Thursday, August 23, 2012

Wednesday, August 22, 2012 - Litany Lane Blog: Astray, Ezekiel 34:1-11, Psalm 23, Matthew 20:1-16, St Andrew of Scotland, Feast Day of Coronation of Mary Queen of Heaven

Wednesday, August 22, 2012 - Litany Lane Blog:
Astray, Ezekiel 34:1-11, Psalm 23, Matthew 20:1-16, St Andrew of Tuscany, Feast Day of Coronation of Mary Queen of Heaven

Good Day Bloggers! 
Wishing everyone a Blessed Week! 

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Something Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7...

We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift knowledge and free will as well, make the most of it. Life on earth is a stepping to our eternal home in Heaven. Its your choice whether to rise towards eternal light or lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to Heaven is our Soul, our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


Today's Word:  astray   a·stray  [uh-strey]

Origin:  1250–1300; Middle English astraye  < Anglo-French *astraié, Old French estraié,  past participle of estraier; see stray

adverb, adjective
1. out the right way; off the correct or known road, path, or route: Despite specific instructions, they went astray and got lost.
2. away from that which is right; into error, confusion, or undesirable action or thought: They were led astray by their lust for money.


Today's Old Testament Reading -  Ezekiel 34:1-11

1 The word of Yahweh was addressed to me as follows,
2 'Son of man, prophesy against the shepherds of Israel; prophesy and say to them, "Shepherds, the Lord Yahweh says this: Disaster is in store for the shepherds of Israel who feed themselves! Are not shepherds meant to feed a flock?
3 Yet you have fed on milk, you have dressed yourselves in wool, you have sacrificed the fattest sheep, but failed to feed the flock.
4 You have failed to make weak sheep strong, or to care for the sick ones, or bandage the injured ones. You have failed to bring back strays or look for the lost. On the contrary, you have ruled them cruelly and harshly.
5 For lack of a shepherd they have been scattered, to become the prey of all the wild animals; they have been scattered.
6 My flock is astray on every mountain and on every high hill; my flock has been scattered all over the world; no one bothers about them and no one looks for them.
7 "Very well, shepherds, hear the word of Yahweh:
8 As I live, I swear it -- declares the Lord Yahweh -- since my flock has been pillaged and for lack of a shepherd is now the prey of every wild animal, since my shepherds have ceased to bother about my flock, since my shepherds feed themselves rather than my flock,
9 very well, shepherds, hear the word of Yahweh:
10 The Lord Yahweh says this: Look, I am against the shepherds. I shall take my flock out of their charge and henceforth not allow them to feed my flock. And the shepherds will stop feeding themselves, because I shall rescue my sheep from their mouths to stop them from being food for them.
11 "For the Lord Yahweh says this: Look, I myself shall take care of my flock and look after it


Today's Gospel Reading - Matthew 20:1-16

Jesus said to his disciples: 'Now the kingdom of Heaven is like a landowner going out at daybreak to hire workers for his vineyard. He made an agreement with the workers for one denarius a day and sent them to his vineyard. Going out at about the third hour he saw others standing idle in the market place and said to them, "You go to my vineyard too and I will give you a fair wage." So they went. At about the sixth hour and again at about the ninth hour, he went out and did the same. Then at about the eleventh hour he went out and found more men standing around, and he said to them, "Why have you been standing here idle all day?" "Because no one has hired us," they answered. He said to them, "You go into my vineyard too." In the evening, the owner of the vineyard said to his bailiff, "Call the workers and pay them their wages, starting with the last arrivals and ending with the first." So those who were hired at about the eleventh hour came forward and received one denarius each. When the first came, they expected to get more, but they too received one denarius each. They took it, but grumbled at the landowner saying, "The men who came last have done only one hour, and you have treated them the same as us, though we have done a heavy day's work in all the heat." He answered one of them and said, "My friend, I am not being unjust to you; did we not agree on one denarius? Take your earnings and go. I choose to pay the last comer as much as I pay you. Have I no right to do what I like with my own? Why should you be envious because I am generous?"
Thus the last will be first, and the first, last.'

