Saturday, August 23, 2014

Saturday, August 23, 2014 - Litany Lane Blog: Justice, Psalms 85:9-14, Ezechiel 43:1-7, Matthew 23:1-12, Pope Francis's Daily Catechesis, Feast of Saint Rose of Lima, Lima Peru, Directions For Our Times: A Rescue Mission for Souls , Catholic Catechism Part Three: Life in Christ Section Two: The Ten Commandment Chapter Two: Seventh Commandment Article 7:6 Love for the Poor

Saturday,  August  23, 2014 - Litany Lane Blog:

Justice, Psalms 85:9-14, Ezechiel 43:1-7, Matthew 23:1-12, Pope Francis's Daily Catechesis, Feast of Saint Rose of Lima, Lima Peru, Directions For Our Times: A Rescue Mission for Souls , Catholic Catechism Part Three:  Life in Christ Section Two: The Ten Commandment Chapter Two: Seventh Commandment Article 7:6 Love for the Poor and In Brief

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge, reason and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. The Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit: wisdom, understanding, wonder and awe (fear of the Lord) , counsel, knowledge, fortitude, and piety (reverence) and shun the seven Deadly sins: wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony...Its your choice whether to embrace the Gifts of the Holy Spirit rising towards eternal light or succumb to the Seven deadly sins and lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to the Darkness, Purgatory or Heaven is our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...~ Zarya Parx 2013

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


Prayers for Today:   Saturday in Ordinary Time

Rosary - Joyful Mysteries


 Papam Franciscus
(Pope Francis)

Pope Francis Daily Catechesis:

Week of August 23, 2014 

"Peace is not simply the absence of war, but “the work of justice".."

(2014-08-23 Vatican Radio) 

“And so ‘No’ to an economy of exclusion, ‘No’ to an economy of selfishness, without ethics, ‘No’ to the spirit of materialism. ‘No’, ‘No’, ‘No’. And a ‘yes’ to a personal encounter with Jesus whom we want to carry always with us. ‘Yes’ to the cry of the poor, the needy and the lonely and ‘yes’ to the world that eagerly waits for us”.

With these words Oswald Cardinal Gracias, the Archbishop of Bombay and President of the Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences seemed to summarise how well the Church in Asia had absorbed the words of Pope Francis during his visit to South Korea. It is as if Cardinal Gracias had gone round asking each of the 10 million youth, who participated in the five days Daejeon experience, for their impressions on the papal visit. Cardinal Gracias goes on, “we leave the place with memories of Daejeon and Korea. We are grateful to you Most Holy Father for having been a true, loving and gracious father to us”.

The last few days of Pope Francis’ visit to South Korea have been remarkable. During the visit, he has said many wonderful things. Nevertheless, as Vatican Radio’s correspondent, Sean Lovett, who was among those who travelled with Pope Francis to Korea said in one of his reports to us, the word “peace”, was the one most often repeated in the local articles and media stories reporting on Pope Francis’ visit. This is in part, because the Pope himself used the word, “peace” most frequently in his speeches. It is also because for South Korea peace is at the heart of a nation still officially at war with its neighbour – North Korea.

But come to think of it, the whole world and not Korea alone needs peace. The Guardian UK newspaper last week quoted Dominique Shorten who is the head of emergency fundraising at Save the Children. Shorten says, “we have four emergency appeals open at the moment – Syria, Gaza, South Sudan and (Central African Republic) CAR – which is unprecedented, particularly as they’re all focused on conflict”.To this list one could easily add the conflict ignited by the Islamic State in Iraq, conflicts in Ukraine, Afghanistan, Congo DR, Somalia and Libya. The list could actually still go on. One is then justified in asking as did the Guardian UK last week, “Gaza, Ebola, Iraq…are we approaching disaster overload?” The answer is both yes and no.

Yes, because the more the world seems to hear of these disasters, the more the world’s sensibilities and empathy seem blunted. No, because as Pope Francis has reminded us again and again in Korea and elsewhere we simply cannot give up on peace. Surely, Pope Francis did not only have in mind Korean youth when he said, “I think it is especially important for us to reflect on the need to give our young people the gift of peace”. Speaking to diplomats and Government officials accredited to South Korea, Pope Francis said, “Korea’s quest for peace is a cause close to our hearts, for it affects the stability of the entire area and indeed of our whole war-weary world”.

During this whole apostolic trip, Pope Francis seems to be keenly aware of the hurdles that lie in the way of peace. He told his audience, “the quest for peace also represents a challenge for each of us and in a particular way for those of you dedicated to the pursuit of the common good of the human family through the patient work of diplomacy. It is the perennial challenge of breaking down the walls of distrust and hatred by promoting a culture of reconciliation and solidarity. For diplomacy, as the art of the possible, is based on the firm and persevering conviction that peace can be won through quiet listening and dialogue, rather than by mutual recriminations, fruitless criticisms and displays of force”.

Pope Francis continues by saying “peace is not simply the absence of war, but “the work of justice” and justice, as a virtue, calls for the discipline of forbearance; it demands that we not forget past injustices but overcome them through forgiveness, tolerance and cooperation. It demands the willingness to discern and attain mutually beneficial goals, building foundations of mutual respect, understanding and reconciliation. May all of us dedicate these days to peace, to praying for it and deepening our resolve to achieve it”.

In the end that is what many took away from the visit of Pope Francis to South Korea -a message of peace. As aptly said by Cardinal Gracias to Pope Francis on the last day of the 6th Asian Youth Day, “we have been awakened from the soporific slumber that engulfed us. In this slumber our eyes were closed to the joy of the Gospel, our minds clouded from seeing the beautiful vision of the Kingdom of God and our hearts dulled to experience the warmth of Jesus’ love for us. But now after these five days in Daejeon we have rekindled our passion for the Gospel, revitalized our youthful spirit, and understood more deeply our baptismal consecration and the meaning of true discipleship”.

Reference: Vatican News. From the Pope. © Copyright 2014 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Accessed 08/23/2014


Liturgical Celebrations to be presided over by Pope:  2015

Vatican City, spring 2014 (VIS)

The following is the English text of the intentions – both universal and for evangelization – that, as is customary, the Pope entrusted to the Apostleship of Prayer for 2015. 

Universal: That those from diverse religious traditions and all people of good will work together for peace.
Evangelization: That in this year dedicated to consecrated life, religious men and women may rediscover the joy of following Christ and strive to serve the poor with zeal.

Universal: That prisoners, especially the young, may be able to rebuild lives of dignity.
Evangelization: That married people who are separated may find welcome and support in the Christian community.

Universal: That those involved in scientific research may serve the well-being of the whole human person.
Evangelization: That the unique contribution of women to the life of the Church may be recognized always.

Universal: That people may learn to respect creation and care for it as a gift of God.
Evangelization: That persecuted Christians may feel the consoling presence of the Risen Lord and the solidarity of all the Church.

Universal: That, rejecting the culture of indifference, we may care for our neighbours who suffer, especially the sick and the poor.
Evangelization: That Mary’s intercession may help Christians in secularized cultures be ready to proclaim Jesus.

Universal: That immigrants and refugees may find welcome and respect in the countries to which they come.
Evangelization: That the personal encounter with Jesus may arouse in many young people the desire to offer their own lives in priesthood or consecrated life.

Universal: That political responsibility may be lived at all levels as a high form of charity.
Evangelization: That, amid social inequalities, Latin American Christians may bear witness to love for the poor and contribute to a more fraternal society.

Universal: That volunteers may give themselves generously to the service of the needy.
Evangelization: That setting aside our very selves we may learn to be neighbours to those who find themselves on the margins of human life and society.

Universal: That opportunities for education and employment may increase for all young people.
Evangelization: That catechists may give witness by living in a way consistent with the faith they proclaim.

Universal: That human trafficking, the modern form of slavery, may be eradicated.
Evangelization: That with a missionary spirit the Christian communities of Asia may announce the Gospel to those who are still awaiting it.

Universal: That we may be open to personal encounter and dialogue with all, even those whose convictions differ from our own.
Evangelization: That pastors of the Church, with profound love for their flocks, may accompany them and enliven their hope.

Universal: That all may experience the mercy of God, who never tires of forgiving.
Evangelization: That families, especially those who suffer, may find in the birth of Jesus a sign of certain hope.

  • Vatican News. From the Pope. © Copyright 2014 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Accessed 08/23/2014.


November 2, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World: "Dear children; Anew, in a motherly way, I am calling you to love; to continually pray for the gift of love; to love the Heavenly Father above everything. When you love Him you will love yourself and your neighbor. This cannot be separated. The Heavenly Father is in each person. He loves each person and calls each person by his name. Therefore, my children, through prayer hearken to the will of the Heavenly Father. Converse with Him. Have a personal relationship with the Father which will deepen even more your relationship as a community of my children – of my apostles. As a mother I desire that, through the love for the Heavenly Father, you may be raised above earthly vanities and may help others to gradually come to know and come closer to the Heavenly Father. My children, pray, pray, pray for the gift of love because 'love' is my Son. Pray for your shepherds that they may always have love for you as my Son had and showed by giving His life for your salvation. Thank you."

October 25, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World:  “Dear children! Today I call you to open yourselves to prayer. Prayer works miracles in you and through you. Therefore, little children, in the simplicity of heart seek of the Most High to give you the strength to be God’s children and for Satan not to shake you like the wind shakes the branches. Little children, decide for God anew and seek only His will – and then you will find joy and peace in Him. Thank you for having responded to my call.”

