Monday, February 25, 2013

Monday, February 25, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog: Redemption, Daniel 9:4-10, Psalms 79:8-13, Luke 6:36-38, St Walpurga, Bavaria, St Walburge's Church,, Catholic Catechism Part One Section 2 The Creeds Chapter 2 Article 7:1 He Will Come Again in Glory

Monday, February 25, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog:

Redemption, Daniel 9:4-10, Psalms 79:8-13, Luke 6:36-38, St Walpurga, Bavaria, St Walburge's Church,, Catholic Catechism Part One Section 2 The Creeds Chapter 2 Article 7:1 He Will Come Again in Glory

Good Day Bloggers!  Wishing everyone a Blessed Week!

Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. Its your choice whether to rise towards eternal light or lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to Purgatory and/or Heaven is our Soul, our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012

Heed the Solemnity of Lent! This Lent instead of "Giving Up" something, why not "Give" by volunteering time to a worthy cause, or extending a simple act of kindness!  

34 “Then the King will say to those on His right, ‘Come, you who are blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. 35 For I was hungry, and you gave Me something to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me something to drink; I was a stranger, and you invited Me in; 36 naked, and you clothed Me; I was sick, and you visited Me; I was in prison, and you came to Me.’ 37 Then the righteous will answer Him, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry, and feed You, or thirsty, and give You something to drink? 38 And when did we see You a stranger, and invite You in, or naked, and clothe You? 39 When did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?’ 40 The King will answer and say to them, ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did it to one of these brothers of Mine, even the least of them, you did it to Me.’(Matthew 25:34-40)


Prayers for Today: Monday in Lent


 Prayer For the Holy Election of Our New Pope

Sadly Pope Benedict XVI has announced his retirement on the Feast Day of our Lady of Lourdes. We must pray together for Pope Benedict XVI retirement and our New Pope, yet to be elected, as well as all of Gods Shepherds.

May the Lord preserve the sanctity of the enclave as they embark on electing our new Holy Father, give him life, and make him blessed upon earth, and deliver him not to the will of his enemies.

O God, the Shepherd and Ruler of all the faithful, in Thy mercy look down upon Thy servant, (Our New Pope), whom Thou will appoint to preside over Thy Church, and grant we beseech Thee that both by word and example he may edify those who are under his charge; so that, with the flock entrusted to him, he may attain life everlasting. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.


February 25, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
“Dear children! Also today I call you to prayer. Sin is pulling you towards worldly things and I have come to lead you towards holiness and the things of God, but you are struggling and spending your energies in the battle with the good and the evil that are in you. Therefore, little children, pray, pray, pray until prayer becomes a joy for you and your life will become a simple walk towards God. Thank you for having responded to my call.”

February 2, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
"Dear children, love is bringing me to you - the love which I desire to teach you also - real love; the love which my Son showed you when He died on the Cross out of love for you; the love which is always ready to forgive and to ask for forgiveness. How great is your love? My motherly heart is sorrowful as it searches for love in your hearts. You are not ready to submit your will to God's will out of love. You cannot help me to have those who have not come to know God's love to come to know it, because you do not have real love. Consecrate your hearts to me and I will lead you. I will teach you to forgive, to love your enemies and to live according to my Son. Do not be afraid for yourselves. In afflictions my Son does not forget those who love. I will be beside you. I will implore the Heavenly Father for the light of eternal truth and love to illuminate you. Pray for your shepherds so that through your fasting and prayer they can lead you in love. Thank you."

January 25, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
"Dear children! Also today I call you to prayer. May your prayer be as strong as a living stone, until with your lives you become witnesses. Witness the beauty of your faith. I am with you and intercede before my Son for each of you. Thank you for having responded to my call."


Today's Word:  redemption   re·demp·tion  [ri-demp-shuhn]

Origin: 1300–50; Middle English redempcioun  (< Middle French redemption ) < Late Latin redēmptiōn-  (stem of redēmptiō ), equivalent to Latin redēmpt ( us ) (past participle of redimere  to redeem) + -iōn- -ion

1. an act of redeeming or atoning for a fault or mistake, or the state of being redeemed.
2. deliverance; rescue.
3. Theology . deliverance from sin; salvation.
4. atonement for guilt.
5. repurchase, as of something sold.
6. paying off, as of a mortgage, bond, or note.
7. recovery by payment, as of something pledged.
8. conversion of paper money into specie.


Today's Old Testament Reading -  Psalms 79:8, 9, 11, 13

8 Do not count against us the guilt of former generations, in your tenderness come quickly to meet us, for we are utterly weakened;
9 help us, God our Saviour, for the glory of your name; Yahweh, wipe away our sins, rescue us for the sake of your name.
11 May the groans of the captive reach you, by your great strength save those who are condemned to death!
13 And we, your people, the flock that you pasture, will thank you for ever, will recite your praises from age to age.