• Today’s Gospel presents a parable which is found only in Matthew’s Gospel. It is not in the other Gospels. Like in all parables, Jesus tells a story about daily elements, daily things of the life of the people. He presents a picture of the social situation of his time, in which the auditors recognize themselves. But, at the same time, in the story of this parable, there are things which never take place in the reality of the life of the people. And this, because speaking about the master, Jesus thinks about God, about his Father. And this is why in the story of the parable; the master does things which are surprising which never take place in the daily life of the auditors. But, in this strange attitude of the master, it is necessary to find the key to understand the message of the parable.

• Matthew 20, 1-7: The five times that the landowner goes out to look for labourers. “The Kingdom of Heaven is like a landowner going out at daybreak to hire workers for his vineyard. He made an agreement with the workers for one denarius a day and sent them to his vineyard”. This is how the story begins and it speaks for itself and does not need too many comments. In what follows, the landowner goes out four times to call other workers to go and work in his vineyard. Jesus refers to the terrible lack of work at that time. Now some details of the story: (a) the landowner himself goes out personally five times to contract workers. (b) When he contracts the workers, he fixes the salary only for the first group: one denarius a day. To those of nine o’clock in the morning he says: I will give you what is just, fair. With the others, he does not fix anything. He contracted them only to work in the vineyard. (c) At the end of the day, when it was the time to pay the workers, the landowners orders the administrator to carry out this service.

• Matthew 20, 8-10: The strange way of fixing the accounts at the end of the day. When it was evening, the landowner of the vineyard told his administrator: Call the workers and pay them, beginning from the last ones to the first ones. Here, at the time of drawing the accounts, something strange takes place, which does not happen in normal life. It seems that things are inverted. The administrator begins to pay those who were contracted just an hour before. The salary is the same for all: one denarius as it was agreed with the first ones who were contracted at the beginning of the day. When the first came, they expected to get more but they too received one denarius each. Why does the landowner act like that? Would you do the same? It is precisely in this surprising gesture of the landowner that the key of understanding this parable is hidden.

• Matthew 20, 11-12: The normal reaction of the workers before the strange attitude of the landowner. The last ones also receive their salary as those who were contracted first. The story says that these began to grumble against the landowner and said: “The men who came last have done only one hour and you have treated them the same as us, though we have done a heavy day’s work in all the heat”. This is the normal reaction of a good sense. I think that all of us would have had the same reaction and would have said the same thing to the landowner. Would we have not?

• Matthew 20, 13-16: The surprising explanation of the landowner who gives the key of the parable. The response of the landowner is the following: “My friend, I am not being unjust to you. Did we not agree on one denarius? Take your earnings and go. I choose to pay the last comer as much as I pay you; have I no right to do what I like with my own? Why should you be envious because I am generous?” These words give the key which explains the attitude of the landowner and indicates the message which Jesus wants to communicate to us: (a) The landowner was not unjust, because he acts according to what he had agreed with the first group of workers: one denarius a day. (b) It is the sovereign decision of the landowner to give to the last ones the same amount that he had agreed upon with those of the first hour. These do not have the right to complain and claim anything. (c) Acting with justice, the landowner has the right to do the good that he wants with the things that belong to him. The worker, on his part has this same right. (d) The last question touches on the central point: Why should you be envious because I am generous? God is different and his thoughts are not our thoughts (Is 55, 8-9).

• The background of the parable is the circumstance of the time, for Jesus as well as for Matthew. The workers of the first hour are the Jewish People, called by God to work in his vineyard. They bear the weight of the day, from Abraham to Moses, for over one thousand years. Now at the eleventh hour, Jesus calls the pagans, the gentiles to work in his vineyard and they succeed in having the preference in the heart of God. “Thus the first ones will be last and the last will be first”.

Personal questions
• Those of the eleventh hour arrive, they have advantages and receive priority in regard to entrance into the Kingdom of God. When you wait in line for two hours, and a person arrives, and without saying anything she places herself before you. Would you accept this? Can these two situations be compared?
• God’s action surpasses our calculations and our human way of acting. He surprises us and some times is uncomfortable. Has this happened to you in your life? What lessons have you drawn from this?