October 2, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World: "Dear children, I love you with a motherly love and with a motherly patience I wait for your love and unity. I pray that you may be a community of God’s children, of my children. I pray that as a community you may joyfully come back to life in the faith and in the love of my Son. My children, I am gathering you as my apostles and am teaching you how to bring others to come to know the love of my Son; how to bring to them the Good News, which is my Son. Give me your open, purified hearts and I will fill them with the love for my Son. His love will give meaning to your life and I will walk with you. I will be with you until the meeting with the Heavenly Father. My children, it is those who walk towards the Heavenly Father with love and faith who will be saved. Do not be afraid, I am with you. Put your trust in your shepherds as my Son trusted when he chose them, and pray that they may have the strength and the love to lead you. Thank you." - See more at:

Today's Word:  justice  jus·tice  [juhs-tis]  

Origin:  1150-1200; Middle English < Old French < Latin jūstitia, equivalent to jūst (us) just1+ -itia -ice


1. the quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness:

to uphold the justice of a cause.
2. rightfulness or lawfulness, as of a claim or title; justness of ground or reason:

to complain with justice.
3. the moral principle determining just conduct.
4. conformity to this principle, as manifested in conduct; just conduct, dealing, or treatment.
5. the administering of deserved punishment or reward.
6. the maintenance or administration of what is just by law, as by judicial or other proceedings:

a court of justice.
7. judgment of persons or causes by judicial process:

to administer justice in a community.


Today's Old Testament Reading -    Psalms 85:9-14

9 His saving help is near for those who fear him, his glory will dwell in our land.
10 Faithful Love and Loyalty join together, Saving Justice and Peace embrace.
11 Loyalty will spring up from the earth, and Justice will lean down from heaven.
12 Yahweh will himself give prosperity, and our soil will yield its harvest.
13 Justice will walk before him, treading out a path.


Today's Epistle -   Ezekiel 43:1-7

1 He took me to the gate, the one facing east.
2 I saw the glory of the God of Israel approaching from the east. A sound came with him like the sound of the ocean, and the earth shone with his glory.
3 This vision was like the one I had seen when I had come for the destruction of the city, and like the one I had seen by the River Chebar. Then I fell to the ground.
4 The glory of Yahweh arrived at the Temple by the east gate.
5 The Spirit lifted me up and brought me into the inner court; I saw the glory of Yahweh fill the Temple.
6 And I heard someone speaking to me from the Temple while the man stood beside me.
7 He said, 'Son of man, this is the dais of my throne, the step on which I rest my feet. I shall live here among the Israelites for ever; and the House of Israel, they and their kings, will never again defile my holy name with their whorings and the corpses of their kings,


Today's Gospel Reading -  Matthew 23:1-12

1) Opening prayer
God our Father,
may we love you in all things and above all things
and reach the joy you have prepared for us
beyond all our imagining.
We ask this through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son,
who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit,
one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

2) Gospel Reading - Matthew 23,1-12
Then addressing the crowds and his disciples Jesus said, 'The scribes and the Pharisees occupy the chair of Moses. You must therefore do and observe what they tell you; but do not be guided by what they do, since they do not practise what they preach. They tie up heavy burdens and lay them on people's shoulders, but will they lift a finger to move them? Not they! Everything they do is done to attract attention, like wearing broader headbands and longer tassels, like wanting to take the place of honour at banquets and the front seats in the synagogues, being greeted respectfully in the market squares and having people call them Rabbi. 'You, however, must not allow yourselves to be called Rabbi, since you have only one Master, and you are all brothers. You must call no one on earth your father, since you have only one Father, and he is in heaven. Nor must you allow yourselves to be called teachers, for you have only one Teacher, the Christ. The greatest among you must be your servant. Anyone who raises himself up will be humbled, and anyone who humbles himself will be raised up.

3) Reflection
• Today’s Gospel is part of a long criticism of Jesus against the Scribes and the Pharisees (Mt 23, 1-39). Luke and Mark mention only a few lines of this criticism against the religious heads of the time. It is only the Gospel of Matthew which has a longer presentation of this. This very severe text makes us foresee the polemics which existed in the communities of Matthew with the communities of the Jews of Galilee and Syria of that time.

• In reading this text, which is strongly contrary to the one of the Pharisees, we have to be very attentive so as not to be unjust against the Jewish People. We Christians, for centuries, have had attitudes against the Jews and, for this reason, against the Christians. What is important in meditating these texts is to discover their objective. Jesus condemns the lack of coherence and of sincerity in the relationship with God and with the neighbour. He is speaking about hypocrisy, that of yesterday as well as that of today, of our hypocrisy!
• Matthew 23, 1-3: The basic error: they say, but they do not do. Jesus addresses himself to the multitude and to the disciples and criticizes the Scribes and the Pharisees. The reason for attacking them is the incoherence between their words and their acts. They speak but they do not do. Jesus recognizes the authority and the knowledge of the Scribes “The Scribes and the Pharisees occupy the chair of Moses! You must, therefore, do and observe what they tell you, but do not be guided by what they do, since they do not practice what they preach”.

• Matthew 23, 4-7: The fundamental error is manifested in diverse ways. The fundamental error is incoherence: “They say, but they do not do”. Jesus enumerates the diverse points which reveal this incoherence. Some Scribes and Pharisees imposed heavy laws upon the people. They knew the Laws well, but they did not practise them; neither did they use their knowledge to lessen the weight imposed upon the people. They did everything possible to be seen and praised, they wore special tunics for prayer and they liked the first places and to be greeted in the public squares. They wanted to be called “Teacher”. They represented a type of community which maintained, legitimized and nourished the difference of social classes. It legitimized the privileges of the great and the inferior position of the little ones. Now, if there is something which displeases Jesus, it is appearances which deceive.

• Matthew 23, 8-12: How to overcome the fundamental error. How should a Christian community be? All the community functions should be assumed as a service: “The greatest among you must be your servant!” You should call nobody Teacher (Rabbi), nor Father, nor Guide; because the community of Jesus has to maintain, legitimize and nourish not the differences, but rather the fraternal spirit. This is the fundamental Law: “You are all brothers and sisters!” The fraternal spirit comes from the experience that Jesus is Father, and makes of all of us brothers and sisters. “Anyone who raises himself up will be humbled, and anyone who humbles himself will be raised up.”

• The group of the Pharisees!
The group of the Pharisees was born in the II century before Christ, with the proposal of a more perfect observance of the Law of God, especially regarding the prescriptions on purity. They were more open to novelty than the Sadducees. For example, they accepted faith in the Resurrection and faith in the angels, something which the Sadducees did not accept. The life of the Pharisees was an exemplary witness: they prayed and studied the Law during eight hours a day; they worked eight hours in order to be able to survive; they dedicated eight hours to rest. This is the reason why people respected them very much. And in this way, they helped people to keep their own identity and not to lose it, in the course of centuries.

The so-called Pharisaic mentality. With time, the Pharisees took hold of power and no longer listened to the appeals of the people, nor did they allow them to speak. The word “Pharisee” means “separated”. Their observance was so strict and rigorous that they separated themselves from the rest of the people. This is why they were called “separated”. From this comes the expression “pharisaic mentality”. It is typical of the persons who think to obtain justice through the rigid and rigorous observance of the Law. Generally, they are persons who are afraid, who do not have the courage to assume the risk of liberty and of the responsibility. They hide themselves behind the Law and the authority. When these persons obtain an important function, they become harsh and insensitive and indifferent to hide their own imperfection.

Rabbi, Guide, Teacher, Father. These are four titles that Jesus prohibits people to use. Today, in Church, the priests are called “Father”. Many study in the University of the Church and obtain the title of “Doctor” (Teacher). Many persons receive spiritual direction and take advice from persons who are called “Spiritual directors” (Guides). What is important is to take into account the reason which impelled Jesus to prohibit the use of these titles. If these were used by persons in order to affirm their position of authority and their power, these persons would be in error and would be criticized by Jesus. If these titles were used to nourish and deepen the fraternal spirit and service, they would not be criticized by Jesus.

4) Personal questions
• Which is my reason for living and working in community?
• How does the community help me to correct and to improve my motivations?

5) Concluding Prayer
I am listening.
What is God's message?
Yahweh's message is peace for his people,
for his faithful, if only they renounce their folly. (Ps 85,8)

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  Saint Rose of Lima

Saint Rose of Lima
Saint Rose of Lima, T.O.S.D. (April 20, 1586 – August 24, 1617), was a Spanish colonist in Lima, Peru, who became known for both her life of severe asceticism and her care of the needy of the city through her own private efforts. A lay member of the Dominican Order, she was the first person born in the Americas to be canonized by the Catholic Church.

As a saint, Rose of Lima is designated as a co-patroness of the Philippines along with Saint Pudentiana, who were both moved as second-class patronage in September 1942 by Pope Pius XII, but remains the primary patroness of Peru and the indigenous natives of Latin America.


She was born Isabel Flores y de Oliva in the city of Lima, then in the Viceroyalty of Peru, on April 20, 1586. She was one of the many children of Gaspar Flores, a harquebusier in the Imperial Spanish army, born in San Germán on the island of San Juan Bautista (now Puerto Rico), and his wife, María de Oliva, a native of Lima. Her later nickname "Rose" comes from an incident in her babyhood: a servant claimed to have seen her face transform into a rose. In 1597 she was confirmed by the Archbishop of Lima, Turibius de Mongrovejo, who was also to be declared a saint. She formally took the name of Rose at that time.