Today's Epistle -  Daniel 9:4-10

4 I pleaded with Yahweh my God and made this confession: 'O my Lord, God great and to be feared, you keep the covenant and show faithful love towards those who love you and who observe your commandments:
5 we have sinned, we have done wrong, we have acted wickedly, we have betrayed your commandments and rulings and turned away from them.
6 We have not listened to your servants the prophets, who spoke in your name to our kings, our chief men, our ancestors and all people of the country.
7 Saving justice, Lord, is yours; we have only the look of shame we wear today, we, the people of Judah, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the whole of Israel, near and far away, in every country to which you have dispersed us because of the treachery we have committed against you.
8 To us, our kings, our chief men and our ancestors, belongs the look of shame, O Yahweh, since we have sinned against you.
9 And it is for the Lord our God to have mercy and to pardon, since we have betrayed him,
10 and have not listened to the voice of Yahweh our God nor followed the laws he has given us through his servants the prophets.


Today's Gospel Reading - Luke 6, 36-38

'Be compassionate just as your Father is compassionate. Do not judge, and you will not be judged; do not condemn, and you will not be condemned; forgive, and you will be forgiven. Give, and there will be gifts for you: a full measure, pressed down, shaken together, and overflowing, will be poured into your lap; because the standard you use will be the standard used for you.'

• These three brief verses of today’s Gospel (Lk 6, 36-38) are the final part of a brief discourse of Jesus (Lk 6, 20-38). In the first part of his discourse, he addresses himself to the disciples (Lk 6, 20) and to the rich (Lk 6, 24) proclaiming four beatitudes for the disciples (Lk6, 20-23), and four curses for the rich (Lk 6, 20-26). In the second part, he addresses himself to all those who are listening (Lk 6, 27), that is, the immense crowd of poor and sick, who had come from all parts (Lk 6, 17-19). The words which he addresses to this people and to all of us are demanding and difficult: to love the enemy (Lk 6,27), not curse them (Lk 6, 28), offer the other cheek to the one who slaps you on one and do not complain if someone takes what is ours (Lk 6, 29). How can this difficult advice be understood? The explanation is given in the three verses of today’s Gospel, from which we draw the centre of the Good News brought by Jesus.

• Luke 6, 36: Be merciful as your Heavenly Father is merciful. The Beatitudes for the disciples (Lk 6, 20-23) and the curses against the rich (Lk 6, 24-26) cannot be interpreted as an occasion for the poor to revenge against the rich. Jesus orders to have the contrary attitude. He says: “Love your enemies!” (Lk 6, 27). The change or the conversion which Jesus wants to bring about in us does not consist in merely turning something to invert the system because in this way nothing would change. He wants to change the system. The Novelty which Jesus wants to construct comes from the new experience that he has of God Father/Mother full of tenderness who accepts all, good and bad, who makes the sun shine on both the good and on the bad and makes the rain fall on both good and bad (Mt 5, 5,45). True love does not depend nor it can depend on what I receive from others. Love must want the good of the other independently of what he does for me. Because this is how God’s love is for us. He is merciful not only toward those who are good, but with all, even with the “ungrateful and the evil” Lk 6, 35). The disciples of Jesus should radiate this merciful love.

• Luke 6, 37-38: Do not judge and you will not be judged. These last words repeat in a clearer way what Jesus had said before: “Treat others as you would like them to treat you” (Lk 6, 31; cf. Mt 7, 12). If you do not want to be judged, do not judge! If you do not want to be condemned, do not condemn” If you want to be forgiven, forgive! If you want to receive a good measure, give this good measure to others! Do not wait for the other one to take the initiative, but you take it and begin now! And you will see that it is like this!.

Personal questions
• Lent is a time of conversion. Which is the conversion which today’s Gospel is asking of me?
• Have you already been merciful as the Heavenly Father is?

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  Saint Walpurga

Feast DayFebruary 25

Patron Saint:  none


Saint Walpurga or Walburga (Old English: Wealdburg; c. 710 – February 25, 777 or 779), also spelled Valderburg or Guibor,[1] was an English missionary to the Frankish Empire. She was canonized on 1 May ca. 870 by Pope Adrian II. The "witches' sabbath" Walpurgis Night occurs on the eve of her day, which coincides with May Day.
Born in Devon, England, Wealdburg/Walpurga had been educated by the nuns of Wimborne Abbey, Dorset, where she spent twenty-six years as a member of the community. She then travelled with her brothers, Saints Willibald and Winibald, to Francia (now Württemberg and Franconia) to assist Saint Boniface, her mother's brother, in evangelizing among the still-pagan Germans. Because of her rigorous training, she was able to write her brother Winibald's vita and an account in Latin of his travels in Palestine. As a result, she is often called the first female author of both England and Germany.[2]

Walpurga became a nun in the double monastery of Heidenheim am Hahnenkamm, which was founded by her brother, Willibald, who appointed her as his successor. Following his death in 751, she became the abbess. Walpurga died on 25 February in either 777 or 779 (the records are unclear) and was buried at Heidenheim; the day carries her name in the Catholic church calendar. In the 870s, Walpurga's remains were transferred to Eichstätt. In Finland, Sweden, and Bavaria, her feast day commemorates the transfer of her relics on 1 May.


