Friday, June 21, 2013

Monday, June 17, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog: Benevolent, Psalms 98, Second Corinthians 6:1-10, Matthew 5:38-42, Pope Francis Daily Homily - Jesus is “all”, St. Herve, Breton France, Catholic Catechism Part Three: Life In Christ Section 1 The Dignity of the Human Person Article 6:1 Moral Conscience - The Judgement of Conscience

Monday,  June 17, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog:

Benevolent, Psalms 98, Second Corinthians 6:1-10, Matthew 5:38-42, Pope Francis Daily Homily - Jesus is “all”, St. Herve, Breton France, Catholic Catechism Part Three: Life  In Christ Section 1 The Dignity of the Human Person Article 6:1 Moral Conscience - The Judgement of Conscience

Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge, reason and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. The Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit: wisdom, understanding, wonder and awe (fear of the Lord) , counsel, knowledge, fortitude, and piety (reverence) and shun the seven Deadly sins: wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony...Its your choice whether to embrace the Gifts of the Holy Spirit rising towards eternal light or succumb to the Seven deadly sins and lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to the Darkness, Purgatory or Heaven is our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...~ Zarya Parx 2013

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


Prayers for Today: Monday in Ordinary Time

Rosary - Joyful Mysteries


 Papam Franciscus
(Pope Francis)

Pope Francis June 17 General Audience Address :

Jesus is “all”

(2013-06-17 Vatican Radio)
For a Christian, Jesus is “all”, and this is the source of his or her benevolence.

This was the focus of Pope Francis’s message during Mass on Monday morning at the Domus Sanctae Marthae. The Pope also affirmed that the righteousness of Jesus exceeds the righteousness of the scribes, that it is superior to the “eye for eye, tooth for tooth” kind of justice. Amongst those present at the Mass, which was concelebrated by Cardinal Attilio Nicora, was a group of collaborators of the Vatican’s Financial Information Authority and a group of Vatican Museums collaborators accompanied by the Museum administrative director, Fr Paolo Nicolini. The Archbishop of Manila, Cardinal Luis Tagle, was also present.
“If someone slaps you on the right cheek, offer the other cheek also”. Pope Francis focused his homily on Jesus’ earth-shaking words to his disciples. The slap of the cheek – he said - has become a classic take used by some to laugh about Christians. In life, he explained, everyday logic teaches us to “fight to defend our place” and if we receive a slap “we react and return two slaps in order to defend ourselves”. On the other hand, the Pope said, when I advise parents to scold their children I always say: “never slap their cheek”, because “the cheek is dignity”. And Jesus, he continued, after the slap on the cheek goes further and invites us to hand over our coat as well, to undress ourselves completely.

The righteousness that He brings – the Pope affirmed – is another kind of justice that is totally different from “eye for eye, tooth for tooth”. It’s another justice. This is clear when St. Paul speaks of Christians as “people who have nothing in themselves but possess all things in Christ”. So, Christian security is exactly this “all” that is in Christ. “All” - he added – is Jesus Christ. Other things are “nothing” for a Christian. Instead, the Pope warned, “for the spirit of the world “all” means things: riches, vanities”, it means “to be well placed in society” where “Jesus is nothing”. Thus, if a Christian can walk 100 kilometres when he is asked to walk 10, “it’s because for him or for her this is “nothing”. And with serenity, “he or she can give his or her coat when asked for his or her tunic”. This is the secret of Christian benevolence that always goes together with meekness”: it is “all”, it is Jesus Christ:

“A Christian is a person who opens up his or her heart with this spirit of benevolence, because he or she has “all”: Jesus Christ. The other things are “nothing”. Some are good, they have a purpose, but in the moment of choice he or she always chooses “all”, with that meekness, that Christian meekness that is the sign of Jesus’ disciples: meekness and benevolence. To live like this is not easy, because you really do receive slaps! And on both cheeks! But a Christian is meek, a Christian is benevolent: he or she opens up his or her heart. Sometimes we come across these Christians with little hearts, with shrunken hearts…. This is not Christianity: this is selfishness, masked as Christianity”.

“A true Christian” – the Pope continued – “knows how to solve this bi-polar opposition, this tension that exists between “all” and “nothing”, just as Jesus has taught us: “First search for God’s Kingdom and its justice, the rest comes afterwards”.

“God’s Kingdom is “all”, the other is secondary. And all Christian errors, all the Church’s errors, all our errors stem from when we say “nothing” is “all”, and to “all” we say it does not count… Following Jesus is not easy, but it’s not difficult either, because on the path of love the Lord does things in such a way that we can go forward; it is the Lord himself who opens up our heart”.