As a young girl—in emulation of the noted Dominican tertiary, St. Catherine of Siena—she began to fast three times a week and performed severe penances in secret. When she was admired for her beauty, Rose cut off her hair and smeared pepper on her face, upset that suitors were beginning to take notice of her. She rejected all suitors against the objections of her friends and her family. Despite the censure of her parents, she spent many hours contemplating the Blessed Sacrament, which she received daily, an extremely rare practice in that period. She was determined to take a vow of virginity, which was opposed by her parents, who wished her to marry. Finally, out of frustration, her father gave her a room to herself in the family home.

After daily fasting, she took to permanently abstain from eating meat. She helped the sick and hungry around her community, bringing them to her room and taking care of them. Rose sold her fine needlework, and took flowers that she grew to market, to help her family. She made and sold lace and embroidery to care for the poor, and she prayed and did penance in a little grotto which she had built. Otherwise, she became a recluse, leaving her room only for her visits to church.

She attracted the attention of the friars of the Dominican Order. She wanted to become a nun, but her father forbade it, so she instead entered the Third Order of St. Dominic while living in her parents' home. In her twentieth year she donned the habit of a tertiary and took a vow of perpetual virginity. She donned a heavy crown made of silver, with small spikes on the inside, in emulation of the Crown of Thorns worn by Christ.

For eleven years she lived this way, with intervals of ecstasy, and died on August 24, 1617, at the age of 31. It is said that she prophesied the date of her death. Her funeral was held in the cathedral, attended by all the public authorities of Lima, and with a eulogy by the archbishop.


Monastery of Saint Rose in 17th-century Lima
Rose was beatified by Pope Clement IX on May 10, 1667, and canonized on April 12, 1671, by Pope Clement X, the first Catholic in the Americas to be declared a saint. Her shrine, alongside those of her friends, St. Martin de Porres and Saint John Macías, is located inside the convent of St. Dominic in Lima. The Roman Catholic Church says that many miracles followed her death; there were stories that she had cured a leper. Many places in the New World are named Santa Rosa after her. Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI is especially devoted to her.

Her liturgical feast was inserted into the General Roman Calendar in 1729 for celebration initially on August 30, because August 24, the date of her death, is the feast of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle and August 30 was the closest date not already allocated to a well-known saint. Pope Paul VI's 1969 revision of the calendar made August 23 available, the day on which her feast day is now celebrated throughout the world, including Spain, but excluding Peru and some other Latin American countries, where August 30 is a public holiday in her honor.

She is honored together with Martin de Porres and Turibius of Mogrovejo with a feast day on the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) on August 23.

Early lives of Santa Rosa were written by the Dominican Father Hansen, "Vita Sanctae Rosae" (2 vols., Rome, 1664–1668), and Vicente Orsini, afterward. Pope Benedict XIII wrote "Concentus Dominicano, Bononiensis ecclesia, in album Sanctorum Ludovici Bertrandi et Rosae de Sancta Maria, ordinero praedicatorum" (Venice, 1674).

There is a park named for her in downtown Sacramento, California. A plot of land at 7th and K streets was given to the Roman Catholic Church by Peter Burnett, first Governor of the State of California. Father Peter Anderson built one of the first of two churches in the diocese to be consecrated under the patronage of St Rose.

In the Caribbean twin-island state of Trinidad and Tobago, the Santa Rosa Carib Community, located in Arima, is the largest organization of indigenous peoples on the island. The second oldest parish in the Diocese of Port-of-Spain is also named after this saint. The Santa Rosa Church, which is located in the town of Arima, was established on April 20, 1786, as the Indian Mission of Santa Rosa de Arima on the foundations of a Capuchin Mission previously established in 1749.


Saint Rose is the patroness of the Americas, indigenous people of the Americas especially of Lima, Peru; the secondary patroness of the Philippines along with Saint Pudentiana; of gardeners; of florists; of Sittard, the Netherlands; of India.


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Today's Snippet I:  Lima, Peru

Lima  is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population approaching 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru, and the fifth largest city in the Americas (as defined by "city proper").

Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes. It became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Today, around one-third of the Peruvian population lives in the metropolitan area.

Lima is home to one of the oldest higher learning institutions in the New World. The National University of San Marcos, founded on May 12, 1551 during Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.

In October 2013, Lima was chosen in a ceremony in Toronto to host the 2019 Pan American Games.


According to early Spanish chronicles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants. However, even before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq (Limaq, which means "talker" in coastal Quechua). This oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted in the local language, and so the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.

Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects stop consonants in word-final position. The city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings (Spanish: Ciudad de los Reyes) because its foundation was decided on January 6, date of the feast of the Epiphany. Nevertheless, this name quickly fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; on the oldest Spanish maps of Peru, both Lima and Ciudad de los Reyes can be seen together as names for the city.

The river that feeds Lima is called Rímac, and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River" (the Incas spoke a highland variety of Quechua where the word for "talker" was pronounced.[4] However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not the Incas, and this name is actually an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. Later, as the original inhabitants of the valley died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. In modern times, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They often assume that the valley is named after the river; however, Spanish documents from the colonial period show the opposite to be true.


Pachacamac was an important religious centre before the arrival of Spanish conquistadors
In the pre-Columbian era, the location of what is now the city of Lima was inhabited by several Amerindian groups under the Ychsma polity, which was incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532, a group of Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his Empire. As the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac valley to found his capital on January 18, 1535 as Ciudad de los Reyes (City of the Kings). In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies.

Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network which integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas, Europe and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the presence of pirates and privateers in the Pacific Ocean lead to the building of the Walls of Lima between 1684 and 1687. Also in this last year a powerful earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings; the earthquake marked a turning point in the history of Lima as it coincided with a recession in trade and growing economic competition with other cities such as Buenos Aires.

In 1746, a powerful earthquake severely damaged Lima and destroyed Callao, forcing a massive rebuilding effort under Viceroy José Antonio Manso de Velasco. In the later half of the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas on public health and social control shaped the development of the city. During this period, Lima was adversely affected by the Bourbon Reforms as it lost its monopoly on overseas trade and its control over the important mining region of Upper Peru. The city's economic decline made its elite dependent on royal and ecclesiastical appointment and thus, reluctant to advocate independence.

A combined expedition of Argentine and Chilean patriots under General José de San Martín landed south of Lima in 1820 but did not attack the city. Faced with a naval blockade and the action of guerrillas on land, Viceroy José de la Serna e Hinojosa evacuated its capital on July 1821 to save the Royalist army. Fearing a popular uprising and lacking any means to impose order, the city council invited San Martín to enter Lima and signed a Declaration of Independence at his request.[19] However, the war was not over; in the next two years the city changed hands several times.
After independence, Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru but economic stagnation and political turmoil brought urban development to a halt. This hiatus ended in the 1850s, when increased public and private revenues from guano exports led to a rapid development of the city. The export-led expansion also widened the gap between rich and poor, fostering social unrest. During the 1879–1883 War of the Pacific, Chilean troops occupied Lima, looting public museums, libraries and educational institutions. At the same time, angry mobs attacked wealthy citizens and the Asian population; sacking their properties and businesses. After the war, the city underwent a process of renewal and expansion from the 1890s up to the 1920s. During this period, the urban layout was modified by the construction of big avenues that crisscrossed the city and connected it with neighboring towns.

On May 24, 1940, an earthquake destroyed most of the city, which at that time was mostly built of adobe and quincha. In the 1940s, Lima started a period of rapid growth spurred by migration from the Andean regions of Peru, as rural people sought opportunities for work and education. The population, estimated at 0.6 million in 1940, reached 1.9 million by 1960 and 4.8 million by 1980. At the start of this period, the urban area was confined to a triangular area bounded by the city's historic centre, Callao and Chorrillos; in the following decades settlements spread to the north, beyond the Rímac River, to the east, along the Central Highway, and to the south. The new migrants, at first confined to slums in downtown Lima, led this expansion through large-scale land invasions, which evolved into shanty towns, known as pueblos jóvenes.


Lima as seen from the SPOT satellite
The urban area of Lima covers about 800 km2 (310 sq mi). It is located on mostly flat terrain in the Peruvian coastal plain, within the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers. The city slopes gently from the shores of the Pacific Ocean into valleys and mountain slopes located as high as 1,550 meters (5,090 ft) above sea level. Within the city there are isolated hills which are not connected to the surrounding hill chains, such as El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino, La Milla, Muleria and Pro hills. The San Cristobal hill in the Rímac District, which lies directly north of the downtown area, is the local extreme of an Andean hill outgrowth.

Metro Lima covers 2,672.28 km2 (1,031.77 sq mi), of which 825.88 km2 (318.87 sq mi) (31%) comprise the actual city and 1,846.40 km2 (712.90 sq mi) (69%) the city outskirts. The urban area extends around 60 km (37 mi) from north to south and around 30 km (19 mi) from west to east. The city center is located 15 km (9.3 mi) inland at the shore of the Rímac River, a vital resource for the city, since it carries what will become drinking water for its inhabitants and fuels the hydroelectric dams that provide electricity to the area. While no official administrative definition for the city exists, it is usually considered to be composed of the central 30 of 43 districts of Lima Province, corresponding to an urban area centered around the historic Cercado de Lima district. The city is the core of the Lima Metro Area, one of the ten largest metro areas in the Americas. Lima is the world's second largest desert city, after Cairo, Egypt.

