loyalty and in the knowledge of Yahweh!” (Hos 2, 21-22). This marriage between God and the people indicates that the ideal of the exodus will be attained (Hos 2, 4-25). About a hundred and fifty years later, the prophet Jeremiah takes the words of Hosea to denounce the monarchy of Judah. And he says that Judah will have the same destiny as Israel because of its infidelity (Jer 2, 2-5; 3, 11-13). But Jeremiah also looks towards the hope of a perfect marriage with the following novelty: it will be the woman who will seduce the husband (Jer 31, 22). And in spite of the crisis created by the exile of Babylonia, the people do not lose hope that one day this marriage will take place. Yahweh will have compassion of his abandoned spouse (Is 54, 1-8). With the return of the exiled, the “Abandoned one” will again be the spouse accepted with great joy (Is 62, 4-5).

Finally, looking at the Novelty which is taking place, John the Baptist looks towards Jesus, the awaited bridegroom (Jn 3, 29). In his teachings and conversations with the people, Jesus takes back the parable of Hosea, the dream of the perfect marriage. He presents himself as the awaited for bridegroom (Mk 2, 19). In his conversation with the Samaritan woman, he discreetly presents himself as the true bridegroom, the seventh one (Jn 4, 16-17). The Christian communities will accept Jesus as the awaited for bridegroom (2 Co 11, 2; Eph 5, 25-31). The wedding at Cana wishes to show that Jesus is the true bridegroom who arrives for the so awaited wedding, bringing a tasteful and abundant wine. This definitive marriage is described with beautiful images in the book of Apocalypses (Ap 19, 7-8; 21, 1a 22, 5).

* The Mother of Jesus in the Gospel of John
Even though she is never called with the name of Mary, the Mother of Jesus appears two times in the Gospel of John: at the beginning of the Wedding at Cana (Jn 2, 1-5), and at the end, at the foot of the Cross (Jn 19, 25-27). In both cases she represents the Old Testament which is waiting for the New one to arrive, and in both cases, she contributes to the arrival of the New One. Mary is the bond of union between what was before and that which will come afterwards. At Cana, she, the Mother of Jesus, symbol of the Old Testament, is the one who perceives the limitations of the Old Testament and takes the necessary steps in order to attain to the New one. At the foot of the Cross, she is at the side of the “Beloved Disciple”. The Beloved Disciple is the community which grows around Jesus, he is the son born from the Old Testament. At the petition of Jesus, the son, the New Testament, receives Mary, the Old Testament, in his house. Both of them have to walk together. In fact, the New one cannot be understood without the Old one. The New one would have no basis, foundation. And the Old one without the New one would be incomplete: a tree without fruit.

* The Seven Days of the New Creation
The text begins by saying: “On the third day” (Jn 2, 1). in the previous chapter, John had already repeated the expression: “On the following day” (Jn 1, 29.35.43). Considering this, it offers the following schema: The witness of John the Baptist on Jesus (Jn 1, 19-28) takes place on the first day. “The day after” (Jn 1, 29), that is the second day, is the Baptism of Jesus (Jn 1, 29-34). The third day, the call of the disciples and of Peter takes place (Jn 1, 35-42). On the fourth day, Jesus calls Philip and Philip calls Nathanael (Jn 1, 43-51). finally, “three days later” that is on the seventh day, that is, on Saturday, the first sign, that of the Wedding at Cana, takes place (Jn 2, 1). Throughout the Gospel, Jesus realizes seven signs.

John uses the outline of the week to present the beginning of the activity of Jesus. The Old Testament uses the same outline to present creation. In the first six days, God created all things calling them by name. On the seventh day he rested, and worked no more (Jn 1, 1-2, 4). In the same way, Jesus in the first days of his activity, He calls the persons and creates the community, the new humanity. On the seventh day, that is on Saturday, Jesus does not rest, but works the first sign. Throughout the next chapters, from 2 until 19 included, he realizes six other signs, always on Saturday (Jn 5, 16; 9, 14). Finally, in the morning of the Resurrection, when Mary Magdalene goes to the sepulchre, it is said: “the first day of the week” (Jn 20, 1). It is the first day of the new creation, after that prolonged Saturday in which Jesus worked the seven signs. Accused of working on Saturday, Jesus answers: “My Father still goes on working and I am at work too” (Jn 5, 17). Through the activity of Jesus between Cana and the Cross, the Father completes what is lacking in the old creation, in a way in which the new creation can emerge in the Resurrection of Jesus.