This is what we must pray for – the Pope said – “when we are confronted with the choice of the slap, the coat, the 100 kilometres”, we must pray the Lord to “open up our heart” so that “we are benevolent and meek” . We must pray so that we do not “fight for small things, for the “nothings” of daily life”.

“When one takes on an option for “nothing”, it is from that option that conflicts arise in families, in friendships, between friends, in society. Conflicts that end in war: for “nothing”! “Nothing” is always the seed of wars. Because it is the seed of selfishness. “All” is Jesus. Let us ask the Lord to open up our heart, to make us humble, meek and benevolent because we have “all” in Him; and let’s ask him to help us avoid creating everyday problems stemming from “nothing


Liturgical Celebrations to be presided over by Pope: Summer

Vatican City, Summer 2013 (VIS)
Following is the calendar of celebrations scheduled to be presided over by the Holy Father for the Summer of 2013:


29 Saturday, Solemnity of Sts. Peter and Paul: 9:30am, Mass and imposition of the pallium upon new metropolitans in the papal chapel.

The Prefecture of the Papal Household has released Pope Francis' agenda for the summer period, from July through to the end of August. Briefing journalists, Holy See Press Office director, Fr. Federico Lombardi confirmed that the Pope will remain 'based ' at the Casa Santa Marta residence in Vatican City State for the duration of the summer.

As per tradition, all private and special audiences are suspended for the duration of the summer. The Holy Father's private Masses with employees will end July 7 and resume in September. The Wednesday general audiences are suspended for the month of July to resume August 7 at the Vatican.

7 July, 14th Sunday in Ordinary Time: 9:30am, Mass with seminarians and novices in the Vatican Basilica.

14 July Sunday , Pope Francis will lead the Angelus prayer from the Apostolic Palace of Castel Gandolfo.

Pope Francis will travel to Brazil for the 28th World Youth Day in Rio de Janeiro from Monday July 22 to Monday July 29. 


  • Vatican News. From the Pope. © Copyright 2013 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Accessed 06/17/2013.


June 2, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World: "Dear children, in this restless time, anew I am calling you to set out after my Son - to follow Him. I know of the pain, suffering and difficulties, but in my Son you will find rest; in Him you will find peace and salvation. My children, do not forget that my Son redeemed you by His Cross and enabled you, anew, to be children of God; to be able to, anew, call the Heavenly Father, "Father". To be worthy of the Father, love and forgive, because your Father is love and forgiveness. Pray and fast, because that is the way to your purification, it is the way of coming to know and becoming cognizant of the Heavenly Father. When you become cognizant of the Father, you will comprehend that He is all you need. I, as a mother, desire my children to be in a community of one single people where the Word of God is listened to and carried out.* Therefore, my children, set out after my Son. Be one with Him. Be God's children. Love your shepherds as my Son loved them when He called them to serve you. Thank you." *Our Lady said this resolutely and with emphasis.

May 25, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World:“Dear children! Today I call you to be strong and resolute in faith and prayer, until your prayers are so strong so as to open the Heart of my beloved Son Jesus. Pray little children, pray without ceasing until your heart opens to God’s love. I am with you and I intercede for all of you and I pray for your conversion. Thank you for having responded to my call.”

May 2, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World: "Dear children; Anew, I am calling you to love and not to judge. My Son, according to the will of the Heavenly Father, was among you to show you the way of salvation, to save you and not to judge you. If you desire to follow my Son, you will not judge but love like your Heavenly Father loves you. And when it is the most difficult for you, when you are falling under the weight of the cross do not despair, do not judge, instead remember that you are loved and praise the Heavenly Father because of His love. My children, do not deviate from the way on which I am leading you. Do not recklessly walk into perdition. May prayer and fasting strengthen you so that you can live as the Heavenly Father would desire; that you may be my apostles of faith and love; that your life may bless those whom you meet; that you may be one with the Heavenly Father and my Son. My children, that is the only truth, the truth that leads to your conversion, and then to the conversion of all those whom you meet - those who have not come to know my Son - all those who do not know what it means to love. My children, my Son gave you a gift of the shepherds. Take good care of them. Pray for them. Thank you."


Today's Word:  benevolent  be·nev·o·lent [buh-nev-uh-luhnt]  

Origin:  1425–75; late Middle English  < Latin benevolent-  (stem of benevolēns ) kindhearted ( bene- bene- + vol-  wish (akin to will1 ) + -ent- -ent)
1. characterized by or expressing goodwill or kindly feelings: a benevolent attitude; her benevolent smile.
2. desiring to help others; charitable: gifts from several benevolent alumni.
3. intended for benefits rather than profit: a benevolent institution.