Sint-Walburgakerk, built 1641, was the Jesuit church of Bruges.
Walpurga's feast day is on 25 February, but the day of her canonization, 1 May (possibly in AD 870), was also celebrated during the high medieval period, especially in the 11th century under Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne, so that Walpurgis Night is the eve of May Day, celebrated in continental folklore with dancing.

At Eichstätt, her bones were placed in a rocky niche, which allegedly began to exude a miraculously therapeutic oil, which drew pilgrims to her shrine.

The two earliest miracle narratives of Walpurga are the Miracula S. Walburgae Manheimensis by Wolfhard von Herrieden, datable to 895 or 896, and the late tenth-century Vita secunda linked with the name of Aselbod, bishop of Utrecht. In the fourteenth-century, Vita S. Walburgae of Phillipp von Rathsamhaüsen, bishop of Eichstätt (1306–22) the miracle of the tempest-tossed boat is introduced, which Peter Paul Rubens painted in 1610 for the altarpiece for the church of S. Walpurgis, Antwerp.[3]

Statue in Contern church.
The earliest representation of Walpurga, in the early 11th-century Hitda Codex, made in Cologne, depicts her holding stylized stalks of grain. In other depictions the object has been called a palm branch, which is not correct, since Walpurga was not martyred. The grain attribute has been interpreted as an occasion where a Christian saint (Walpurga) came to be represent the older pagan concept of the Grain Mother. Peasant farmers fashioned her replica in a corn dolly at harvest time and told tales to explain Saint Walpurga's presence in the grain sheaf.[4]

Walpurga is the patron saint of those suffering from rabies. She is also the patroness of Eichstätt, Antwerp, Oudenaarde, Veurne, Groningen, Zutphen and other cities in the Low Countries.[5]

The Church of St. Walburge, Preston, a Roman Catholic church in Preston, Lancashire, England, is a tall and beautiful church dedicated to her. The church is famous as having the tallest spire of any parish church in England.

The Benedictine Abbey of St. Walburga is located in remote Virginia Dale, Colorado, near the Wyoming border. The abbey is home to approximately 20 contemplative Catholic nuns and also has a retreat center.
The father of Saint Walpurga, Saints Winibald and Willibald, is Saint Richard the Pilgrim, was the king of Wessex, England. He is buried in the Basilica of San Frediano, Lucca, where he died on pilgrimage in 722. Saint Richard is also known the Richard the Saxon Pilgrim, of Droitwich.


  1. ^ Other spellings: Valborg (the Swedish name for her), Walburge, Valpuri, Auboué, Avangour, Avongourg, Falbourg, Gaubourg, Gualbourg, Valburg, Valpurge, Vaubouer, Vaubourg, Walbourg, Walpurd, Warpurg. She is also known by the seemingly unrelated names Perche and Eucharis.
  2. ^ A point made by Catholic Encyclopedia
  3. ^ the altarpiece is now disassembled. Susanne Heiland, "Two Rubens Paintings Rehabilitated" The Burlington Magazine, 111 No. 796 (July 1969:421-427) p.
  4. ^ Pamela Berger, The Goddess Obscured: Transformation of the Grain Protectress from Goddess to Saint, 1985:61-64, gives several examples and bibliographical notes.
  5. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia gives a fuller list.


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Today's Snippet I:  Bavaria

The Bavarian Alps
The Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern, pronounced [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈbaɪ.ɐn]), is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of 70,548 square kilometres (27,200 sq mi), it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany. Bavaria is Germany's second most populous state (after North Rhine-Westphalia), with 12.5 million inhabitants, more than any of the three sovereign nations on its borders. Bavaria's capital and largest city is Munich, the third largest city in Germany.

One of the oldest states of Europe, it was established as a duchy in the mid first millennium. In the 17th century, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918, and Bavaria has since been a free state (republic). Modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia, Upper Palatinate and Swabia.


Prehistoric Heunischenburg, in the vicinity of Kronach
The Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps, originally inhabited by the Gauls, which had been part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German but, unlike other Germanic groups, probably did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century. These peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Marcomanni, Allemanni, Quadi, Thuringians, Goths, Scirians, Rugians, Heruli. The name "Bavarian" ("Baiuvarii") means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and later of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources c. 520. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early-8th century. Bavaria was, for the most part, unaffected by the Protestant Reformation that happened centuries later.