Society and culture

Woman in White Poncho on Horseback.  Collections of the Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe.
Strongly influenced by European, Andean, African and Asian culture, Lima is a melting pot of cultures due to colonization, immigration, and indigenous influences. The Historic Centre of Lima was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988.

The city is known as the Gastronomical Capital of the Americas. Lima's gastronomy is a mix of Spanish, Andean, and Asian culinary traditions.

Lima's beaches, located along the northern and southern ends of the city, are heavily visited during the summer months. Restaurants, clubs and hotels have opened in these places to serve the beachgoers. Lima has a vibrant and active theater scene, including classic theater, cultural presentations, modern theater, experimental theater, dramas, dance performances, and theater for children. Lima is home to the Municipal Theater, Segura Theater, Japanese-Peruvian Theater, Marsano Theater, British theater, Theater of the PUCP Cultural Center, and the Yuyachkani Theater.


Known as Peruvian Coast Spanish, Lima's Spanish is characterized by the lack of strong intonations as found in many other regions of the Spanish-speaking world. It is heavily influenced by the historical Spanish spoken in Castile. Throughout the colonial era, most of the Spanish colonial nobility based in Lima were originally from Castile. Limean Castillian is also characterized by the lack of voseo, a trait present in the dialects of many other Latin American countries. This is because voseo was primarily used by the lower socioeconomic classes of Spain, a social group that did not begin to appear in Lima until the late colonial era.

Limean Spanish is distinguished by its clarity in comparison to other Latin American accents, and has been influenced by immigrant groups including Italians, Andalusians, Chinese and Japanese. It also has been influenced by anglicisms as a result of globalization, as well as by Andean Spanish, due to the migration from the Andean highlands to Lima.


Lima is home to the highest concentration of museums of the country, the most notable of which are the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú, Museum of Art of Lima, the Museo Pedro de Osma, the Museum of Natural History, the Museum of the Nation, The Sala Museo Oro del Perú Larcomar, the Museum of Italian Art, and the Museum of Gold, and the Larco Museum. These museums focus on art, pre-Columbian cultures, natural history, science and religion. The Museum of Italian Art shows European art.


Balconies were a major feature of Lima's architecture during the colonial period.
As the major point of entry to the country, Lima has developed a tourism industry, characterized by its historic center, archeological sites, nightlife, museums, art galleries, festivals, and traditions. Lima is home to restaurants and bars where local and international cuisine is served.

The Historic Centre of Lima, made up of the districts of Lima and Rímac, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988. Some examples of colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the Plaza Mayor, the Cathedral, Covenant of Santo Domingo, the Palace of Torre Tagle, and much more.

A tour of the city's churches is a popular circuit among tourists. A trip through the central district goes through churches dating from as early as the 16th and 17th centuries, the most noteworthy of which are the Cathedral of Lima and the Monastery of San Francisco, said to be connected by their subterrestrial catacombs. Both of these churches contain paintings, Sevilian tile, and sculpted wood furnishings.

Also notable is the Sanctuary of Las Nazarenas, the point of origin for the Lord of Miracles, whose festivities in the month of October constitute the most important religious event in Lima, and a major one of Peru. Some sections of the Walls of Lima still remain and are frequented by tourists. These examples of medieval Spanish fortifications were built to defend the city from attacks by pirates and privateers.

Beaches are visited during the summer months, located along the Pan-American Highway, to the south of the city in districts such as Lurín, Punta Hermosa, Santa María del Mar (Peru), San Bartolo and Asia. Restaurants, nightclubs, lounges, bars, clubs, and hotels have developed to cater to beachgoers.

The suburban districts of Cieneguilla, Pachacamac, and the city of Chosica, are tourist attractions among locals. Because they are located at a higher elevation than Lima, they receive more sunshine in winter months, something that the city of Lima frequently lacks under seasonal fog.

Historic Centre of Lima

 Located principally in the city centre or Cercado de Lima and Rímac areas, the Historic Centre of Lima is among the most important tourist destinations in Peru.


Map of Lima
The city of Lima, the capital of Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535 and given the name City of the Kings. Nevertheless, with time its original name persisted, which may come from one of two sources: Either the Aymara language lima-limaq (meaning "yellow flower"), or the Spanish pronunciation of the Quechuan word rimaq (meaning "talker", and actually written and pronounced limaq in the nearby Quechua I languages).

It is worth noting that the same Quechuan word is also the source of the name given to the river that feeds the city, the Rimac river (pronounced as in the politically dominant Quechua II languages, with an "r" instead of an "l"). Early maps of Peru show the two names displayed jointly.

In 1988, UNESCO declared the historic center of Lima a World Heritage Site for its originality and high concentration of historic monuments constructed in the time of Spanish presence.

Balconies of Lima

Facade of the Torre Tagle Palace
Of the structures in the historical center of Lima, situated are more than 1,600 balconies that were built in the viceroyalty era as well as in the republic.

In order to retain its conservation, the Municipality of Lima has invited individuals and companies to adopt a balcony in order to maintain them as if they were new. The abundance of these balconies adds to the particular harmony and originality to this part of the city.

Colonial extravagance

At the time of the Viceroyalty of Peru, a work of art was created, a magnificence, a grandeur and a legendary royal life.

The authority of the viceroy, like representative of the Spanish monarchy was particularly important, since its appointment supposed an important ascent and the successful culmination of a race in the colonial administration.

The entrances to Lima of the new viceroys were specially lavish. For the occasion, the streets were paved with silver bars from the doors of the city of Lima to the Palace of the Viceroy.

Principal Monuments

Archbishop Palace

The Archbishops palace. To the left, the House of the Oidor.
The Archbishop Palace is the home of the Archbishop of Lima. It is a popular tourist attraction in the Historical centre of Lima, Peru. The first major church began construction in 1535.

 Pope Paul III turned it into an episcopal seat in 1541. In 1547, Lima was elevated to an archdiocese, which turned it by a short period, in the more extensive ecclesiastical circumscription of the world. The patron of the episcopal seat is Saint Rosa of Lima.

Museum of Italian Art

The Museum of Italian Art is the only European arts museum of Peru. It has a wide collection of paintings, sculptures, drawings, prints and ceramics that belong to Italian artists from the beginnings of the 20th century, as well as a collection of 35 contemporary Italian paintings.

House of Aliaga

This house was constructed in 1535 on a pre-Columbian sanctuary. It was constructed on the date, that is shared with that of the foundation of the city, it has been inhabited permanently by the descendants of the first proprietor, Jerónimo de Aliaga, standard-bearer and exchequer for Francisco Pizarro. This home is the oldest mansion of the city and faces the Government Palace, former seat of Pizarro's rule, in a lateral street. Their halls, extensive and luxurious and their inner patio, have all the characteristics of the most important mansions of the historical center of Lima of the viceroyalty time. Given the perfect state of conservation, in special circumstances, this mansion often hosts certain cultural events. The mansion, still a private home, can be visited by pre-arrangement with an entry fee of approximately $11 US.

House of Oidor

In this house, one of oldest of the city, lived the Oidor, that was named by the Spanish monarchy to act in the colonial administration. The Oidor had by functions to cross the administered territory to control its government. In this sense, it advised to the viceroy as a consultant.

House of Pilatos

This is one of the oldest houses of Lima, constructed in 1590 by a Jesuit priest by the name of Ruiz Portillo. The name of this large house was given by the Spaniards who arrived and stated the similarity of the house with one in Seville.

Goyeneche House

This is one of the most outstanding houses of the historical center, constructed in the middle of the 18th century with French influence. One is in its original state with its balconies a typical characteristic of colonial Lima.

Riva Agüero House

This house was constructed in the 18th century by the Riva Agüero family, whose last member, the intellectual José de la Riva-Agüero, donated it to the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru. At the present time Agüero is used like headquarters of the Riva Institute, conserving an interesting historical file and a library being simultaneously used by the local Museum of Popular Art of the PUCP.

Basilica Cathedral

Night view of the Cathedral of Lima, which is illuminated. In the foreground is the Renaissance pool of the Viceroy Count of Salvatierra..
The Basilica Cathedral of Lima is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in the Plaza Mayor of downtown Lima, Peru. Construction began in 1535, and the building has undergone many reconstructions and transformation since, however it still retains its colonial structure and facade. It is dedicated to St John, Apostle and Evangelist.

Construction was begun on the Cathedral of Lima in 1535—the same year the city was founded. The Cathedral of Lima displays architecture typical of the Spanish colonial era. The pews of the cathedral are of the finest quality as well are the of the benches of the choir. The Greater Altar is gold plated and has images of the colonial era. Within the cathedral are the ashes of Francisco Pizarro, the founder of Lima. Every year, in the month patriotism, is celebrated the mass Te Deum in gratefulness by the independence from Spain. A custom retaken by the Cardinal Juan Luis Cipriani, is to give the mass all Sundays at 11:00 a.m. In 2005 the mayor of Lima created the project of illuminating the exterior of the cathedral with new lights.