Today's Old Testament Reading - Psalms 98:1-4

1 [Psalm] Sing a new song to Yahweh, for he has performed wonders, his saving power is in his right hand and his holy arm.
2 Yahweh has made known his saving power, revealed his saving justice for the nations to see,
3 mindful of his faithful love and his constancy to the House of Israel. The whole wide world has seen the saving power of our God.
4 Acclaim Yahweh, all the earth, burst into shouts of joy!


Today's Epistle -  Second Corinthians 6:1-10

1 As his fellow-workers, we urge you not to let your acceptance of his grace come to nothing.
2 As he said, 'At the time of my favour I have answered you; on the day of salvation I have helped you'; well, now is the real time of favour, now the day of salvation is here.
3 We avoid putting obstacles in anyone's way, so that no blame may attach to our work of service;
4 but in everything we prove ourselves authentic servants of God; by resolute perseverance in times of hardships, difficulties and distress;
5 when we are flogged or sent to prison or mobbed; labouring, sleepless, starving;
6 in purity, in knowledge, in patience, in kindness; in the Holy Spirit, in a love free of affectation;
7 in the word of truth and in the power of God; by using the weapons of uprightness for attack and for defence:
8 in times of honour or disgrace, blame or praise; taken for impostors and yet we are genuine;
9 unknown and yet we are acknowledged; dying, and yet here we are, alive; scourged but not executed;
10 in pain yet always full of joy; poor and yet making many people rich; having nothing, and yet owning everything.


Today's Gospel Reading -  Matthew 5:38-42

Jesus said to his disciples: 'You have heard how it was said: Eye for eye and tooth for tooth. But I say this to you: offer no resistance to the wicked. On the contrary, if anyone hits you on the right cheek, offer him the other as well; if someone wishes to go to law with you to get your tunic, let him have your cloak as well. And if anyone requires you to go one mile, go two miles with him. Give to anyone who asks you, and if anyone wants to borrow, do not turn away.
• Today’s Gospel forms part of a small literary unit which goes from Mt 5, 17 to Mt 5, 48, in which is described how to pass from the ancient justice of the Pharisees (Mt 5, 20) to the new justice of the Kingdom of God (Mt 5, 48). It describes how to go up to the Mountain of the Beatitudes, from where Jesus announces the new Law of Love. The great desire of the Pharisees was to live in justice, to be just before God. And this is the desire of all of us. Just is the one who succeeds to live where God wants him/her to live. The Pharisees tried to attain justice through the strict observance of the Law. They thought that with their own effort they could succeed in being where God wanted them to be. Jesus takes a stand concerning this practice and announces the new justice which should exceed, surpass the justice of the Pharisees (Mt 5, 20). In today’s Gospel we are reaching almost the summit of the mountain. Only a little is lacking. The summit is described in one phrase: “Be perfect as your Heavenly Father is perfect” (Mt 5, 48), on which we will meditate in tomorrow’s Gospel. Let us look closely at this last degree which is still lacking to reach the summit of the Mountain, of which Saint John of the Cross says: “Here reign silence and love”.

• Matthew 5, 38: Eye for eye and tooth for tooth. Jesus quotes a text of the Ancient Law saying: “You have heard how it was said: Eye for eye and tooth for tooth!” He shortened the text, because the complete text said: “Life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, blow for blow” (Ex 21, 23-25). Like in the previous cases, here also Jesus makes a completely new rereading. The principle “eye for eye, tooth for tooth” was already found in the origin of the interpretation which the Scribes made of the law. This principle should be overthrown, because it perverts and destroys the relationship between persons and with God.

• Matthew 5, 39ª: Do not give back evil for evil received. Jesus affirms exactly the contrary: “But I say to you do not offer resistance to the wicked”. Before some violence received, our natural reaction is to pay the other one with the same coin. Vengeance asks for “eye for eye, tooth for tooth”. Jesus asks to pay back the evil not with evil, but with good. Because if we do not know how to overcome the violence received, the spiral of violence will take up everything and we will not know what to do. Lamec said: For a wound received I will kill a man, and for a scar I would kill a young person. If the vengeance of Cain was worth seven that of Lamec will count for seventy-seven” (Gen 4, 24). And it was precisely because of this terrible act of vengeance that everything ended in the confusion of the Tower of Babel. (Gen 11,1-9). Faithful to the teaching of Jesus, Paul writes in the Letter to the Romans: “Never pay back evil with evil; let your concern be to do good to all men. Do not allow yourselves to be overcome by evil but overcome evil with good” (Rm 12, 17.21). To be able to have this attitude is necessary to have much faith in the possibility to recover that the human being has. How can we do this in practice? Jesus offers four concrete examples.