From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III who was deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555. Their daughter, Theodelinde, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.

After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy (it is unclear what Bavarian religious life consisted of before this time). His son, Theudebert, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was divided among his sons, but reunited under his grandson Hucbert.

At Hucbert's death (735) the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo, from neighbouring Alemannia (modern southwest Germany and northern Switzerland). Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organisation in partnership with St. Boniface (739), and tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo. He was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748.

Middle Ages

Bavaria in the 10th century
Tassilo III (b. 741 - d. after 794) succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria. He initially ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was particularly noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, however, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and finally deposed him in 788. The deposition was not entirely legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback, and the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources and he probably died a monk. As all of his family were also forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty.

Bavarian duchies after partition of 1392
For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy, rarely for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and south east. Among them a mark called "Ostarrichi" which was elevated to a duchy out of own right and given to the Babenberger family. This event marks the birth of Austria. The last, and one of the most important, of these dukes was Henry the Lion of the house of Welf, founder of Munich, de facto the second most powerful man in the empire as the ruler of two duchies. When in 1180, Henry the Lion was deposed as Duke of Saxony and Bavaria by his cousin, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor (aka "Barbarossa" for his red beard), Bavaria was awarded as fief to the Wittelsbach family, counts palatinate of Schyren ("Scheyern" in modern German), which ruled from 1180 to 1918. The Electorate of the Palatinate by Rhine ("Kurpfalz" in German) was also acquired by the House of Wittelsbach in 1214.

The first of several divisions of the duchy of Bavaria occurred in 1255. With the extinction of the Hohenstaufen in 1268 also Swabian territories were acquired by the Wittelsbach dukes. Emperor Louis the Bavarian acquired Brandenburg, Tirol, Holland and Hainaut for his House but released the Upper Palatinate for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329. In 1506 with the Landshut War of Succession the other parts of Bavaria were reunited and Munich became the sole capital.

17th and 18th centuries

In 1623 the Bavarian duke replaced his relative of the Palatinate branch, the Electorate of the Palatinate in the early days of the Thirty Years' War and acquired the powerful prince-electoral dignity in the Holy Roman Empire, determining its Emperor thence forward, as well as special legal status under the empire's laws. The country became one of the Jesuit supported counter-reformation centers. During the early and mid-18th century the ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria as well as occupations by Austria (Spanish succession, election of a Wittelsbach emperor instead of a Habsburger). From 1777 onwards and after the old Bavarian branch of the family had died out with elector Max III Joseph, Bavaria and the Electorate of the Palatinate were governed once again in personal union, now by the Palatinian lines. 

Kingdom of Bavaria

Bavaria in the 19th century and beyond
When Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire, Bavaria became a kingdom in 1806, and its area doubled. Tirol was temporarily united, Salzburg temporarily reunited with Bavaria but finally ceded to Austria. In return the Rhenish Palatinate and Franconia were annexed to Bavaria in 1815. Between 1799 and 1817 the leading minister count Montgelas followed a strict policy of modernisation and laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived even the monarchy and are (in their core) valid until today. In 1808 a first and in 1818 a more modern constitution (by the standards of the time) was passed, that established a bicameral Parliament with a House of Lords (Kammer der Reichsräte) and a House of Commons (Kammer der Abgeordneten). The constitution would last until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I.

Bavaria as a part of the German Empire

Bavarian stamps during the German empire period
After the rise of Prussia to prominence Bavaria managed to preserve its independence by playing off the rivalries of Prussia and Austria. Allied to Austria, it was defeated in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War and did not belong to the North German Federation of 1867, but the question of German unity was still alive. When France attacked Prussia in 1870, the south German states Baden, Württemberg, Hessen-Darmstadt and Bavaria joined the Prussian forces and ultimately joined the Federation, which was renamed Deutsches Reich (German Empire) in 1871. Bavaria continued as a monarchy, and it even had some special rights within the federation (such as an army, railways and a postal service of its own).

When Bavaria became part of the newly formed German Empire it became very controversial to Bavarian nationalists who rejected the idea that Bavaria should have joined the German Empire. As they did not want to be ruled by a Protestant Prussian state as Bavaria is primarily Catholic, as a direct result of the Bavarian-Prussian feud within the German Empire many parties were formed to try and make Bavaria break away and remain an independent separate German state.[3] Although the idea of Bavarian separatism was popular in the late 19th and early 20th century, apart from a small minority such as the Bavaria Party, most Bavarians are accepting that Bavaria is part of Germany.[4]

In the early-20th century Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Henrik Ibsen, and other notable artists were drawn to Bavaria, notably to the Schwabing district of Munich, later devastated by World War II. 