Basilica of Our Lady of the Rosary and Convent of Santo Domingo

Convent of Santo Domingo
It took more than five decades delay for the construction of the church and the Convent of Santo Domingo, because the project begun at the same time as the foundation of Lima and the end of the 16th century marked by the end of it. The church is composed by three naves with a carved choral ashlar masonry in cedar wood. The church is crowned by a large cuple. The interior displays images from the first years of the City and also an image of Our Lady the Virgin of the Rosary, which first arrived at the Rímac Valley, Patron of the city, has deep relation with the Peruvian saints and by its remarkable devotion that was crowned in the year 1927 in a unique event in the religious history of the country. On the other hand, the convent, like all, has interesting claustros and in this case, with Sevillian style patios their typical tiles. Its capitulary room is of the baroque style. It is here, in 1551, that the National University of San Marcos was founded, the first in the Americas. The temple of Our Lady of the Rosary (original name of the church of Santo Domingo) was elevated to the category of basilica in 1930, and in its interior is the Altar of the Peruvian Saints, which is visited annually by thousands of residents of Peru and by many foreigners.

Basilica and Convent of San Francisco

The San Francisco church, expression of the spanish baroque in Lima.
Convento de San Francisco is the Spanish name for Saint Francis Monastery located in Lima, Peru at Ancash, south of Parque la Muralla and one block northeast from the Plaza Mayor. The church and convent are part of the Historic Centre of Lima, which was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1991. Aside from a church and monastery it also contains a library and catacombs. In this church, Jude the Apostle is venerated. At the feast of Saint Jude Thaddeus, a one and a half ton weighing silver stand is carried round in procession by 40 people, starting from the convent.
This architectonic complex was constructed in the 17th century and is made up by the church and the convent of San Francisco, as well as of the chapels of the Solitude and the Miracle. During your visit their claustros can be appreciated, their patios adorned with Sevillian tiles and the library. Here it is the headquarters of the Museum of Religious Art and the Zurbarán Room. Under this complex there is a network of underground galleries and catacombs that were a cemetery at the colonial time and which are also very much visited.

The church and monastery were consecrated in 1673 and completed in 1774. Though it survived several earthquakes intact in 1687 and 1746, it suffered extensive damage in an earthquake in 1970. The church is noted for its architecture, a high example of Spanish Baroque. Its granite carved portal would later influence those on other churches, including the Church of Merced. The vaults of the central and two side naves are painted in mudejar style: a mix of Moorish and Spanish designs. The head altar is fully carved out of wood. The corridors of the main cloister are inlaid with Sevillian glazed tiles dating from the 1620s. The complex is made of the temple, the convent and two other churches, 'La Soledad' and 'El Milagro'.

The convent's library is world-renowned. It possesses about 25,000 antique texts, some of them predating the conquest. Some notable books are the first Spanish dictionary published by the Royal Spanish Academy and a Holy Bible edition from 1571- 1572 printed in Antwerp.

The staircase towards the library has a spectacular, geometric Moorish-style cuppola in Nicaraguan cedar for a ceiling. It was carved in 1625 and restored in 1969. The choir is positioned on the second floor looking out onto the nave and is made of cedar carved with biblical figures.

Other notable possessions are 13 paintings of the biblical patriarch Jacob and his 12 sons in the refectory, by the hand of the studio of the Spanish master Francisco de Zurbarán. The last supper painted by Diego de la Puente depicts typical Peruvian ingredients and meals, instead of European dishes it depicts, such as guinea pig, potatoes and chillis. Also peculiar is the Devil hovering besides Judas. The monastery also possesses several paintings attributed to the school of Peter Paul Rubens.

The convent originally included seven cloisters (the main courtyard, St. Bonaventure, St. Francis Solanus, Pepper Yard, the Infirmary, the Novitiate and the Third Order). During the works to open Abancay Avenue in the 1940s, part of the monastery (including St. Bonaventure's courtyard) was demolished, and the section used by the Third Order was separated from the main structure.

Another cloister, that once belonged to the Franciscans, was given to the Society for Public Welfare around 1847 and became part of the Ruiz Dávila Hospice. Another part of the complex is now used by the Peruvian National Police.

Lima's first cemetery were the catacombs below the monastery contain an ossuary and some secret passageways are said to connect to the cathedral and the Tribunal of the Inquisition. The catacombs remained in use until 1808 when a city cemetery outside of Lima was founded. The catacombs were discovered in 1943. It is estimated to contain 70,000 burials. Bones line up along narrow hallways underneath the church, and one area contains several large and deep holes, filled with bones and skulls arranged above each other in circular patterns.

Merced Church

The Church of Merced was constructed in the 18th century with a churrigueresco style; appreciating it as much external as internally, the visitor occurs an idea of the splendor of the architecture of the time. In this church, full of works of art there is an emphasis on the greater altar in honor to the Virgin of Mercedes and one sacristía with arabesque tiles. Here it is possible to see one of the decks of collections of paintings and colonial statures of the city. The Virgin of the Mercedes is the patron of the Arms of the nation.

Sanctuary and Monastery of Las Nazarenas

Sanctuary where is venerated main Peruvian catholic devotion Lord of Miracles, Señor de los Milagros, who is Patron of the city. It was constructed together with Monastery of Nazarenas nuns in the 18th century, after a hard earthquake in 1746.

Basilica of San Pedro

Main church of Society of Jesus in Peru, it was constructed in 1638 as Church of San Pablo Apóstol. In 1767 it was called San Pedro.

Government Palace

The Government Palace is the residence of the President of the Republic. Its original name is the House of Pizarro but informally it is designated to him like the Palace of Government.

Torre Tagle Palace

The Palace of Torre Tagle probably is the most significant mansion built at the beginning of the 18th century. Initially it belonged to Don Bernardine Jose of Tagle Portocarrero, fourth and last Marquess of Torre Tagle. The Peruvian state acquired it in 1918 and from 1919 it is the main headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru. It is made of artistic Limean architecture which describes its originality and also demonstrates the racially mixed contributions of the Viceroyalty of Peru, fitting them together harmoniously. It has a carved stone cover and two balconies, that are authentic jewels of the City of the Kings. One is in perfect state of conservation.

University of San Marcos "Casona" and University Park

This park was constructed in 1870. In 1921 the park was located in where the cultural Center of the National University of San Marcos now stands. In the occasion of the centenary of the independence of the nation, the German colony arranged to construct the 30 meter Tower of the Clock. At noon, their bells touch notes of the national anthem.

Plaza Mayor

The Plaza Mayor is located where Francisco Pizarro founded Lima. Initially, there were small stores and commerce. Also, it was the scene of an excess of bulls and served like the site of execution of the condemned until death by the Court of Santa Inquisición. In 1651, a bronze battery was placed in the center of the seat that lasts to date. It was in the Plaza Mayor where it was proclaimed, in 1821, the Act of Independence of Peru. It is surrounded by the Palace by Government, the Municipality of Lima, the Cathedral and the Archbishop's Palace.

Plaza San Martín

This plaza was inaugurated in 1921 in the occasion of the centenary of the independence of Peru. In the central part, there is a monument in honor of General José de San Martín. It was built by the Catalán sculptor Mariano Benlliure. In this plaza of important buildings, the former Hotel Bolívar stands, which until the new millennium, was most elegant of Lima, as well as the Club Nacional, the watering hole for Lima's high society. The plaza has become one of the many symbols of Lima.

Plaza Dos de Mayo

Plaza dos de Mayo is a square built in 1874 by the Peruvian government to commemorate the Battle of Callao which occurred on 2 May 1866.

Court of Santo Oficio

The Court of Santo Oficio was established in 1569 with the purpose of sanctioning heresies and other crimes against the Catholic faith. Its abolition dates from 1820. On the external part of this monument it is possible to see an imposing neoclassic porch and, in the main hall, an outstanding carved wood ceiling, which is considered best in the city.


  • Andrien, Kenneth. Crisis and decline: the Viceroyalty of Peru in the seventeenth century. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1985. ISBN 0-8263-0791-4
  • Anna, Timothy. The fall of the royal government in Peru. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979. ISBN 0-8032-1004-3
  • Conlee, Christina, Jalh Dulanto, Carol Mackay and Charles Stanish. "Late Prehispanic sociopolitical complexity". In Helaine Silverman (ed.), Andean archaeology. Malden: Blackwell, 2004, pp. 209–236. ISBN 0-631-23400-4
  • Dietz, Henry. Poverty and problem-solving under military rule: the urban poor in Lima, Peru. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980. ISBN 0-292-76460-X
  • Hemming, John. The conquest of the Incas. London: Macmillan, 1993. ISBN 0-333-51794-6
  • Higgins, James. Lima. A cultural history. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-517891-2
  • Higgins, James (editor). The Emancipation of Peru: British Eyewitness Accounts, 2014. Online at
  • (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Lima Metropolitana perfil socio-demográfico. Lima: INEI, 1996.
  • Klarén, Peter. Peru: society and nationhood in the Andes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-506928-5
  • Ramón, Gabriel. "The script of urban surgery: Lima, 1850–1940". In Arturo Almandoz (ed.), Planning Latin America's capital cities, 1850–1950. New York: Routledge, 2002, pp. 170–192. ISBN 0-415-27265-3
  • Walker, Charles. "The upper classes and their upper stories: architecture and the aftermath of the Lima earthquake of 1746". Hispanic American Historical Review 83 (1): 53–82 (February 2003).