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  St Andrew of Tuscany

Feast Day: August 22
Died: 877
Patron Saint of : Tuscany, Fiesole

St. Andrew the Scot was the brother of St. Brigid the younger, been born in Ireland near the beginning of the ninth century to a noble family. Both Andrew and his sister studied under St. Donatus. Andrew even accompanied Donatus on his pilgrimage to Italy and there Andrew earned his titles of Andrew of Tuscany and Andrew of Fiesole. When Donatus and Andrew arrived at Fiesole the people were assembled to elect a new bishop. A heavenly voice indicated Donatus as most worthy of the honour. After being consecrated to that office, he made Andrew his archdeacon. There is a miracle reported of his healing the daughter of a nobleman while he was in Fiesole. The girl had been paralyzed and the doctors were unable to help her so their father asked Andrew to come and pray for her. Kneeling by her couch he told her to stand for Jesus had healed her. Many other miracles were performed by him over the course of his deaconship in Fiesole: casting out demons, healing the blind, and the sick. During the forty-seven years of his episcopate, Andrew served Donatus faithfully, and was encouraged to restore the church of San Martino di Mensola and to found a monastery there. Andrew is commended for his austerity of life and boundless charity to the poor. he died shortly after his master, St. Donatus. His sister was allegedly conducted from Ireland by an angel to assist at his deathbed. His body is buried at St Martins, the church he restored. His remains were still preserved when his body was later dug up, his relics still remain in that church. St. Andrew's feast day is on the 22 of August.


  •   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.

Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane


Today's Snippet I :  Feast Day of The Coronation of Mary

Coronation of Mary,  Queen of Heaven
The Coronation of the Virgin or Coronation of Mary is a subject in Christian art, especially popular in Italy in the 13th to 15th centuries, but continuing in popularity until the 18th century and beyond. Christ, sometimes accompanied by God the Father and the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove, places a crown on the head of Mary as Queen of Heaven. In early versions the setting is a Heaven imagined as an earthly court, staffed by saints and angels; in later versions Heaven is more often seen as in the sky, with the figures seated on clouds. The subject is also notable as one where the whole Christian Trinity are often shown together, sometimes in unusual ways. Although crowned Virgins may be seen in Eastern Orthodox icons, the coronation by the deity is not. Mary is sometimes shown, in both Eastern and Western Christian art, being crowned by one or two angels, but this is considered a different subject.

The subject became common as part of a general increase in devotion to Mary in the Early Gothic period, and is one of the commonest subjects in surviving 14th century Italian panel paintings, mostly made to go on a side-altar in a church. The great majority of Catholic churches had (and have) a side-altar or "Lady chapel" dedicated to Mary. The subject is still often enacted in rituals or popular pageants called May crownings, although the crowning is performed by human figures.

The belief in Mary as Queen of Heaven obtained the papal sanction of Pope Pius XII in his encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam (English: Queenship of Mary in Heaven) of October 11, 1954. It is also the fifth Glorious Mystery of the Rosary. The Roman Catholic Church celebrates the feast every August 22nd, where it replaced the former octave of the Assumption of Mary in 1969, a move made by Pope Paul VI. The feast was formerly celebrated on May 31st, at the end of the Marian month, where the present general calendar now commemorates the Feast of the Visitation.


The scene is the final episode in the Life of the Virgin, and follows her Assumption - not yet dogma in the Middle Ages - or Dormition. The scriptural base is found in the Song of Songs (4.8), Psalms (44.11-12) and Revelation (12.1-7). A sermon wrongly believed to be by Saint Jerome elaborated on these and was used by standard medieval works such as the Golden Legend and other writers. The title "Queen of Heaven", or Regina Coeli, for Mary goes back to at least the 12th century.