• Matthew 5, 39b-42: the four examples to overcome the spiral of violence. Jesus says: “rather (a) if anyone hits you on the right cheek, offer him the other as well; (b) if anyone wishes to go to Law with you to get your tunic, let him have your cloak as well. (d) And if anyone requires you to go one mile, go two miles with him. (e) Give to anyone who asks you, and if anyone wants to borrow, do not turn away” (Mt 5, 40-42). How are these four affirmations to be understood? Jesus himself helps us to understand. When the soldier hit him on the cheek, he did not offer the other cheek. Rather, he reacted with energy: “If there is some offence in what I said, point it out, but if not, why do you strike me?” (Jn 18, 23) Jesus does not teach us to be passive. Saint Paul thinks that paying evil with good “you will make others be ashamed” (Rm 12, 20). This faith in the possibility to recover the human being is possible only beginning from the root which comes from the total gratuity of the creative love which God shows us in the life and the attitudes of Jesus.
Personal questions
• Have you some time felt within you such a great anger as to want to apply the vengeance “eye for eye, tooth for tooth”? What did you do to overcome this?
• Does life in community, living together, favour today in the Church and in us the creative love which Jesus proposes in today’s Gospel?

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  St Herve

Feast DayJune 17

Patron Saint:  The blind; bards; musicians; invoked against eye problems, eye disease; invoked to cure sick horses
Attributes: Blind abbot  being led by a wolf or his child guide

St Herve
Saint Hervé (c. 521 – 556), also known as Harvey, Herveus, Houarniaule or Huva, was a Breton saint of the sixth century. Along with Saint Ives, he is one of the most popular Breton saints. His birthplace is stated as being Guimiliau (Gwimilio) (and sometimes as Wales), and his legend states that he was the son of a renowned bard named Hyvarnion, a former member of the court of Childebert I. The name of Hervé's mother was Rivanone.

Hervé was born blind. With his disciple Guiharan, Hervé lived near Plouvien as a hermit and bard. His legend states that he had the power to cure animals and was accompanied by a domesticated wolf.

According to a legend, this wolf had devoured the ox or donkey Hervé used in plowing. Hervé then preached a sermon that was so eloquent that the wolf penitentially begged to be allowed to serve in the ox's stead. Hervé's wolf pulled the plow from that day on.

He was joined by more disciples and refused any ordination or earthly honor, accepting only to be ordained as an exorcist. He died in 556 and was buried at Lanhouarneau.

Saint Hervé is venerated throughout Brittany and his feast day is June 17.

    Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane


    Today's Snippet I: Breton Lampaul-Guimiliau  France

    Lampaul-Guimiliau (Breton: Gwimilio) is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France. It is noted for its parish close.

    Local Saints

    Guimiliau, or Gwimilio in Breton, is named after St Miliau. The name simply means town or settlement (Breton: gwic) of Milio. According to legend, Miliau was a good and just Breton prince, put to death in a dynastic quarrel in the 6th or 9th century. Guimiliau is also famous as the reputed birthplace of St Hervé, a 6th-century ascetic, who is one of the most popular Breton saints.


    Historic dioceses of Brittany
    The place name element lan or lam (llan in Welsh) originally signified an enclosure, particularly a sacred enclosure, and later came to mean a church. The name Lampaul therefore means church or enclosure dedicated to St Paulinus. St Pol, Paol, Paul or Paulinus was one of the seven founder saints of Brittany, a 6th-century Welsh missionary closely associated with the Léon diocese of Brittany, in which Lampaul-Guimiliau is situated. Parish closes are a distinctive feature of this diocese, although they are not entirely confined to it.

    In the Middle Ages, the village was part of the parish of Guimiliau. This means township of St Miliau, a Breton saint of the 6th or 9th century. Later, rising prosperity and economic growth brought separate status, with a separate parish church. Hence the name in full means St Pol's Church in the Settlement of St Miliau.

    Parish closes

    The Calvary that dominates the church yard of Lampaul-Guimiliau.
    Parish closes are a distinctive feature of the Breton culture of the Léon region. The close is so-called because it is a church yard entirely enclosed by a wall, with a ceremonial entrance arch. The closes of the Léon diocese date from the 16th and early 17th centuries, when the area was at the peak of its prosperity, founded on the hemp industry and on Channel and Atlantic trade.