Today's Snippet II:  Direction For Our Times

"There is no circumstance that should cause you to give up hope. I will not allow you to give up hope. Even as you read these words I am obtaining fresh hope for you and with this hope I am also obtaining a spirit of calm that will enable you to serve in peace." ~ Blessed Mother Mary - Our Lady Queen of the Church, Ireland. Direction For Outr Times, August 2014 message

Jesus Christ the Returning King
Direction for Our Times is the organization which was established in December 2004 to promote the writings of Anne, a lay apostle, and membership of the Lay Apostolate of Jesus Christ the Returning King.  Direction for Our Times is dedicated to facilitating and helping the lay apostles to spread the messages recorded by Anne, a lay apostle, to the rest of the world.

History of the Mission

In the spring of 2003, at the direction of Our Lord, Anne began to record a spiritual journal. This would come to be known as Volume One, Thoughts on Spirituality. This was the beginning of her role as Anne, a lay apostle for the Apostolate of Jesus Christ the Returning King. In July 2003, Jesus indicated to Anne that her journal was to be published and disseminated. So Anne continued to record. In the beginning, she thought there would be just one book, and recalls how excited she was when that book was completed. “I felt such a tremendous relief to have it finished,” Anne says. But heaven had a larger plan than one book. “Well done,” Jesus told her. “Now you must be with your children on the weekend. On Monday, we will begin a new Volume.” Months later with Volumes One, Two and Three completed, Jesus told Anne to show them to her bishop. Anne submitted the writings to Bishop Leo O’Reilly of the diocese of Kilmore, Ireland and Fr. John Murphy, her parish priest, and began to meet with both men regularly. Also around this time, Fr. Darragh Connolly of the diocese of Kilmore, Ireland began working part time with Fr. John Murphy and Anne at the request of Bishop Leo O’Reilly. Fr. Darragh was eventually assigned full time in June 2006 by Bishop O’Reilly.

In August 2003, Anne’s friend contacted Jim Gilboy, owner of CMJ Marian Publishers, and asked him to consider publishing the books. Jim indicated that he had no interest in publishing any other private revelations. He ended the conversation with “I work for Our Lady, so drop them off and I’ll look them over.” Jim reviewed the messages and met with Anne and after receiving permission from Bishop Leo O’Reilly, Jim printed the first copies Volumes One through Four in December 2003.

In January 2004, Anne recorded a series of twelve personal messages for Pope John Paul II. Per Our Lord’s instructions, Anne asked Jim Gilboy to deliver them to the Holy Father. Jim agreed, although he had no viable connection to Rome at this time. Soon, though, a series of connections emerged and opened a path to Rome enabling Jim and a small group to meet at the Vatican with Andrzej Maria Cardinal Deskur, a long-time friend of Pope John Paul II. On Holy Saturday, April 10, 2004, the group met with the Cardinal Deskur and presented what is now Volumes One through Four of the series entitled The Volumes as given to Anne, a lay apostle. Jim and the group explained that Anne had received twelve personal messages for the Holy Father which they carried in a sealed envelope. Cardinal Deskur asked many questions about Anne and her obedience to her bishop and the Church. Cardinal Deskur was given the following message which Anne received before they left for Rome:

Jesus, April 5, 2004

“I would ask My servants to present these words as words from Heaven. I have a great mission that I wish to accomplish through these messages and I have attached graces that are unimaginable to human minds. Those who read them will understand if they have been called to participate in this heavenly project. Ask Me for guidance in this matter and guidance will be available to every person who pays attention to My will. Good and holy children of God, understand that these times are not like other times. These messages are not like other messages. I am trying to save many souls at this time. Do not think this can be done in the future. It must be done now. I ask that you treat this work according to My heavenly request for urgency. Your reward will be no small thing, even though I know you serve from love, not personal interest. Feel My graces flow through these words to your soul. Feel My truth as I convey it to you. All is well, as I am directing all, but I need many ‘yes’ answers at this time.”

Blessed Pope John Paul II receives Volume Two from Sister. Pius

Cardinal Deskur agreed to take the twelve personal messages to Pope John Paul II the next day at their brunch on Easter Sunday. He kept a copy of the four Volumes as well as Anne’s personal journal. The Cardinal directed Jim Gilboy to take a copy of the Volumes to (then) Cardinal Ratzinger’s office, which he did. On Easter Sunday, the group was privileged to sit on the same platform as the altar for Easter Sunday mass. After mass, they saw the Cardinal moving toward his van to attend brunch with the Holy Father. Some religious sisters accompanied him carrying the sealed envelope containing the personal messages for Pope John Paul II.

By the end of May 2004, publication of Volumes One through Four had been completed and the process of disseminating them to religious bookstores and the general public began. In September 2004, Archbishop Philip Hannan of New Orleans, Louisiana began reading the Volumes. He was so inspired by these words from heaven that he decided his FOCUS Worldwide Television Network needed to play a role in getting the Volumes distributed quickly. He spoke with Anne’s bishop, met with Anne and filmed a series of interviews with Anne and her team. These programs that began to be aired in October 2004 launched the mission throughout the United States.

On October 15, 2004, Anne recorded the last message for Volume Ten. Jesus indicated that this body of work, The Volumes, was now complete. Volume Six was published in October. At the end of October, two religious sisters returned to Rome to deliver the remaining sets of the Volumes to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and to Cardinal Deskur. The Cardinal received the remaining Volumes. Volumes Seven, Nine and Ten were published in December 2004. At that time Bishop Leo O’Reilly withheld his permission to print Volumes Five and Eight. He would decide at what time they could go to print in the future (These Volumes have been released and printed in 2013). Also in December 2004, Anne received the first monthly messages from Jesus. On the first of every month Our Lord began giving messages to the world.

Due to continued growth of the mission, in December 2004, the nonprofit organization Direction for Our Times was formed. It was created to focus specifically on the mission of spreading the messages revealed to Anne, a lay apostle around the world. The USA office for Direction for Our Times was located in Alsip, Illinois and was later moved to Justice, Illinois just outside Chicago. The Ireland office for Direction for Our Times was located in Bailieborough, County Cavan and was later moved to Cavan, County Cavan. 
Archbishop Philip Hannan, since he had begun to use his FOCUS Worldwide Television Network to promote and distribute the messages recorded by Anne, a lay apostle, decided he should meet with Andrzej Maria Cardinal Deskur and members of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in Rome in order to inform the Holy Office that the demand for these books was very great and that they had an excellent effect on those who read them. So in January 2005, Archbishop Hannan went to Rome for this purpose. There he met with Anne and Cardinal Deskur and a few others together, and also he had a private meeting with Cardinal Deskur. He also met with other members of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith including Fr. Anthonly Randazzo. Fr. Randazzo clearly stated that he had no criticism of the decisions and actions of Bishop Leo O’Reilly regarding the handling of the messages recorded by Anne, that it was too early yet for the Holy Office to make a decision regarding Anne’s messages since it had only been happening for two years, and that the Holy Office wished to allow the messages to continue and to have Bishop O’Reilly continue to report the events to the Holy Office.
n April 2005, Direction for Our Times hosted the first Eucharistic Day of Renewal in Tinley Park, Illinois. There would be many more of these EDR’s in the future at various locations around the world. These have been days that include talks, prayer, confession, mass and adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. Jesus has promised great graces to be given at these Eucharistic Days of Renewal.

In May 2005, Jesus gave Anne a set of guidelines for those called to serve Jesus in this mission of mercy. Bishop Leo O’Reilly gave permission for the formation of the Lay Apostolate of Jesus Christ the Returning King whose members would follow these guidelines to the best of their ability. In following these guidelines, lay apostles around the world have since formed hundreds of lay apostle prayer groups that meet on a monthly basis. For more information on the Lay Apostolate and the guidelines, click here. That summer Direction for Our Times hosted its first monthly lay apostle prayer group at St. Anne’s Church in Bailieborough, Ireland, which would continue to meet regularly on the first Thursday of every month. As these prayer groups continued, Anne would many times be present to give a short talk. Later these talks were streamed live over the Internet and also recorded.

In June 2005 Our Lord directed Anne to begin recording a series of ten short booklets with messages from Jesus, Mary and the saints for specific groups of souls. They became known as the Heaven Speaks booklets.

Near the end of the summer of 2005, Jesus brought Anne mystically with Him to heaven. Anne spent time over the next two weeks journeying and recording what she describes as “the tip of the tip” of what awaits us in heaven. Following this Jesus directed her to write about the lessons she learned in her personal journey to sanctification. Here, Jesus gave Anne topics and asked her to write about them. The book, Climbing the Mountain, was the result of her heavenly experiences and Our Lord’s instructions.

In September 2005, the first issue of the Direction for Our Times newsletter was released. This newsletter has continued to bring news of the apostolate to lay apostles around the world four times a year. That month Anne received a series of locutions from St. Faustina. These messages can be found in Climbing the Mountain. She told her that Anne’s mission and St. Faustina’s mission were destined to be joined. The next month, October 2005, Anne was invited to go on a brief pilgrimage to the International Divine Mercy Shrine in Krakow, Poland. While there, she met with the Mother Superior of the order to which St. Faustina belonged, the Congregation of the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy. After sharing her experiences with the Mother Superior, the Mother Superior realized that a painted image of Jesus that she had received should actually go to Anne. It was the image of Jesus Christ the Returning King.