The subject also drew from the idea of the Virgin as the "throne of Solomon", that is the throne on which a Christ-child sits in a Madonna and Child. It was felt that the throne itself must be royal. In general the art of this period, often paid for by royalty and the nobility, increasingly regarded the heavenly court as a mirror of earthly ones.


In earlier versions, Mary and Christ often sit side by side on a wide throne, and typically are only accompanied by angels in smaller altarpieces, although these were often in polyptych form, and had saints on side-panels, now often separated. Later God the Father often sits beside Christ, with the Holy Spirit hovering between them, and Mary kneeling in front of them. Christ and God the Father are normally differentiated by age, and to some extent by costume, God the Father often wearing a beehive-shaped crown, reminiscent of a Papal tiara. By the 15th century some more individual interpretations are found. From the High Renaissance onwards the subject is often combined with an Assumption, by having a group of the Apostles on the ground below the heavenly scene. As the central panel of altarpieces became larger, and finally the only panel used, with predella and side-panels ceasing to be used, the Coronation was one of the subjects suited to a very tall composition, especially if it had saints or apostles on the ground below.

Crown of Mary

The "crown" of Mary has been mentioned since the 6th century, as "corona virginum", (Crown of Virgins) The crown has several meanings in secular depictions. The ancient laurel crown in the Olympic Games signified victory, and a crown in gold and precious stones indicate power and wealth. In Christian iconography, the crown develops religious meanings. In an early mosaic in Ravenna, Italy, virgins present a crown to the child and Mary as a gesture of humility. The Three kings present their crowns to the newly born Jesus as a symbol of secular power submitting to Christ. Marian crowns often include elements of victory and glory, especially during the Baroque period.

A crowned Mary is usually seen in Jesse Trees, which stress her earthly royal descent from the House of David, something accorded considerable importance in the Middle Ages. In Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome, she is shown as the mother and bride of Christ, who participates in his kingdom. The Latin text there, adapted from the Song of Songs, reads: Tota pulchra es, amica mea, veni conoravi.

Book 8, Chapter 8 The Mystical City of God, 
The Divine History and Life of The Virgin Mother of God


We call that the throne of the Divinity, from which God manifests Himself to the saints as the principal cause of their glory and as the infinite, eternal God, independent of all things and on whose will all creatures depend, from which He manifests Himself as the Lord, as the King, as the Judge and Master of all that is in existence. This dignity Christ the Redeemer possesses, in as far as He is God, essentially, and as far as He is man, through the hypostatic union, by which He communicates his Godhead to the humanity. Hence in heaven He is the King, the Lord and supreme Judge; and the saints, though their glory exceeds all human calculation, are as servants and inferiors of this inaccessible Majesty. In this the most holy Mary participates in a degree next inferior and in a manner otherwise ineffable and proportionate to a mere creature so closely related to the Godman; and therefore She assists forever at the right hand of her Son as Queen (Ps. 44, 10), Lady and Mistress of all creation, her dominion extending as far as that of her divine Son, although in a different manner.

After placing the most blessed Mary on this exalted and supereminent throne, the Lord declared to the courtiers of heaven all the privileges She should enjoy in virtue of this participation in his majesty. The Person of the eternal Father, as the first principle of all things, speaking to the angels and saints, said to them: "Our Daughter Mary was chosen according to our pleasure from amongst all creatures, the first one to delight Us, and who never fell from the title and position of a Daughter, such as We had given Her in our divine mind; She has a claim on our dominion, which We shall recognize by crowning Her as the legitimate and peerless Lady and Sovereign." The incarnate Word said: "To my true and natural Mother belong all the creatures which were created and redeemed by Me; and of all things over which I am King, She too shall be the legitimate and supreme Queen." The Holy Ghost said: "Since She is called my beloved and chosen Spouse, She deserves to be crowned as Queen for all eternity."