20th century

A memorial to soldiers who died in the two World Wars. Village in Bavaria.
On November 12, 1918, Ludwig III signed a document, the Anif declaration, releasing both civil and military officers from their oaths; the newly-formed republican government of Socialist premier Kurt Eisner interpreted this as an abdication. To date, however, no member of the house of Wittelsbach has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne. On the other hand, none has ever since officially called upon their Bavarian or Stuart claims. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, HRH Duke Franz in Bavaria. They step back from any announcements on public affairs, showing approval or disapproval solely by HRH's presence or absence.

Eisner was assassinated in February 1919 ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short-lived Bavarian Socialist Republic being proclaimed 6 April 1919. After violent suppression by elements of the German Army and notably the Freikorps, the Bavarian Socialist Republic fell in May 1919. The Bamberg Constitution (Bamberger Verfassung) was enacted on 12 or 14 August 1919 and came into force on 15 September 1919 creating the Free State of Bavaria within the Weimar Republic. Extremist activity further increased, notably the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch led by the National Socialists, and Munich and Nuremberg became Nazi strongholds under the Third Reich. As a manufacturing center, Munich was heavily bombed during World War II and occupied by U.S. troops. The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in 1946 and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate. During the Cold War, Bavaria was part of West Germany.

Since World War II, Bavaria has been rehabilitated from a poor agrarian province into a prosperous industrial hub. A massive reconstruction effort restored much of Munich's and other places historic cores. The state capital hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics and matches of the Football World Cups of 1974 and 2006 as well as European Track & Field championships. More recently, former state minister-president Edmund Stoiber was the CDU/CSU candidate for chancellor in the 2002 federal election which he lost, and native son Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected Pope Benedict XVI in 2005.

Bavarian identity

Historically, although Bavarians are Germans, Bavarians have often emphasized a separate national identity and considered themselves as "Bavarians" first, "Germans" second.[5] This feeling started to come about more strongly among Bavarians when the Kingdom of Bavaria joined the Protestant Prussian-dominated German Empire whilst the Bavarian nationalists wanted to keep Bavaria as Catholic and an independent German state. Although today the feeling of Bavaria being a separate state only remains by the minority, such as the Bavaria Party, most Bavarians are accepting that Bavaria is part of Germany.

Coat of arms

Bavarian herald Joerg Rugenn wearing a tabard of the arms around 1510
The modern coat of arms of Bavaria was designed by Eduard Ege in 1946, following heraldic traditions.
  • The Golden Lion: At the dexter chief, sable, a lion rampant Or, armed and langued gules. This represents the administrative region of Upper Palatinate.
  • The "Franconian Rake": At the sinister chief, per fess dancetty, gules and argent. This represents the administrative regions of Upper, Middle and Lower Franconia.
  • The Blue Panther: At the dexter base, argent, a panther rampant azure, armed Or and langued gules. This represents the regions of Lower and Upper Bavaria.
  • The Three Lions: At the sinister base, Or, three lions passant guardant sable, armed and langued gules. This represents Swabia.
  • The White-And-Blue inescutcheon: The inescutcheon of white and blue fusils askance was originally the coat of arms of the Counts of Bogen, adopted in 1247 by the Wittelsbachs House. The white-and-blue fusils are indisputably the emblem of Bavaria and these arms today symbolize Bavaria as a whole. Along with the People's Crown, it is officially used as the Minor Coat of Arms.
  • The People's Crown: The coat of arms is surmounted by a crown with a golden band inset with precious stones and decorated with five ornamental leaves. This crown first appeared in the coat of arms to symbolize sovereignty of the people after the royal crown was eschewed in 1923.


Though only a relatively small part belongs to the Alps, the perception of Bavaria as an alpine region endures.

Bavaria shares international borders with Austria and the Czech Republic as well as with Switzerland (across Lake Constance). Because all of these countries are part of the Schengen Area, the border is completely open. Neighbouring states within Germany are Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, Thuringia and Saxony. Two major rivers flow through the state, the Danube (Donau) and the Main.

The Bavarian Alps define the border with Austria, (including the Austrian federal-states of Vorarlberg, Tyrol and Salzburg) and within the range is the highest peak in Germany, the Zugspitze. The Bavarian Forest and the Bohemian Forest form the vast majority of the frontier with the Czech Republic and Bohemia. The major cities in Bavaria are Munich (München), Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Augsburg, Regensburg, Würzburg, Ingolstadt, Fürth and Erlangen.



Bavarian church with Alps in the background
Some features of the Bavarian culture and mentality are remarkably distinct from the rest of Germany. Noteworthy differences (especially in rural areas, less significant in the major cities) can be found with respect to Bavarian culture (Altbayern) has a long and predominant tradition of Roman Catholic faith.

The current pope, Benedict XVI (Joseph Alois Ratzinger), was born in Marktl am Inn in Upper Bavaria and was Cardinal-Archbishop of Munich and Freising. Otherwise, the culturally Franconian and Swabian regions of the modern State of Bavaria are historically more diverse in religiosity, with both Catholic and Protestant traditions.


Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht are worn on special occasions and include in Altbayern Lederhosen for males and Dirndl for females. Centuries-old folk music is performed. The Maibaum, or Maypole (which in the Middle Ages served as the community's yellow pages, as figurettes on the pole represent the trades of the village), and the bagpipes in the Upper Palatinate region bear witness to the ancient Celtic and Germanic remnants of cultural heritage of the region. There are a lot of traditional Bavarian sports disciplines, e.g. the Aperschnalzen is an old tradition of competitive whipcracking.

Whether actually in Bavaria, overseas or full of citizens from other nations they continue to cultivate their traditions. They hold festivals and dances to keep their traditions alive. In New York the German American Cultural Society is a larger umbrella group for others such as the Bavarian organizations, which represent a specific part of Germany. They proudly put forth a German Parade called Steuben Parade each year. Various affiliated events take place amongst its groups, one of which is the Bavarian Dancers.

Food and drink

Bavarians tend to place a great value on food and drink. In addition to their renowned dishes, Bavarians also consume many items of food and drink which are unusual elsewhere in Germany; for example Weißwurst ("white sausage") or in some instances a variety of entrails. At folk festivals and in many beer gardens, beer is traditionally served by the litre (in a Maß). Bavarians are particularly proud of the traditional Reinheitsgebot, or purity law, initially established by the Duke of Bavaria for the City of Munich (e.g. the court) in 1487 and the duchy in 1516. According to this law, only three ingredients were allowed in beer: water, barley, and hops. In 1906 the Reinheitsgebot made its way to all-German law, and remained a law in Germany until the EU struck it down recently as incompatible with the European common market. German breweries, however, cling to the principle. Bavarians are also known as some of the world's most beer-loving people with an average annual consumption of 170 litres per person, although figures have been declining in recent years.

Bavaria is also home to the Franconia wine region, which is situated along the Main River in Franconia. The region has produced wine (Frankenwein) for over 1,000 years and is famous for its use of the Bocksbeutel wine bottle. The production of wine forms an integral part of the regional culture, and many of its villages and cities hold their own wine festivals (Weinfeste) throughout the year.

Language and dialects

Upper German, southern counterpart to Central German, both forming the High German Languages. Blue are the Austro-Bavarian dialects
Three German dialects are spoken in Bavaria: Austro-Bavarian in Old Bavaria (South-East and East), Swabian German (an Alemannic German dialect) in the Bavarian part of Swabia (South West) and East Franconian German in Franconia (North).


Bavarians consider themselves to be egalitarian and informal. Their sociability can be experienced at the annual Oktoberfest, the world's largest beer festival, which welcomes around six million visitors every year, or in the famous beer gardens. In traditional Bavarian beer gardens, patrons may bring their own food but only buy beer from the brewery that runs the beer garden.[12]

In the United States, particularly among German Americans, Bavarian culture is viewed somewhat nostalgically, and many "Bavarian villages", most notably Frankenmuth, Michigan, Helen, Georgia and Leavenworth, Washington, have been founded. Since 1962, the latter has been styled with a Bavarian theme; it is also home to "one of the world's largest collections of nutcrackers" and an Oktoberfest celebration it claims is among the most attended in the world outside of Munich.[13]


  1. ^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes" (in German). Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung. 31 December 2011.
  2. ^ "State GDP". Portal of the Federal Statistics Office Germany. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
  3. ^ James Minahan (2000). One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 106–. ISBN 978-0-313-30984-7.
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ n-tv:Fiasko für die CSU
  7. ^ Its GDP is 143% of the EU average (as of 2005) against a German average of 121.5%, see Eurostat
  8. ^ Gemeinsames Datenangebot der Statistischen Ämter des Bundes und der Länder
  9. ^ See the list of countries by GDP (nominal).
  10. ^ a b "Kirchenmitgliederzahlen am 31. Dezember 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-03-10.
  11. ^ Etwa vier Millionen Muslime in Deutschland DIK-Studie
  12. ^ Königlicher Hirschgarten. "Ein paar Worte zu unserem Biergarten in München ... (in German)".
  13. ^ Leavenworth, Washington The Bavarian Village


Today's Snippet II:  St Walburge's Church

Western facade of St Walburge's, from Weston Street

St Walburge's Church is a Roman Catholic church located in Preston, Lancashire, England, northwest of the city centre on Weston Street. The church was built in the mid 19th century by the Gothic revival architect Joseph Hansom, designer of the hansom cab, and is famous as having the tallest spire of any parish church in England. St Walburge's is a Grade I listed building with English Heritage.[3]