    Belfry and portal.
    The parish close of Lampaul-Guimiliau commands the road junction at the centre of the village. It is one of the best examples of its kind. It contains not only the church and graveyard of the parish, but also a large and elaborate calvary or crucifix and a noted charnel house, both common features of Breton closes, and a vast belfry. The church and charnel house display a large body of polychrome sculpture, mainly of 16th or 17th century date and rich in complex Christian iconography, reflecting the preoccupations of the Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reformation.


    The church and belfry.
    The belfry or bell tower, constructed from 1573, was originally one of the highest in Finistère. However it was truncated by fire following a lightning strike in 1809.

    Charnel house

    The charnel house or ossuary dates from 1667 and was designed by the architect Guillaume Kerlezroux. it is dominated by a retable portraying the Risen Christ. Formerly it also housed a notable tableau of the Entombment of Christ, which has now been moved into the church itself.

    Polychrome interior

    The interior of the church is replete with polychrome sculpture and decoration. Dominating the nave is a 16th-century rood screen, showing the crucified Christ, attended by the Virgin Mary and St John the Apostle. Below this, scenes of the Passion are represented in rich detail.

    A number of complex retables focus on the Passion and on the lives and deeds of saints, including John the Baptist, St Margaret the Virgin, and St Lawrence. Each is divided into numerous panels, with episodes modelled in relief, and each is flanked by free-standing statuary. There are also a number of important separate free-standing pieces, including an oak Descent from the Cross, the Entombment, and St Pol.

    The baptistery is one of the most striking among the parish closes. It is an octagonal Baroque concoction, dating from about 1650. Unlike most of its kind, it is elaborately polychrome, with highly-elaborate pillars and finely-modelled representation of the baptism of Christ.

    The church also displays its banners. These are an important artifact of Breton culture. They form a rallying point for parishioners attending the local pilgrimage festivals, known as pardons.

    Breton Language

    Breton is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany (Breton: Breizh; French: Bretagne), France. Breton is a Brythonic language, descended from the Celtic British language brought from Great Britain to Armorica by migrating Britons during the Early Middle Ages. Like the other Brythonic languages, Welsh and Cornish, it is classified as an Insular Celtic language. Breton is most closely related to Cornish, as both are thought to have evolved from a Southwestern Brythonic protolanguage. The other regional language of Brittany, Gallo, is a langue d'oïl derived from Latin and is consequently relatively close to French.

    Having declined from more than one million speakers around 1950 to about 200,000 in the first decade of the 21st century, of whom 61% are more than 60 years old, Breton is classified as "severely endangered" by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. However, the number of children attending bilingual classes has risen 33% between 2006 and 2012 to 14,709.

    Pardon (ceremony)

    The Pardon at Kergoat, portrayed by Jules Breton
    A Pardon is a typically Breton form of pilgrimage and one of the most traditional demonstrations of popular Catholicism in Brittany. Of very ancient origin, probably dating back to the conversion of the country by the Celtic monks, it is comparable to the parades associated with Saint Patrick's Day in Ireland or New York.

    A Pardon is a penitential ceremony. A Pardon occurs on the feast of the patron saint of a church or chapel, at which an indulgence is granted. Hence use of the word "Pardon". Pardons only occur in the traditionally Breton language speaking Western part of Brittany. They do not extend farther east than Guingamp,  a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France.


    The faithful go on a pilgrimage either to the tomb of a saint or a place dedicated to a saint. The locations may be associated with miraculous appearances, as in Querrien, or holy relics.

    The Pardons begin in March and end in October, but the majority of them are between Easter and Michaelmas. Traditionally pilgrims wore their best costumes, each diocese and parish having a distinctive style, and otherwise only worn at weddings. However, traditional Breton costume is now not typically worn, except at the Locronan Pardon, in honour of Saint Ronan. Penitents travel as a group in parishes, fraternities or other corporate bodies, bringing banners, crosses and other insignia in procession, each group competing with the others for grandeur. The leader of the Pardon, typically a high ranking ecclesiastic, has the title of "pardonnor". If relics are involved, he will normally carry them during part of the procession. For most of the pilgrimage, however, this honour falls to those who were considered to be worthiest by it by the various social groups represented.

    The greater part of the day is spent in prayer, and the Pardon begins with early Mass at 4 AM. Its observance, however, has actually commenced earlier, for the preceding evening is devoted to confession, and the rosary is generally recited by the pilgrims, the whole way to the place of the Pardon. After the religious service, the great procession takes place around the church. This is the most picturesque part of the Pardon and may be regarded as its mise en scène. At Ste-Anne d'Auray, this procession is especially striking. In the procession join all those who believe that the intercession of St. Anne has saved them in times of peril. Sailors will carry fragments of a vessel, upon which they escaped in a shipwreck; the once lame will carry on their shoulders crutches which they longer need; and those rescued from fire will carry the rope or ladder, by which they escaped from the flames.  The religious observances are usually followed by social events including picnics and, traditionally, wrestling matches.