6. Pray with Psalm 148
Alleluia! Praise Yahweh from the heavens,
praise him in the heights.
Praise him, all his angels,
praise him, all his host!
Praise him, sun and moon,
praise him, all shining stars,
praise him, highest heavens,
praise him, waters above the heavens.
Let them praise the name of Yahweh
at whose command they were made;
he established them for ever
and ever by an unchanging decree.
Praise Yahweh from the earth,
sea-monsters and all the depths,
fire and hail, snow and mist,
storm-winds that obey his word,
mountains and every hill,
orchards and every cedar,
wild animals and all cattle,
reptiles and winged birds,
kings of the earth and all nations,
princes and all judges on earth,
young men and girls,
old people and children together.
Let them praise the name of Yahweh,
for his name alone is sublime,
his splendour transcends earth and heaven.
For he heightens the strength of his people,
to the praise of all his faithful,
the children of Israel,
the people close to him.

7. Final Prayer
Lord Jesus, we thank for the word that has enabled us to understand better the will of the Father. May your Spirit enlighten our actions and grant us the strength to practice that which your Word has revealed to us. May we, like Mary, your mother, not only listen to but also practice the Word. You who live and reign with the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit forever and ever. Amen.

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  St Fabian

Feast DayJanuary 20
Patron Saint:

Pope Fabian ruled from 10 January 236 to 20 January 250, succeeding Pope Anterus. He is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church.

Eusebius of Caesarea (Church History, VI. 29) relates how the Christians, having assembled in Rome to elect a new bishop, saw a dove alight upon the head of Fabian, a layman and stranger to the city, who was thus marked out for this dignity and was at once proclaimed bishop by acclamation, although there were several famous men among the candidates for the vacant position.[1]

He is said to have baptized Philip the Arab and his son, to have done some building in the catacombs, to have improved the organization of the church in Rome, and to have appointed officials to register the deeds of the martyrs.[2]

According to "later accounts, more or less trustworthy", Fabian sent out the "apostles to the Gauls" to Christianize Gaul after the persecutions under Emperor Decius had all but dissolved the small Christian communities. Fabian sent seven bishops from Rome to Gaul to preach the Gospel: Gatianus of Tours to Tours, Trophimus of Arles to Arles, Paul of Narbonne to Narbonne, Saturnin to Toulouse, Denis to Paris, Austromoine to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Clermont, and Saint Martial to Limoges. He also had the bodies of Hippolytus of Rome and Pope Pontian brought from Sardinia to Rome. He was martyred during the persecution of Christians under Emperor Decius and was one of the first to die on 20 January 250.[3]

His deeds are thus described in the Liber Pontificalis: Hic regiones dividit diaconibus et fecit vii subdiacones, qui vii notariis imminerent, Ut gestas martyrum integro fideliter colligerent, et multas fabricas per cymiteria fieri praecepit. ("He divided these regions into deaconships and made seven sub-deaconships which seven secretaries oversaw, so that they brought together the deeds of the martyrs faithfully made whole, and he brought forth many works in the cemeteries.")[2]

Although there is very little authentic information about Fabian, there is evidence that his episcopate was one of great importance in the history of the early church. He was highly esteemed by Cyprian; Novatian refers to his nobilissima memoriae, and he corresponded with Origen. One authority refers to him as Flavian.[2]
Fabian's feast day is kept on 20 January.[4]

Fabian was buried in the catacomb of Callixtus. The Greek inscription on his tomb has survived.[1] His remains were later interred at San Sebastiano fuori le mura by Pope Clement XI where the Albani Chapel is dedicated in his honour.[5]