St Walburge's, with several other churches in Preston, has been threatened with closure by the Catholic Diocese of Lancaster since 2007. This has aroused much interest because of the quality of its architecture, its significance to the parish and its landmark status in Preston. The closure has been given a stay of seven years from August 2008 and local fund-raising drives are underway to supplement grants towards the restoration of this important building.[4] David Garrard, the Historic Churches Adviser of The Victorian Society said:
An outstanding building by an ingenious and imaginative architect, St Walburge’s is one of Preston’s greatest historic buildings. It was built to express the pride and confidence of the Roman Catholic community after legal restrictions on religious observance were lifted in the nineteenth century. To close it now would cost local people access to some of Lancashire’s richest heritage.[4]


St Walburge's is dedicated to Saint Walpurga, an English saint, born 710 AD., daughter of St. Richard, a Saxon King. With her two brothers St. Willibald and St. Winebald, she went to Germany as a missionary. She was renowned for her miraculous healing of illnesses. The church is part of the Catholic revival that transpired during the time of England's Catholic emancipation.


St Walburge's Church is situated in the Maudlands district of Preston, so called because of its association with St Mary Magdalene of which name the word "Maudlands" is a corruption. St Walburge's is located near the site of a 12th century leprosy hospital dedicated to St Mary Magdalene.[5]

In 1847, at a time of great Roman Catholic revival in England, and prosperity brought by the textile mills of Lancashire, the architect, Joseph Hansom, was commissioned to build a large church. Work began on the construction of the church in May 1850, and it was ready for an opening ceremony on August 3, 1854. The church was further extended, with its polygonal sanctuary with central window 35 feet (11 m) high being added in 1873.[5]



Externally, St Walburge's spire, rising to 309 feet (94 m) is the dominant landmark in Preston and is one of the tallest structures of any sort in Lancashire. After Salisbury and Norwich Cathedrals, it is the third tallest spire in the United Kingdom, and is the tallest on a parish church. The steeple is constructed from limestone sleepers which originally carried the nearby Preston and Longridge Railway, giving the spire a red tint during sunset. The spire was the last to be worked upon by steeplejack and TV personality Fred Dibnah. Dibnah installed his red ladders to inspect the steeple, but television filming commitments then meant he was unable to complete the job. The ladders were left at the church for several years and were donated to the tradesman who eventually took the job.[6]

The tower contains a single bell of 31 cwt[7] (1.5 tonnes) cast by Mears and Stainbank of Whitechapel which is the heaviest swinging bell in Lancashire. The use of the bell is restricted, due to protected birds nesting in the belfry, meaning it can only be rung in winter months.


St Walburge's is renowned not just for its height but also for the inventive quality of its architecture, in which the architect has looked to Gothic models, employing the traditional features in a creative and harmonious way. The Open Churches Trust says of St Walburge's that it "undoubtedly an architectural gem of the north west of England."[5]

The New Red Sandstone facade presents as an unaisled church with a very steep gable. A strongly horizontal arcade, divides the facade into two zones, balanced by strongly projecting buttresses and corner pinnacles typical of many English Gothic cathedrals. The arcade is countered by the verticality of strongly projecting buttresses and corner pinnacles typical of many English Gothic cathedrals. The upper zone is dominated by a rose window 22 feet (7 m) in diameter occupying almost the full width of the nave.


The interior, which seats about 1,000 persons, is 165 feet (50 m) and 55 feet (17 m) wide. The open wooden roof of 83 feet (25 m) is supported of fourteen hammerbeams, on the ends of which stand lifesized carved the figures of saints. The church contains an organ by William Hill of London, 1855.[5] Other significant features include a wooden triptych and a crucifix with the shield of Preston and the motto "Princeps Pacis". St. Ignatius of Loyola is also prominently represented to the right in the sanctuary, echoing the influence of the Jesuit priests still active in the city. The patron saints of Great Britain are also represented.


  1. ^ British Listed Buildings
  2. ^ Diocese of Lancaster Deaneries
  3. ^ Images of England: Church of St Walburge, Preston, English Heritage, retrieved 2007-12-23
  4. ^ a b The Victorian Society accessed October 25, 2008
  5. ^ a b c d Open Churches Trust accessed October 25, 2008
  6. ^ Hall, David (2006), Fred, Bantam Press, ISBN 0-593-05664-7pp=196–197
  7. ^ 1 and 2 Bell Towers, retrieved 2010-06-21


Catechism of the Catholic Church

Part One: Profession of Faith, Sect 2 The Creeds, Ch 2 Art 7:1


Article 7

I. He Will Come Again in Glory

Christ already reigns through the Church. . .
668 "Christ died and lived again, that he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living."Rom 14:9 Christ's Ascension into heaven signifies his participation, in his humanity, in God's power and authority. Jesus Christ is Lord: he possesses all power in heaven and on earth. He is "far above all rule and authority and power and dominion", for the Father "has put all things under his feet."Eph 1:20-22 Christ is Lord of the cosmos and of history. In him human history and indeed all creation are "set forth" and transcendently fulfilled.Eph 1:10; cf.