    The dispersal of the pilgrims until meeting at the appointed place, like the procession, symbolises the desire to obtain intercession from the celebrated saint by offering the effort of the journey as an act of faith. This reflects the Christian view that the human condition on this earth is a journey towards the Kingdom of heaven or the new promised land. Following this logic, the pilgrims are invited to confess their sins to their priests before taking part in the mass, which is often followed by solemn vespers. Once they are granted absolution, the groups engage in communal festivities to express the joy of Christian redemption. This can take the form of a village fair or even resemble a funfair.

    Principal Pardons

    The Pardon of Saint Yves in Tréguier, 2005
    There are five major Pardons: Saint Yves at Tréguier, known as the Pardon of the poor; Our Lady of Rumengol, known as the Pardon of the singers; Saint-Jean-du-Doigt, near Morlaix, called the Pardon of fire; Saint Ronan, or the Pardon of the mountain; and Sainte Anne de la Palude, or the Pardon of the sea. Very large pilgrimages are made to some Pardons, including those of St. Jean-du-Doigt and Sainte-Anne-d'Auray in Morbihan. The Locronan Pardon of Saint Ronan involves a troménie (a 12 km-long procession). The former occurs on 24 June, and that of Ste Anne d'Auray on 24 July, the anniversary of the finding of the miraculous statue of Saint Anne by the peasant Yves Nicolazic. The latter is regarded as the most famous pilgrimage in all Brittany, and attracts pilgrims from Tréguier, Léonnais, Cornouaille, and especially from Morbihan.

    Some Pardons are held during notable religious festivals, such as the Feast of the Assumption on August 15. The Pardons dedicated to the Virgin Mary, are usually followed by those dedicated to Mary's mother, Saint Anne, patron saint of Brittany. However, the majority honour local saints because of their patronage role to protect specific categories of people or activities. Thus there are Pardons dedicated to Saint Gildas at the beginning of June in Trégor, to Saint Guirec, patron of girls about to marry, and to the patron saints of individual parishes.

    The Pardon of Saint Yves in Tréguier honours, though him, the legal profession, of which he is patron. Its influence is now international, since thousands of pilgrims, official or anonymous, from all the countries of the world, meet at his tomb in the parish of his birthplace, in fraternities of lawyers, judges and other legal professionals.

    Pardons in art

    Femmes de Plougastel au Pardon de Sainte-Anne-La-Palud, by Charles Cottet.
    Pardons were a popular subject in 19th century French art, since the local people dressed in their elaborate traditional Breton costume for the ceremonies, which also involved open-air public festivities. Many artists came to Brittany to portray Pardons. Jules Breton and Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret painted a number of such scenes.

    Paintings by members of the Pont-Aven School such as Paul Serusier and Paul Gauguin's Vision after the Sermon are inspired by this aspect of Breton culture.

    Breton Culture

    The Culture of Brittany is made up of Breton culture, and Celtic culture. Brittany's strongest international connections tend to be in the United Kingdom, particularly in the Celtic groups of Cornwall and Wales, and in Canada.

    Brittany is the English-language name for the region called Breizh in the native Breton language, or Brezhoneg, and Bretagne in French. Once independent, as the Duchy of Brittany, and then a duchy within France, Brittany is now the name of an administrative area (région), whose capital is Rennes.



     Bigouden headdress
    The distinctive customs and costumes of the area have attracted artists and ethnologists since the late eighteenth century, leading to some idiosyncratic theories such as the claim that the locals descended from pre-Celtic aboriginal inhabitants of Brittany or that "physiognomic similarities" to Mongofunks indicate descent from an ancient Asian race.

    During the nineteenth century local costumes became increasingly elaborate and colourful. Especially famous was the tall lace bonnet worn by the women, which covered only the top of the skull and extended to a triangle of fabric mounted on a base. These were embroidered with patterns of flowers. By around 1900 this had evolved into a tall sugarloaf shape. In the early twentieth century the cap became even taller, reaching fifteen to twenty centimeters in the late 1920s and even taller just after the Second World War. Until 2000, the cap has hovered between 30 and 35 centimeters in height by 12-14 centimeters wide at the base. René Quillivic's statue La Bigoudène at Pors-Poulhan depicts a woman wearing the headdress. It marks the border between Pays Bigouden and Cap Sizun. Pêr-Jakez Helias, a major Breton writer of the 20th century, was from the Bigouden.