That December 2005, Climbing the Mountain was published. And in the beginning of 2006 Anne was taken mystically with Jesus to purgatory. She recorded her experiences. These and other writings became the book The Mist of Mercy published in July 2006.

In the summer of 2006, Jesus spoke to Anne about the Holy Trinity Abbey in Kilnacrott, Ireland. This was an abbey run by an order of Norbertine priests. Jesus told Anne he wanted Direction for Our Times to purchase the abbey. It would become a site of pilgrimage for the apostolate. Anne received visions on what the place would become, and Jesus showed her the great graces that would be given to those who came to pray at the abbey. Direction for Our Times began the long process of raising funds to purchase the abbey and arranging a purchasing agreement with the Norbertine priests living there.

In June 2006, Bishop Leo O’Reilly assigned Fr. Darragh Connolly to be the full time chaplain to Direction for Our Times. He also wrote a public letter expressing his current position on Anne and Direction for Our Times. Then in August and September 2006 Anne received a series of messages from Jesus and Mary, Our Blessed Mother, about the New Time which would form part of the book, Serving in Clarity. Following that, in Advent 2006, Jesus directed Anne to record messages for ten more Heaven Speaks booklets with messages from heaven directed to specific groups of souls. This completed the Heaven Speaks series. Also in December 2006 Anne received mystical visions of the mountain of holiness which would form part of Serving in Clarity.

In Spring 2007 Anne began recording her experiences of mystical visions that would form part of the book Lessons in Love. In August 2007 Direction for Our Times published Anne’s writings called In Defense of Obedience & Reflections on the Priesthood. And then nearly a year later in July 2008, Serving in Clarity was finally published containing messages from Jesus and Mary about the New Time, visions of the mountain of holiness and much more. Then in September 2008, Anne received mystical visions of the church in various circumstances. These were called the Purity of the Church visions and would form part of the book Whispers from the Cross.

In 2008, the office of Direction for Our Times in Ireland was beginning to feel overwhelmed with the amount of work they had for their very small number of staff. Jesus told Anne that He was sending help. During the summer of 2008 Direction for Our Times prepared to open two discernment houses in Ireland, one for young men and another for young women. During this time several young men and women had been led by the Spirit to Direction for Our Times all in different ways but converging at the same time that Direction for Our Times was planning to open these discernment houses. Anne received permission from Bishop Leo O’Reilly to open these houses in Bailieborough, Ireland, and on October 1, 2008, the two discernment houses opened with four young men (3 Americans, 1 Irish) and 3 young women (1 American, 2 Irish). These young people dedicated a year to discerning their vocations while working directly with Direction for Our Times. They helped to put on several retreats for high school students in Ireland and helped with all other aspects of spreading the messages of Jesus Christ the Returning King. Several young people continue to discern their vocation while helping spread the mission by working with Direction for Our Times.

On June 8, 2009, Bishop Leo O’Reilly setup a diocesan commission to examine the writings of Anne, a lay apostle, and to evaluate her reports of receiving these heavenly messages. The commission has concluded its work. As stated in a public letter by Bishop O’Reilly in September of 2011, the outcome of the commission will be made public in due course.

The locutions given to Anne continued. In January 2010 she recorded a series of messages from Jesus which would form part of the book Whispers from the Cross. And then by Christmas of 2010, the next book by Anne, a lay apostle was released, Lessons in Love.

In September 2011, Bishop Leo O’Reilly wrote another public letter reiterating his current position on Anne and Direction for Our Times, reaffirming his permission for the writings to be printed and disseminated. A few months later in December 2011 Whispers from the Cross was published. At the same time two other books were published, Jesus Speaks to Children and Mary, Our Blessed Mother, Speaks to Children. These two books took the messages from Jesus and Mary to children in Volume Six and put them in separate books along with beautiful illustrations of Jesus and Mary with children. 
In August of 2012, Direction for Our Times compiled all the twenty Heaven Speaks booklets into one book called the Heaven Speaks Compilation. This was originally created for prisoners so they could have all the booklets in one book. In August it was released to the public. There was another significant event in the history of the mission that month of August 2012. Finally after years of fundraising, negotiating and patiently waiting, the purchase of Holy Trinity Abbey was completed. Direction for Our Times came into full ownership of the abbey. Direction for Our Times has agreed to allow the Norbertine priests who live there and had owned the place to continue to live there for three years. Afterwards, Direction for Our Times plans to work on much needed renovations and other building projects for the site.

In July of 2012, Jesus notified Anne that the next month she would receive the last monthly message from Jesus to the world. On August 1, 2012 she received the last monthly message which completed this body of work which was later compiled into one book and published in December of 2012, called Monthly Messages .

In January 2013, Bishop Leo O’Reilly granted permission for Volume Five and Volume Eight to be printed and released. Finally, after being recorded more than eight and a half years earlier, Volume Five was printed and released in February 2013. Volume Eight was printed and released in August 2013.

What began with a mother and wife’s simple obedience to Jesus in recording a spiritual journal has turned into a worldwide mission of mercy, a rescue mission for souls spanning the globe. Through these messages from heaven people have received beautiful and powerful graces that have drawn them deep inside the heart of Jesus and His Church. The messages continue to spread and be translated into numerous languages by the efforts of Direction for Our Times and dedicated lay apostles around the world.

he Hague Building in Cavan, Ireland, location of Direction for Our Times Ireland office

History of the Mission

 “I am raising up a tidal wave of Christians to wash over the shore of badness that has taken control of this world, so lovingly created by My Father. This process will cleanse your world, making it safe once again for God’s children. I am going to bring you knowledge, wisdom and love. I am going to introduce you to the divine to make your hearts burn like furnaces of divine love. You will be given the opportunity to work with Me.” (Jesus, Volume Two, p.1.)

Jesus said that we live in an age of disobedience, which means that many souls are living in rebellion to God’s will. He said that we are moving out of this time, toward an age of obedience, when most souls will live in unity with God’s will. The time we are in now is a transition period. A great renewal has begun, a rescue mission for souls. Jesus states that the Second Coming is a process, which will culminate in an event, grand and majestic. We are now in the beginning of the process. We do not know how long this period will last. We do not need to know. Jesus is returning as King. In this initial phase of the process, He returns through each one of us. He is calling souls back to Himself, to serve as beloved apostles. He then floods each returned soul with light, a light which then overflows from the soul into the world. It is in this way that Jesus is restoring light to a world which has grown dark.

Yes, a great renewal has begun. Rejoice, children of God. Do not allow anyone to persuade you that we live in total darkness. There is darkness, yes, but this is not to be feared because it is quickly being dispelled. And while there may be darkness in the world, there is light and calm in the soul of each apostle. Rest in that light and calm when others attempt to draw you to pessimism, cynicism, or fear.

The shift toward obedience will require changes in our souls and in the way we live. Expect these changes. Rejoice in these changes. Jesus does not will fear for His apostles. Fear does not come from Him. Fear, while natural at times, can be a by-product of collaboration with the enemy. Our souls are destined for heaven and it is for this reason that Jesus has given us a glorious glimpse of our home there. Serve in joy and confidence as there is nothing to fear but a decision against God.

In this time, a powerful army of souls rises up in answer to the call of our Returning King. We agree to live in union with God’s will, embarking on our personal path to holiness. Some of us have been apostles for many years and we have served ably in the world. Nothing has changed. We labor on.

Some of us are new arrivals in the heavenly army. Our commitment gives great joy to Jesus, Mary, and the saints. As each person returns, a great cry of triumph erupts in heaven and our brothers and sisters there give praise to God. We grow daily in strength and number. In order to organize and guide us, Jesus has called for the formation of a group He calls the Lay Apostolate of Jesus Christ the Returning King. We serve where Christ has placed us, some in obscurity, and others in the eyes of the world. We accept our crosses and carry them with the certainty that Jesus draws great graces from our cooperation and uses these graces for the conversion of sinners and the good of the Kingdom.

Indeed, the renewal is being fueled by the small daily sacrifice and service of each lay apostle.

Consider a mountain. On that mountain is a path which has been marked out carefully for each of us by Jesus. Jesus is at the top. The world is at the bottom. If we get on that path and begin to climb, we will reach Jesus. We climb the mountain through our daily “yes” to Jesus. People say that they do not know the will of God, but God will not hide His will. We must spend time in silence and ask Jesus and He will tell us where our path lies on this mountain of holiness.

Most of us need look no further than to our vocations. Our path is usually marked out with the daily duties of these vocations and it is always best to begin at that point. In this time of transition, Jesus needs souls to find their path and start climbing. The higher we climb, the more grace and light Jesus flows through us into this world and the greater the number of souls saved. We praise God for the way He allows us to participate in this renewal.

Some speak of darkness and sin and the disobedience of many of our brothers and sisters. This darkness exists and we cannot ignore it. To do so would be to rest in denial. However, when souls talk more about these things than about the glory of Jesus Christ, it is clear that they are facing the wrong way on the mountain. Face up, dear friends! Face Christ! Face heaven! If you do, you will be filled with heaven’s joy and confidence. If you face down toward the world you will become afraid. Also, when a soul faces the darkness he risks becoming mesmerized by that darkness and drawn down into it. This is very serious. Some souls are so busy studying the darkness that they ignore the light. Counsel souls to face Christ always and they will talk about joy and trust and heaven.