Having thus spoken the three divine Persons placed upon the head of the most blessed Mary a crown of such new splendor and value, that the like has been seen neither before nor after by any mere creature. At the same time a voice sounded from the throne saying: "My Beloved, chosen among the creatures, our kingdom is Thine; Thou shalt be the Lady and the Sovereign of the seraphim, of all the ministering spirits, the angels and of the entire universe of creatures. Attend, proceed and govern prosperously over them, for in our supreme consistory We give Thee power, majesty and sovereignty. Being filled with grace beyond all the rest, Thou hast humiliated Thyself in thy own estimation to the lowest place; receive now the supreme dignity deserved by Thee and, as a participation in our Divinity, the dominion over all the creatures of our Omnipotence. From thy royal throne to the centre of the earth Thou shalt reign; and by the power We now give Thee Thou shalt subject hell with all its demons and inhabitants. Let all of them fear Thee as the supreme Empress and Mistress of those caverns and dwelling-places of our enemies. In thy hands and at thy pleasure We place the influences and forces of the heavens, the moisture of the clouds, the growths of the earth; and of all of them do Thou distribute according to thy will, and our own will shall be at thy disposal for the execution of thy wishes. Thou shalt be the Empress and Mistress of the militant Church, its Protectress, its Advocate, its Mother and Teacher. Thou shalt be the special Patroness of the Catholic countries; and whenever they, or the faithful, or any of the children of Adam call upon Thee from their heart, serve or oblige Thee, Thou shalt relieve and help them in their labors and necessities. Thou shalt be the Friend, the Defender and the Chieftainess of all the just and of our friends; all of them Thou shalt comfort, console and fill with blessings according to their devotion to Thee. In view of all this We make Thee the Depositary of our riches, the Treasurer of our goods; we place into thy hands the helps and blessings of our grace for distribution; nothing do We wish to be given to the world, which does not pass through thy hands; and nothing do We deny, which Thou wishest to concede to men. Grace shall be diffused in thy lips for obtaining all that Thou wishest and ordainest in heaven and on earth, and everywhere shall angels and men obey Thee; because whatever is ours shall be thine, just as Thou hast always been ours; and Thou shalt reign with Us forever."

In the execution of this decree and privilege conceded to the Mistress of the world, the Almighty commanded all the courtiers of heaven, angels and men, to show Her obedience and recognize Her as their Queen and Lady. There was another mystery concealed in this wonder, namely, it was a recompense for the worship and veneration, which, as is clear from this history, the most blessed Mary, notwithstanding that She was the Mother of God, full of grace and holiness above the angels and saints, had bestowed upon the saints during her mortal pilgrimage. Although during the time when they were comprehensors and She yet a pilgrim, it was for her greater merit, that She should humble Herself beneath them all according to the ordainment of the Lord; yet now, when She was in possession of the kingdom, it was just, that She should be venerated, worshipped and extolled by them as her inferiors and vassals. This they also did in that most blessed state, in which all things are reduced to their proper proportion and order. Both the angelic spirits and the blessed souls, while rendering their adoration to the Lord with fear and worshipful reverence, rendered a like homage in its proportion to His most blessed Mother; and the saints who were there in their bodies prostrated themselves and gave bodily signs of their worship. All these demonstrations at the coronation of the Empress of heaven redounded wonderfully to her glory, to the new joy and jubilee of the saints and to the pleasure of the most blessed Trinity. Altogether festive was this day, and it produced new accidental glory in all the heavens. Those that partook more especially therein were her most fortunate spouse saint Joseph, saint Joachim and Anne and all the other relatives of the Queen, together with the thousand angels of her guard.

Within the glorious body of the Queen, over her heart, was visible to the saints a small globe or monstrance of singular beauty and splendor, which particularly roused and rouses their admiration and joy. It was there in testimony and reward of her having afforded to the sacramental Word an acceptable resting-place and sanctuary, and of her having received holy Communion so worthily, purely and holily, without any defect or imperfection, and with a devotion, love and reverence attained by none other of the saints. In regard to the other rewards and crowns corresponding to her peerless works and virtues, nothing that can be said could give any idea; and therefore I refer it to the beatific vision, where each one shall perceive them in proportion as his doings and his devotion shall have merited.

WORDS OF THE QUEEN. (The Virgin Mary speaks to Sister Mary of Agreda, Spain.)