    Bagad ar Meilhoù Glaz from Quimper.
    A bagad is a Breton band, composed of bagpipes (Breton: binioù, French: Cornemuse), bombards and drums (including snare, tenor and bass drums). The pipe band tradition in Brittany was inspired by the Scottish example and has developed since the mid-20th century. A bagad plays mainly Breton music, but a bagad's music is evolutionary: new forms and musical ideas are experimented with at each annual national competition.

    The plural for bagad is unusual in that many are referred to as bagadoù but for two, three or any other specified number they are simply referred to as bagad (following the rules of Breton grammar).

    Every major town and city in Brittany has at least one bagad and there are over eighty in total. There are also many bagadoù outside Brittany, owing to large-scale Breton emigration throughout France.

    For competition purposes the bagadoù are ranked into five categories. Major competitions take place annually in Brest and in Lorient, where the National Championship takes place during the Inter-Celtic Festival in Augus



    Mille crêpe
    A crêpe or crepe is a type of very thin pancake, usually made from wheat flour (crêpes de Froment) or buckwheat flour (galettes). The word is of French origin, deriving from the Latin crispa, meaning "curled". While crêpes are often associated with Brittany, a region in the northwest of France, their consumption is widespread in France and Quebec. Crêpes are served with a variety of fillings, from the most simple with only sugar to flambéed crêpes Suzette or elaborate savoury .

    In France, crêpes are traditionally served on Candlemas (La Chandeleur), February 2. This day was originally Virgin Mary's Blessing Day, but became known in France as "Le Jour des Crêpes" (literally translated "The Day of the Crêpes", but sometimes given colloquially as "Avec Crêpe Day" or "National Crêpe Day"), referring to the tradition of offering crêpes. The belief was that if you could catch the crêpe with a frying pan after tossing it in the air with your right hand and holding a gold coin in your left hand, you would become rich that year 
    Crêpes are especially popular throughout France. The common ingredients include flour, eggs, milk, butter, and a pinch of salt. Crêpes are usually of two types: sweet crêpes (crêpes sucrées) made with wheat flour and slightly sweetened; and savoury galettes (crêpes salées) made with buckwheat flour and unsweetened. The name "galette" came from the French word galet ("pebble"), since the first gallettes were made on a large pebble heated in a fire. Batter made from buckwheat flour is gluten-free, which makes it possible for people who have a gluten allergy or intolerance to eat this type of crêpe. Mille crêpe is a French cake made of many crêpe layers. The word mille means "a thousand", implying the many layers of crêpe. Another standard French and Belgian crêpe is the crêpe Suzette, a crêpe with lightly grated orange peel and liqueur (usually Grand Marnier) which is subsequently lit upon presentation.


    A small crêperie
    A crêperie may be a takeaway restaurant or stall, serving crêpes as a form of fast food or street food, or may be a more formal sit-down restaurant or café.

    Crêperies are typical of Brittany in France; however, crêperies can be found throughout France and in many other countries.

    Because a crêpe may be served as both a main meal or a dessert, crêperies may be quite diverse in their selection and may offer other baked goods such as baguettes. They may also serve coffee, tea, buttermilk and cider (a popular drink to accompany crêpes).


    Galette des Rois.png
    Galette  is a term used in French cuisine to designate various types of flat, round or freeform crusty cakes, similar in concept to a Chinese bing. One notable type is the galette des Rois (King cake) eaten on the day of Epiphany. In French Canada, the term galette is usually applied to pastries best described as large cookies.

    Galette, or more properly Breton galette is also the name given in most French crêperies to savoury buckwheat flour pancakes, while those made from wheat flour, much smaller in size and mostly served with a sweet filling, are branded crêpes. Galette is a type of large, thin pancake mostly associated with the region of Brittany, where it replaced at times bread as basic food, but it is eaten countrywide. Buckwheat was introduced as a crop suitable to impoverished soils and buckwheat pancakes were known in other regions where this crop was cultivated, such as Limousin or Auvergne.

    It is frequently garnished with egg, meat, fish, cheese, cut vegetables, apple slices, berries, or similar ingredients. One of the most popular varieties is a galette covered with grated Emmental cheese, a slice of ham and an egg, cooked on the galette. In France, this is known as a galette complète (a complete galette). A hot sausage wrapped in a galette (called galette saucisse, a tradition of Rennes, France) and eaten like a hot dog is becoming increasingly popular as well.
    There is a children's song about galette:
    "J'aime la galette, savez-vous comment ? Quand elle est bien faite, avec du beurre dedans." ("I like galette, do you know how? When it is made well, with butter inside.")