669 As Lord, Christ is also head of the Church, which is his Body. Eph 1:22 Taken up to heaven and glorified after he had thus fully accomplished his mission, Christ dwells on earth in his Church. the redemption is the source of the authority that Christ, by virtue of the Holy Spirit, exercises over the Church. "The kingdom of Christ (is) already present in mystery", "on earth, the seed and the beginning of the kingdom".Eph 4:11-13

670 Since the Ascension God's plan has entered into its fulfilment. We are already at "the last hour".Jn 2:18; cf. I Pt 4:7 "Already the final age of the world is with us, and the renewal of the world is irrevocably under way; it is even now anticipated in a certain real way, for the Church on earth is endowed already with a sanctity that is real but imperfect."LG 48 # 3; cf. I Cor 10:11 Christ's kingdom already manifests its presence through the miraculous signs that attend its proclamation by the Church.Mk 16:17-18, 20

. . . until all things are subjected to him
671 Though already present in his Church, Christ's reign is nevertheless yet to be fulfilled "with power and great glory" by the King's return to earth.Lk 21:27; cf. Mt 25:31 This reign is still under attack by the evil powers, even though they have been defeated definitively by Christ's Passover.2 Th 2:7 Until everything is subject to him, "until there be realized new heavens and a new earth in which justice dwells, the pilgrim Church, in her sacraments and institutions, which belong to this present age, carries the mark of this world which will pass, and she herself takes her place among the creatures which groan and travail yet and await the revelation of the sons of God."LG 48 # 3; cf. 2 Pt 3:13; Rom 8:19-22; I Cor 15:288 That is why Christians pray, above all in the Eucharist, to hasten Christ's return by saying to him: I Cor 11:26 Maranatha! "Our Lord, come!"1 Cor 16:22

672 Before his Ascension Christ affirmed that the hour had not yet come for the glorious establishment of the messianic kingdom awaited by Israel Acts 1:6-7 which, according to the prophets, was to bring all men the definitive order of justice, love and peace.Is 11:1-9 According to the Lord, the present time is the time of the Spirit and of witness, but also a time still marked by "distress" and the trial of evil which does not spare the Church Acts 1:8 and ushers in the struggles of the last days. It is a time of waiting and watching.Mt 25:1, 13

The glorious advent of Christ, the hope of Israel
673 Since the Ascension Christ's coming in glory has been imminent,Rev 22:20 even though "it is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has fixed by his own authority."Acts 1:7; Cf. Mk 13:32. This eschatological coming could be accomplished at any moment, even if both it and the final trial that will precede it are "delayed".Mt 24:44

674 The glorious Messiah's coming is suspended at every moment of history until his recognition by "all Israel", for "a hardening has come upon part of Israel" in their "unbelief" toward Jesus.Rom I 1:20-26; cf. Mt 23:39 St. Peter says to the Jews of Jerusalem after Pentecost: "Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and that he may send the Christ appointed for you, Jesus, whom heaven must receive until the time for establishing all that God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets from of old."Acts 3:19-21 St. Paul echoes him: "For if their rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead?"Rom 11:15 The "full inclusion" of the Jews in the Messiah's salvation, in the wake of "the full number of the Gentiles",Rom 11:12, 25; cf. Lk 21:24 will enable the People of God to achieve "the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ", in which "God may be all in all".Eph 4:13; I Cor 15:28

The Church's ultimate trial
675 Before Christ's second coming the Church must pass through a final trial that will shake the faith of many believers.Lk 18:8; Mt 24:12 The persecution that accompanies her pilgrimage on earthLk 21:12 will unveil the "mystery of iniquity" in the form of a religious deception offering men an apparent solution to their problems at the price of apostasy from the truth. the supreme religious deception is that of the Antichrist, a pseudo-messianism by which man glorifies himself in place of God and of his Messiah come in the flesh.2 Th 2:4-12

676 The Antichrist's deception already begins to take shape in the world every time the claim is made to realize within history that messianic hope which can only be realized beyond history through the eschatological judgement. the Church has rejected even modified forms of this falsification of the kingdom to come under the name of millenarianism,Cf. DS 3839 especially the "intrinsically perverse" political form of a secular messianism.Pius XI, Divini Redemptoris, condemning the "false mysticism" of this
   "counterfeit of the redemption of the lowly"; cf. GS 20-21

677 The Church will enter the glory of the kingdom only through this final Passover, when she will follow her Lord in his death and Resurrection.Rev 19:1-9 The kingdom will be fulfilled, then, not by a historic triumph of the Church through a progressive ascendancy, but only by God's victory over the final unleashing of evil, which will cause his Bride to come down from heaven.Rev 13:8 God's triumph over the revolt of evil will take the form of the Last Judgement after the final cosmic upheaval of this passing world.Rev 20:12