"My daughter, if anything could lessen the enjoyment of the highest felicity and glory which I possess, and if, in it, I could be capable of any sorrow, without a doubt I would be grieved to see the holy Church and the rest of the world in its present state of labor, notwithstanding that men know me to be their Mother, Advocate and Protectress in heaven, ready to guide and assist them to eternal life. In this state of affairs, when the Almighty has granted me so many privileges as his Mother and when there are so many sources of help placed in my hands solely for the benefit of mortals and belonging to me as the Mother of clemency, it is a great cause of sorrow to me to see mortals force me to remain idle, and that, for want of calling upon me, so many souls should be lost. But if I cannot experience grief now, I may justly complain of men, that they load themselves with eternal damnation and refuse me the glory of saving their souls.

How much my intercession and the power I have in heaven are worth has never been hidden in the Church, for I have demonstrated my ability to save all by so many thousands of miracles, prodigies and favors operated in behalf of those devoted to me. With those who have called upon me in their needs I have always shown myself liberal, and the Lord has shown himself liberal to them on my account. The Most High still wishes to give liberally of his infinite treasures and resolves to favor those who know how to gain my intercession before God. This is the secure way and the powerful means of advancing the Church, of improving the Catholic reigns, of spreading the faith, of furthering the welfare of families and of states, of bringing the souls to grace and to the friendship of God. ~ Blessed Mother Mary


      Today's Snippet  II :  Psalm 23

      Psalm 23, David
      In the 23rd Psalm (Greek numbering: Psalm 22) in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, the writer (David) describes God as his Shepherd. The text, beloved by Jews and Christians alike, is often alluded to in popular media and has been set to music.

      The shepherd theme

      Psalm 23 portrays God as a shepherd, feeding (verse 1) and leading (verse 3) his flock. The "rod and staff" (verse 4) are also the implements of a shepherd. Some commentators see the shepherd imagery pervading the entire psalm. J. Douglas MacMillan argues that "you prepare a table for me" in verse 5 refers to the "old oriental shepherding practice" of using little raised tables to feed sheep. Similarly, "you anoint my head with oil" may refer to an ancient form of backliner—the oil is poured on wounds, and repels flies. MacMillan also notes that "Goodness and mercy" in verse 6 remind him of two sheepdogs coming behind the flock.

      In Jewish tradition

      The first verse of the psalm as well as a long tradition ascribe authorship to King David, said in the Hebrew Scriptures to have been a field shepherd himself as a youth.  Psalm 23 is traditionally sung by Jews in Hebrew at the third Shabbat meal on Saturday afternoon. It is also sung during the Yizkor service. Sephardic and some Hassidic Jews also sing during Friday afternoon services and as part of the Sabbath night and day meals. It is read at a cemetery funeral service instead of the traditional prayer during Jewish holidays. The standard Hebrew text of the Bible used in Judaism is the Masoretic text standardized between the seventh and tenth centuries CE.

      In Christian tradition

      For Christians the image of God as a shepherd evokes connections not only with David but with Jesus, described as "the Good Shepherd" in the Gospel of John. The phrase about "the valley of the shadow of death" is often taken as an allusion to the eternal life given by Jesus. Orthodox Christians typically include this Psalm in the prayers of preparation for receiving the Eucharist The Reformation inspired widespread efforts in western Europe to make biblical texts available in vernacular languages. One of the most popular early English versions was the Geneva Bible (1557). The most widely recognized version of the psalm in English today is undoubtedly the one drawn from the King James Bible (1611).  The psalm is a popular passage for memorization and is often used in sermons.

      Metrical versions

      An early metrical version of the psalm in English was made in 1565 by Thomas Sternhold. Other metrical versions to emerge from the Reformation include those from The Bay Psalm Book (1640) and a version influenced by Sternholm published in the Scottish Psalter (1650). The latter version is still encountered, with modernized spelling, in many Protestant hymns. Other notable metrical versions include those by George Herbert and Isaac Watts.