An important point to remember is that Jesus is far bigger than the Empire State Building, in terms of His power, His love, and His glory. The enemy is comparatively the size of an ant, a very small ant. The devil is like a little fire ant, it is true, in that he stings, but ultimately he cannot topple the Empire State Building. Some souls, even some holy souls, are crowding around the little fire ant, marvelling at his miniscule power. They have forgotten that they do so in the massive shadow of the EMPIRE STATE BUILDING. We must all stop admiring the paltry power of the enemy of God and begin our climb with renewed determination, facing Jesus Christ and marvelling aloud at His power and majesty.

Contemplating the process of climbing our personal mountain of holiness should fill us with delight because once we reach the foot of the mountain and begin the ascent we are choosing the company of Jesus and all that surrounds Him. There is no better place for us. Remember that no apostle climbs alone. We are together in the Spirit which unites us and each prayer sends assistance to others on the mountain. All eyes on Christ, dear friends. With Him, we cannot fail.



Nihil Obstat: Very Rev. John Canon Murphy, PP, VF
Imprimatur: +Most Rev. Leo O’Reilly
Bishop of Kilmore, Ireland.
The Nihil Obstat and Imprimatur are an official declaration that a book or pamphlet are free of doctrinal or moral error and that ecclesiastical permission for its publication has been granted.
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Catholic Catechism 

Part Three:  Life in Christ 

Section Two:  The Ten Commandments

Chapter Two:  Seventh Commandment 

 Article 7:6 Love for the Poor



Jesus said to his disciples: "Love one another as I have loved you."1 Jn 13:34
2196 In response to the question about the first of the commandments, Jesus says: "The first is, 'Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God, the Lord is one; and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' the second is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these."2 Mk 12:29-31; cf. Deut 6:4-5; Lev 19:18; Mt 22:34-40; Lk 10:25-28
The apostle St. Paul reminds us of this: "He who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. the commandments, 'You shall not commit adultery, You shall not kill, You shall not steal, You shall not covet,' and any other commandment, are summed up in this sentence, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' Love does no wrong to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulfilling of the law."3 Rom 13:8-10

Article 7

You shall not steal.185

2401 The seventh commandment forbids unjustly taking or keeping the goods of one's neighbor and wronging him in any way with respect to his goods. It commands justice and charity in the care of earthly goods and the fruits of men's labor. For the sake of the common good, it requires respect for the universal destination of goods and respect for the right to private property. Christian life strives to order this world's goods to God and to fraternal charity

VI. Love For the Poor
2443 God blesses those who come to the aid of the poor and rebukes those who turn away from them: "Give to him who begs from you, do not refuse him who would borrow from you"; "you received without pay, give without pay."231 It is by what they have done for the poor that Jesus Christ will recognize his chosen ones.232 When "the poor have the good news preached to them," it is the sign of Christ's presence.233

2444 "The Church's love for the poor . . . is a part of her constant tradition." This love is inspired by the Gospel of the Beatitudes, of the poverty of Jesus, and of his concern for the poor.234 Love for the poor is even one of the motives for the duty of working so as to "be able to give to those in need."235 It extends not only to material poverty but also to the many forms of cultural and religious poverty.236

2445 Love for the poor is incompatible with immoderate love of riches or their selfish use:
Come now, you rich, weep and howl for the miseries that are coming upon you. Your riches have rotted and your garments are moth-eaten. Your gold and silver have rusted, and their rust will be evidence against you and will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up treasure for the last days. Behold, the wages of the laborers who mowed your fields, which you kept back by fraud, cry out; and the cries of the harvesters have reached the ears of the Lord of hosts. You have lived on the earth in luxury and in pleasure; you have fattened your hearts in a day of slaughter. You have condemned, you have killed the righteous man; he does not resist you.237

2446 St. John Chrysostom vigorously recalls this: "Not to enable the poor to share in our goods is to steal from them and deprive them of life. the goods we possess are not ours, but theirs."238 "The demands of justice must be satisfied first of all; that which is already due in justice is not to be offered as a gift of charity":239
When we attend to the needs of those in want, we give them what is theirs, not ours. More than performing works of mercy, we are paying a debt of justice.240

2447 The works of mercy are charitable actions by which we come to the aid of our neighbor in his spiritual and bodily necessities.241 Instructing, advising, consoling, comforting are spiritual works of mercy, as are forgiving and bearing wrongs patiently. the corporal works of mercy consist especially in feeding the hungry, sheltering the homeless, clothing the naked, visiting the sick and imprisoned, and burying the dead.242 Among all these, giving alms to the poor is one of the chief witnesses to fraternal charity: it is also a work of justice pleasing to God:243
He who has two coats, let him share with him who has none and he who has food must do likewise.244 But give for alms those things which are within; and behold, everything is clean for you.245 If a brother or sister is ill-clad and in lack of daily food, and one of you says to them, "Go in peace, be warmed and filled," without giving them the things needed for the body, what does it profit?246

2448 "In its various forms - material deprivation, unjust oppression, physical and psychological illness and death - human misery is the obvious sign of the inherited condition of frailty and need for salvation in which man finds himself as a consequence of original sin. This misery elicited the compassion of Christ the Savior, who willingly took it upon himself and identified himself with the least of his brethren. Hence, those who are oppressed by poverty are the object of a preferential love on the part of the Church which, since her origin and in spite of the failings of many of her members, has not ceased to work for their relief, defense, and liberation through numerous works of charity which remain indispensable always and everywhere."247

2449 Beginning with the Old Testament, all kinds of juridical measures (the jubilee year of forgiveness of debts, prohibition of loans at interest and the keeping of collateral, the obligation to tithe, the daily payment of the day-laborer, the right to glean vines and fields) answer the exhortation of Deuteronomy: "For the poor will never cease out of the land; therefore I command you, 'You shall open wide your hand to your brother, to the needy and to the poor in the land.'"248 Jesus makes these words his own: "The poor you always have with you, but you do not always have me."249 In so doing he does not soften the vehemence of former oracles against "buying the poor for silver and the needy for a pair of sandals . . .," but invites us to recognize his own presence in the poor who are his brethren:250

When her mother reproached her for caring for the poor and the sick at home, St. Rose of Lima said to her: "When we serve the poor and the sick, we serve Jesus. We must not fail to help our neighbors, because in them we serve Jesus.251

2450 "You shall not steal" ( Ex 20:15; Deut 5:19). "Neither thieves, nor the greedy, nor robbers will inherit the kingdom of God" ( 1 Cor 6:10).
2451 The seventh commandment enjoins the practice of justice and charity in the administration of earthly goods and the fruits of men's labor.
2452 The goods of creation are destined for the entire human race. the right to private property does not abolish the universal destination of goods.
2453 The seventh commandment forbids theft. Theft is the usurpation of another's goods against the reasonable will of the owner.
2454 Every manner of taking and using another's property unjustly is contrary to the seventh commandment. the injustice committed requires reparation. Commutative justice requires the restitution of stolen goods.
2455 The moral law forbids acts which, for commercial or totalitarian purposes, lead to the enslavement of human beings, or to their being bought, sold or exchanged like merchandise.
2456 The dominion granted by the Creator over the mineral, vegetable, and animal resources of the universe cannot be separated from respect for moral obligations, including those toward generations to come.
2457 Animals are entrusted to man's stewardship; he must show them kindness. They may be used to serve the just satisfaction of man's needs.
2458 The Church makes a judgment about economic and social matters when the fundamental rights of the person or the salvation of souls requires *. She is concerned with the temporal common good of men because they are ordered to the sovereign Good, their ultimate end.
2459 Man is himself the author, center, and goal of all economic and social life. the decisive point of the social question is that goods created by God for everyone should in fact reach everyone in accordance with justice and with the help of charity.
2460 The primordial value of labor stems from man himself, its author and beneficiary. By means of his labor man participates in the work of creation. Work united to Christ can be redemptive.
2461 True development concerns the whole man. It is concerned with increasing each person's ability to respond to his vocation and hence to God's call (cf CA 29).
2462 Giving alms to the poor is a witness to fraternal charity: it is also a work of justice pleasing to God.
2463 How can we not recognize Lazarus, the hungry beggar in the parable (cf Lk 17:19-31), in the multitude of human beings without bread, a roof or a place to stay? How can we fail to hear Jesus: "As you did it not to one of the least of these, you did it not to me" ( Mt 25:45)?

231 Mt 5:42; 10:8.

232 Cf. Mt 25:31-36.

233 Mt 11:5; cf. Lk 4:18.

234 CA 57; cf. Lk 6:20-22, Mt 8:20; Mk 12:41-44.

235 Eph 4:28.

236 Cf. CA 57.

237 Jas 5:1-6.

238 St. John Chrysostom, Hom. in Lazaro 2, 5: PG 48, 992.

239 AA 8 # 5.

240 St. Gregory the Great, Regula Pastoralis. 3, 21: PL 77, 87.

241 Cf. Isa 58:6-7; Heb 13:3.

242 Cf. Mt 25:31-46.

243 Cf. Tob 4:5-11; Sir 17:22; Mt 6:2-4.

244 Lk 3:11.

245 Lk 11:41.

246 Jas 2:15-16; cf. 1 Jn 3:17.

247 CDF, instruction, Libertatis conscientia, 68.

248 Deut 15:11.

249 Jn 12:8.

250 Am 8:6; cf. Mt 25:40.

251 P. Hansen, Vita mirabilis (Louvain, 1668)