    • Yannick Pelletier, Lampaul-Guimiliau, Editions Jean-Paul Gisserot, 2005. ISBN 978-2-87747-498-6 A guide to the church, in French, with an introduction to the cultural and historical background to parish closes. 


     Catechism of the Catholic Church

    Part Three: Life in Christ

    Section One: Man's Vocation Life in The Spirit


    Article 6:1  The Moral Conscience- Judgement of Conscience

    1699 Life in the Holy Spirit fulfills the vocation of man (chapter one). This life is made up of divine charity and human solidarity (chapter two). It is graciously offered as salvation (chapter three).

    1700 The dignity of the human person is rooted in his creation in the image and likeness of God (article 1); it is fulfilled in his vocation to divine beatitude (article 2). It is essential to a human being freely to direct himself to this fulfillment (article 3). By his deliberate actions (article 4), the human person does, or does not, conform to the good promised by God and attested by moral conscience (article 5). Human beings make their own contribution to their interior growth; they make their whole sentient and spiritual lives into means of this growth (article 6). With the help of grace they grow in virtue (article 7), avoid sin, and if they sin they entrust themselves as did the prodigal son Lk 15:11-32 to the mercy of our Father in heaven (article 8). In this way they attain to the perfection of charity.

    Article 6
    1776 "Deep within his conscience man discovers a law which he has not laid upon himself but which he must obey. Its voice, ever calling him to love and to do what is good and to avoid evil, sounds in his heart at the right moment.... For man has in his heart a law inscribed by God.... His conscience is man's most secret core and his sanctuary. There he is alone with God whose voice echoes in his depths."GS 16

    I. The Judgment of Conscience
    1777 Moral conscience,Rom 2:14-16 present at the heart of the person, enjoins him at the appropriate moment to do good and to avoid evil. It also judges particular choices, approving those that are good and denouncing those that are evil.Rom 1:32 It bears witness to the authority of truth in reference to the supreme Good to which the human person is drawn, and it welcomes the commandments. When he listens to his conscience, the prudent man can hear God speaking.

    1778 Conscience is a judgment of reason whereby the human person recognizes the moral quality of a concrete act that he is going to perform, is in the process of performing, or has already completed. In all he says and does, man is obliged to follow faithfully what he knows to be just and right. It is by the judgment of his conscience that man perceives and recognizes the prescriptions of the divine law:

    Conscience is a law of the mind; yet [Christians] would not grant that it is nothing more; I mean that it was not a dictate, nor conveyed the notion of responsibility, of duty, of a threat and a promise.... [Conscience] is a messenger of him, who, both in nature and in grace, speaks to us behind a veil, and teaches and rules us by his representatives. Conscience is the aboriginal Vicar of Christ.John Henry Cardinal Newman, "Letter to the Duke of Norfolk," V, in
       Certain Difficulties felt by Anglicans in Catholic Teaching II (London:
       Longmans Green, 1885), 248.

    1779 It is important for every person to be sufficiently present to himself in order to hear and follow the voice of his conscience. This requirement of interiority is all the more necessary as life often distracts us from any reflection, self-examination or introspection:

    Return to your conscience, question it.... Turn inward, brethren, and in everything you do, see God as your witness.St. Augustine, In ep Jo. 8, 9: PL 35, 2041

    1780 The dignity of the human person implies and requires uprightness of moral conscience. Conscience includes the perception of the principles of morality (synderesis); their application in the given circumstances by practical discernment of reasons and goods; and finally judgment about concrete acts yet to be performed or already performed. the truth about the moral good, stated in the law of reason, is recognized practically and concretely by the prudent judgment of conscience. We call that man prudent who chooses in conformity with this judgment.

    1781 Conscience enables one to assume responsibility for the acts performed. If man commits evil, the just judgment of conscience can remain within him as the witness to the universal truth of the good, at the same time as the evil of his particular choice. the verdict of the judgment of conscience remains a pledge of hope and mercy. In attesting to the fault committed, it calls to mind the forgiveness that must be asked, the good that must still be practiced, and the virtue that must be constantly cultivated with the grace of God:

    We shall . . . reassure our hearts before him whenever our hearts condemn us; for God is greater than our hearts, and he knows everything.Jn 3:19-20

    1782 Man has the right to act in conscience and in freedom so as personally to make moral decisions. "He must not be forced to act contrary to his conscience. Nor must he be prevented from acting according to his conscience, especially in religious matters."DH 3 # 2