      A traditional pairing puts a metrical version of the psalm with the hymn tune Crimond, which is generally attributed to Jessie Seymour Irvine. This version, with its opening words "The Lord's My Shepherd", is probably the best-known amongst English-speaking congregations. Other melodies, such as Brother James' Air or Amazing Grace, are also used. Other tunes sometimes used include Belmont, Evan, Martyrdom, Orlington, and Wiltshire.

      Use in funerals

      In the twentieth century, Psalm 23 became particularly associated with funeral liturgies in the English-speaking world, and films with funeral scenes often depict a graveside recitation of the psalm. Official liturgies of English-speaking churches were slow to adopt this practice, though. The Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England has only psalms 39 and 90 in its order for the burial of the dead, and in the Episcopal Church in the United States, Psalm 23 was not used for funerals until the 1928 revision of the prayer book.

      Musical settings

      Liturgical and classical

      • Johann Sebastian Bach, Cantata No.112 Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt BWV 112 (opening chorus)
      • James Leith Macbeth Bain—hymn tune Brother James' Air
      • Lennox Berkeley Op. 91, No. 1 (1975)
      • Leonard Bernstein—Chichester Psalms (Hebrew, in Part 2, together with Psalm 2)
      • Anton Bruckner—Psalm 22 Der Herr regieret mich WAB 34 (circa 1852)
      • Paul Creston—Psalm XXIII (1945)
      • Herbert Howells—Hymnus Paradisi
      • Jessie Seymour Irvine—hymn tune Crimond
      • Albert Hay Malotte
      • Clément Marot (Latin)
      • Kirke Mechem
      • George Rochberg
      • Miklós Rózsa
      • John Rutter—Requiem
      • Franz Schubert—version by Moses Mendelssohn (German)
      • Randall Thompson
      • Virgil Thomson
      • Ralph Vaughan Williams
      • Charles Villiers Stanford—"The Lord is my Shepherd" (1886)
      • Alexander Zemlinsky Op. 14, (1910) for chorus and orchestra.


      • Garnet Silk—"Splashing Dashing" from the album Give I Strength
      • Jonathan Elias—"Forgiveness" from the album The Prayer Cycle
      • Duke Ellington—album Black, Brown and Beige with Mahalia Jackson, 1958
      • Keith Green—"The Lord is My Shepherd" from the album Songs For The Shepherd
      • Howard Goodall—theme to The Vicar of Dibley, later covered by Katherine Jenkins and The Choirboys
      • Group 1 Crew—"Forgive Me" from the album Group 1 Crew
      • Christopher Wallace (The Notorious B.I.G.)—"You're Nobody (Til Somebody Kills You)" from the album Life After Death
      • Bobby McFerrin—"The 23rd Psalm" from the album Medicine Music
      • Dennis Brown—"Here I Come" from the album Wolves and Leopards
      • E Nomine—"Psalm 23" from the album Das Testament
      • Dave Cousins—"Lay Down" from the album Bursting at the Seams, 1972
      • Pink Floyd—"Sheep" from the album Animals, 1977
      • Peter Tosh—"Jah Guide" from the album Equal Rights, 1977
      • Patti Smith Group—"Privilege (Set Me Free)" from the album Easter, 1978
      • Marillion—"Forgotten Sons" from the album Script for a Jester's Tear (1983)
      • Christian Death - Psalm (Maggot's Lair) from album Path of Sorrows (1993)
      • Coolio feat. L.V.—"Gangsta's Paradise", 1995
      • Colin Mawby—recording with Charlotte Church, 1998
      • Marilyn Manson—"In The Shadow Of The Valley Of Death" from the album Holy Wood, 2000
      • Dan Nichols—"Psalm 23" from the album Be Strong, 2001
      • Lucinda Williams—"Atonement" from the album World Without Tears, 2003
      • Megadeth—"Shadow of Deth" from the album The System Has Failed, 2004
      • OverClocked Remix—"Beneath the Surface (Aquatic Ambiance)" from Kong in Concert, 2004
      • Jon Foreman—"The House of God Forever" from the album Summer (Jon Foreman EP) and compilation Limbs and Branches, 2008
      • The Offspring—"Hammerhead" from the album Rise and Fall, Rage and Grace, 2008
      • Tupac Shakur-"So Many Tears" from the album Me Against The World, 1995
      • Cissy Houston, (Whitney Houston's mother)—"The Lord is My Shepherd" from the "The Preacher's Wife: Original Soundtrack Album", 1996
      • Kanye West-"Jesus Walks" from the album The College Dropout
      • India.Arie, MC Lyte-"Psalms 23" from the album Testimony Vol. 2: Love & Politics
      • Nas & Damian Marley - "Strong Will Continue" from the album 'Distant Relatives, 2010
      • Hollywood Undead - "Hear Me Now" from the album American Tragedy, 2011
      • Hybrid 2808 - "Psalm 23" from the album Hybrid 2808, 2012
      • Letter 7 - "Fear no Evil" from the album "Salt of the Earth" 2007