  1. ^ a b Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-14-051312-4.
  2. ^ a b c  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fabian, Saint". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^  "Pope St. Fabian". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
  4. ^ Gross, Ernie. This Day in Religion. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 1-55570-045-4
  5. ^

Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane



Today's Snippet I:   

Christians performing service in the catacombs.
The Catacomb(s) of Callixtus (also known as the Cemetery of Callixtus) was one of the Catacombs of Rome on the Appian Way, most notable for containing the Crypt of the Popes (Italian: Capella dei Papi), which contained the tombs of several popes from the 2nd to 4th centuries.[ The crypt fell into disuse and decay as the remaining relics were translated from the catacombs to the various churches of Rome; the final wave of translations from the crypt occurred under Pope Sergius II in the 9th century before the Lombard invasion, primarily to San Silvestro in Capite, which unlike the Catacomb was within the Aurelian Walls.

The Catacomb is believed to have been created by future Pope Callixtus I, then a deacon of Rome, under the direction of Pope Zephyrinus, enlarging pre-existing early Christian hypogea. Callixtus himself was entombed in the Catacomb of Calepodius on the Aurelian Way. The Catacomb and Crypt were rediscovered in 1854 by the pioneering Italian archaeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi.

At its peak, the fifteen hectare site would have held the remains of sixteen popes and fifty martyrs. Nine of those popes were buried in the Crypt of the Popes itself, to which Pope Damasus I built a staircase in the 4th century. Among the discovered Greek language inscriptions are those associated with: Pope Pontian, Pope Anterus, Pope Fabian, Pope Lucius I, and Pope Eutychian. A more lengthy inscription to Pope Sixtus II by Furius Dionisius Filocalus has also been discovered.

Papal tombs

Outside the Crypt of the Popes, the region of Saints Gaius and Eusebius is so named for the facing tombs of Pope Gaius ("Caius") and Pope Eusebius (translated from Sicily). In another region, there is a tomb attributed to Pope Cornelius, bearing the inscription "CORNELIVS MARTYR", also attributed to Filocalus.

A plaque placed by Pope Sixtus III (c. 440) lists the following popes: Sixtus II, Dionysius, Cornelius, Felix, Pontianus, Fabianus, Gaius, Eusebius, Melchiades, Stephen, Urban I, Lucius, and Anterus, a list not including any 2nd century tombs. The Crypt of the Popes quickly filled up in the 4th century, causing other popes to be buried in related catacombs, such as the Catacomb of Priscilla (underneath San Martino ai Monti), the Catacomb of Balbina (only Pope Mark), the Catacomb of Calepodius (only Pope Callixtus I and Pope Julius I), the Catacomb of Pontian (only Pope Anastasius I and Pope Innocent I, father and son), and the Catacomb of Felicitas (only Pope Boniface I).


    • Reardon, Wendy J. 2004. The Deaths of the Popes. Macfarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-7864-1527-4
    • Carragáin, Éamonn Ó; Neuman de Vegvar, Carol L. (2007). Roma felix: formation and reflections of medieval Rome. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. pp. 59. ISBN 0-7546-6096-6. Retrieved May 26, 2009.


    Catechism of the Catholic Church

    Part One: Profession of Faith, Chapter 2:3-IV

    Article 3

    IV. The Canon of Scripture

    120 It was by the apostolic Tradition that the Church discerned which writings are to be included in the list of the sacred books.DV 8 # 3

    This complete list is called the canon of Scripture. It includes 46 books for the Old Testament (45 if we count Jeremiah and Lamentations as one) and 27 for the New.DS 179; 1334-1336; 1501-1504

    The Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, Tobit, Judith, Esther, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Baruch, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zachariah and Malachi.

    The New Testament: the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, the Acts of the Apostles, the Letters of St. Paul to the Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, the Letter to the Hebrews, the Letters of James, 1 and 2 Peter, 1, 2 and 3 John, and Jude, and Revelation (the Apocalypse).

    The Old Testament
    121 The Old Testament is an indispensable part of Sacred Scripture. Its books are divinely inspired and retain a permanent value,DV 15 for the Old Covenant has never been revoked.