      Use in media

      • At the end of the 1973 film The Wicker Man, Howie shouts out Psalm 23, as he is being engulfed in flames.
      • In the 1980 David Lynch film The Elephant Man, Merrick recites Psalm 23, revealing his intelligence.
      • In the 1983 film "Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence", the prisoners sing Psalm 23 as Jack Celliers (played by David Bowie) is buried in sand.
      • Craig Bartlett's 1988 clay animation short Arnold Escapes from Church shows how a young boy's imagination might interpret the words of Psalm 23.
      • It set to music as the theme tune of The Vicar of Dibley (1994).
      • In the 1997 film Titanic it is recited while the ship is sinking.
      • In the 1999 film Deep Blue Sea, the character Preacher (played by LL Cool J) recites a slightly modified version of this Psalm while attempting a rather risky plan.
      • In the 2004 film Van Helsing, the creature of Dr. Frankenstein recites parts of the psalm when brought to the vampires' Masquerade Ball.
      • In the 2005 film Jarhead, Jamie Foxx's character recites the verse, but with his twist.
      • In episode 2.12 "Fire + Water" (2005-'06) of the ABC series Lost, Mr. Eko recites the King James version of the psalm while baptizing Claire and her son Aaron.
      • In the 2010 film The Book of Eli, Denzel Washington's character recites the Psalm.
      • In the 2010 film True Grit, Mattie, the narrator, recites part of the psalm.
      • In episode 7 "Revelations" of the 2011 series "Hell on Wheels" Cullen Bohannon and Elam Ferguson recite the psalm as a prayer over the dead and as they ride off into the sunset.
      • In the graphic adventure game Gold Rush!, originally released by Sierra Entertainment in 1988, the main character Jerrod Wilson is given a clue about his brother's whereabouts in the bible verse Pslam 23.
      • In the film War Horse, a British soldier recites the beginning of the Pslam whilst crossing no-man's land.


      1. J. Douglas MacMillan, The Lord of Shepherd. (Bryntirion: Evangelical Press of Wales, 1988), 78.
      2. MacMillan, 82
      3. Smith Creek Music: 'Psalms Compared: Psalm 23', retrieved 2007-08-05. (no public access!)
      4. Scottish Psalter and Paraphrases at CCEL
      5.  "Crimond". Center for Church Music - Songs & Hymns. Retrieved 2008-10-07.
      6. Cyberhymnal
      7. BBC h2g2 Psalm 23
      8.  Together with Psalm 43 and Psalm 150 in an a capella setting for mixed chorus written in 1954. Dixon, Joan (1992). George Rochberg: A Bio-Bibliographic Guide to His Life and Works. Hillsdale, New York: Pendragon Press, p. 175.
      9. The Miklós Rózsa Society Website
      10.  Blotner, Linda Solow (1983). The Boston Composers Project: A Bibliography of Contemporary Music. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, p. 547.
      11.  "Settings of: Psalm 23". ChoralNet. Retrieved 2012-02-25.
      12. Novello & Co Ltd. #NOV290116.