    122 Indeed, "the economy of the Old Testament was deliberately SO oriented that it should prepare for and declare in prophecy the coming of Christ, redeemer of all men."DV 15 "Even though they contain matters imperfect and provisional,DV 15 The books of the OldTestament bear witness to the whole divine pedagogy of God's saving love: these writings "are a storehouse of sublime teaching on God and of sound wisdom on human life, as well as a wonderful treasury of prayers; in them, too, the mystery of our salvation is present in a hidden way."DV 15

    123 Christians venerate the Old Testament as true Word of God. the Church has always vigorously opposed the idea of rejecting the Old Testament under the pretext that the New has rendered it void (Marcionism).

    The New Testament
    124 "The Word of God, which is the power of God for salvation to everyone who has faith, is set forth and displays its power in a most wonderful way in the writings of the New Testament"Rom 1:16 which hand on the ultimate truth of God's Revelation. Their central object is Jesus Christ, God's incarnate Son: his acts, teachings, Passion and glorification, and his Church's beginnings under the Spirit's guidance. DV 20

    125 The Gospels are the heart of all the Scriptures "because they are our principal source for the life and teaching of the Incarnate Word, our Saviour".DV 18

    126 We can distinguish three stages in the formation of the Gospels:
    1. the life and teaching of Jesus. the Church holds firmly that the four Gospels, "whose historicity she unhesitatingly affirms, faithfully hand on what Jesus, the Son of God, while he lived among men, really did and taught for their eternal salvation, until the day when he was taken up."Acts 1:1-2

    2. the oral tradition. "For, after the ascension of the Lord, the apostles handed on to their hearers what he had said and done, but with that fuller understanding which they, instructed by the glorious events of Christ and enlightened by the Spirit of truth, now enjoyed."DV 19

    3. the written Gospels. "The sacred authors, in writing the four Gospels, selected certain of the many elements which had been handed on, either orally or already in written form; others they synthesized or explained with an eye to the situation of the churches, the while sustaining the form of preaching, but always in such a fashion that they have told us the honest truth about Jesus."DV 19

    127 The fourfold Gospel holds a unique place in the Church, as is evident both in the veneration which the liturgy accords it and in the surpassing attraction it has exercised on the saints at all times:
    There is no doctrine which could be better, more precious and more splendid than the text of the Gospel. Behold and retain what our Lord and Master, Christ, has taught by his words and accomplished by his deeds. St. Caesaria the Younger to St. Richildis and St. Radegunde: SCh 345, 480
    But above all it's the gospels that occupy my mind when I'm at prayer; my poor soul has so many needs, and yet this is the one thing needful. I'm always finding fresh lights there; hidden meanings which had meant nothing to me hitherto.St. Therese of Lisieux, Autobiography of a Saint, tr. Ronald Knox
       (London: Collins, 1960), 175.

    The unity of the Old and New Testaments
    128 The Church, as early as apostolic times,Cf. I Cor 10:6, 11; Heb 10:1; l Pt 3:21 and then constantly in her Tradition, has illuminated the unity of the divine plan in the two Testaments through typology, which discerns in God's works of the Old Covenant prefigurations of what he accomplished in the fullness of time in the person of his incarnate Son.

    129 Christians therefore read the Old Testament in the light of Christ crucified and risen. Such typological reading discloses the inexhaustible content of the Old Testament; but it must not make us forget that the Old Testament retains its own intrinsic value as Revelation reaffirmed by our Lord himself.Mk 12:29-31 Besides, the New Testament has to be read in the light of the Old. Early Christian catechesis made constant use of the Old Testament.Cor 5:6-8; As an old saying put it, the New Testament lies hidden in the Old and the Old Testament is unveiled in the New.St. Augustine, Quaest. in Hept. 2, 73: PL 34,623; Cf. DU 16.

    130 Typology indicates the dynamic movement toward the fulfilment of the divine plan when "God [will] be everything to everyone."Cor 15:28 Nor do the calling of the patriarchs and the exodus from Egypt, for example, lose their own value in God's plan, from the mere fact that they were intermediate stages.