Saturday, February 9, 2013

Saturday, February 9, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog: Solemn, Hebrews 13:15-21, Psalms 23:1-6, Mark 6:30-34, Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich, House of Mary, Ephesus Turkey, Catholic Catechism Part One Section 2 The Creeds Chapter 2 Article 2 "AND IN JESUS CHRIST, HIS ONLY SON, OUR LORD"

Saturday, February 9, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog:

Solemn, Hebrews 13:15-21, Psalms 23:1-6, Mark 6:30-34, Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich, House of Mary, Ephesus Turkey, Catholic Catechism Part One Section 2 The Creeds Chapter 2 Article 2 "AND IN JESUS CHRIST, HIS ONLY SON, OUR LORD"

Good Day Bloggers!  Wishing everyone a Blessed Week!

Heed the Solemnity of Lent! As the Psalm says: “The Lord is my Shepherd! I lack nothing. In grassy meadows he lets me lie. By tranquil streams he leads me to restore my spirit. He guides me in paths of saving justice as befits his name. Even were I to walk in a ravine as dark as death I should fear no danger, for you are at my side. Your staff and your crook are there to soothe me. You prepare a table for me under the eyes of my enemies.” (Ps 23, 1.3-5).

Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. Its your choice whether to rise towards eternal light or lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to Purgatory and/or Heaven is our Soul, our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


February 2, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
"Dear children, love is bringing me to you - the love which I desire to teach you also - real love; the love which my Son showed you when He died on the Cross out of love for you; the love which is always ready to forgive and to ask for forgiveness. How great is your love? My motherly heart is sorrowful as it searches for love in your hearts. You are not ready to submit your will to God's will out of love. You cannot help me to have those who have not come to know God's love to come to know it, because you do not have real love. Consecrate your hearts to me and I will lead you. I will teach you to forgive, to love your enemies and to live according to my Son. Do not be afraid for yourselves. In afflictions my Son does not forget those who love. I will be beside you. I will implore the Heavenly Father for the light of eternal truth and love to illuminate you. Pray for your shepherds so that through your fasting and prayer they can lead you in love. Thank you."

January 25, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
"Dear children! Also today I call you to prayer. May your prayer be as strong as a living stone, until with your lives you become witnesses. Witness the beauty of your faith. I am with you and intercede before my Son for each of you. Thank you for having responded to my call."


Today's Word:  solemn   sol·emn  [sol-uhm]

Origin: 1275–1325; Middle English solem ( p ) ne  (< Old French ) < Late Latin sōlennis, sōlempnis, Latin sōlemnis,  variant of sollemnis  consecrated, holy, derivative of sollus  whole
1. grave, sober, or mirthless, as a person, the face, speech, tone, or mood: solemn remarks.
2. gravely or somberly impressive; causing serious thoughts or a grave mood: solemn music.
3. serious or earnest: solemn assurances.
4. characterized by dignified or serious formality, as proceedings; of a formal or ceremonious character: a solemn occasion.
5. made in due legal or other express form, as a declaration or agreement: a solemn oath.
6. marked or observed with religious rites; having a religious character: a solemn holy day.
7. uttered, prescribed, or made according to religious forms: a solemn ban on sacrifice.


Today's Old Testament Reading -  Psalms 23:1-6

1 [Psalm Of David] Yahweh is my shepherd, I lack nothing.
2 In grassy meadows he lets me lie. By tranquil streams he leads me
3 to restore my spirit. He guides me in paths of saving justice as befits his name.
4 Even were I to walk in a ravine as dark as death I should fear no danger, for you are at my side. Your staff and your crook are there to soothe me.
5 You prepare a table for me under the eyes of my enemies; you anoint my head with oil; my cup brims over.
6 Kindness and faithful love pursue me every day of my life. I make my home in the house of Yahweh for all time to come.


Today's Epistle - Hebrews 13:15-17, 20-21

15 Through him, let us offer God an unending sacrifice of praise, the fruit of the lips of those who acknowledge his name.
16 Keep doing good works and sharing your resources, for these are the kinds of sacrifice that please God.
17 Obey your leaders and give way to them; they watch over your souls because they must give an account of them; make this a joy for them to do, and not a grief -- you yourselves would be the losers.
20 I pray that the God of peace, who brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great Shepherd of the sheep, by the blood that sealed an eternal covenant,
21 may prepare you to do his will in every kind of good action; effecting in us all whatever is acceptable to himself through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.


Today's Gospel Reading  - Mark 6:30-34

The apostles rejoined Jesus and told him all they had done and taught. And he said to them, 'Come away to some lonely place all by yourselves and rest for a while'; for there were so many coming and going that there was no time for them even to eat. So they went off in the boat to a lonely place where they could be by themselves. But people saw them going, and many recognised them; and from every town they all hurried to the place on foot and reached it before them. So as he stepped ashore he saw a large crowd; and he took pity on them because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he set himself to teach them at some length.

• The Gospel today is in great contrast with that of yesterday. On one side, the banquet of death, wanted by Herod with the great of his kingdom in the Palace of the Capital, during which John the Baptist was murdered, (Mk 6, 17-29); on the other side, the banquet of life promoted by Jesus with the hungry people of Galilee, in the desert (Mk 6, 30-44).The Gospel today presents only the introduction of the multiplication of the loaves and describes the teaching of Jesus.

• Mark 6, 30-32. The welcome given to the disciples. “At that time, the Apostles rejoined Jesus and told him all they had done and taught. And he said to them: “Come away to some lonely place all by yourselves and rest for a while”. These verses show how Jesus formed his disciples. He was not concerned only about the content of the preaching, but also of rest for the disciples. He invited them to go to a lonely place so as to be able to rest and review what they had done.

• Mark 6, 33-34. The welcome given to the people. The people perceive that Jesus had gone to the other side of the lake, and they followed him trying to go to him by foot, to the other shore. “So as he stepped ashore he saw a large crowd, and he took pity on them because they were like sheep without a shepherd and he set himself to teach them at some length”. Seeing that crowd Jesus was sad, “because they were like sheep without a shepherd”. He forgets his rest and begins to teach them. In becoming aware that the people have no shepherd, Jesus began to be their shepherd. He begins to teach them. As the Psalm says: “The Lord is my Shepherd! I lack nothing. In grassy meadows he lets me lie. By tranquil streams he leads me to restore my spirit. He guides me in paths of saving justice as befits his name. Even were I to walk in a ravine as dark as death I should fear no danger, for you are at my side. Your staff and your crook are there to soothe me. You prepare a table for me under the eyes of my enemies.” (Ps 23, 1.3-5). Jesus wanted to rest together with his disciples, but the desire to respond to the needs of the people impels him to leave rest aside. Something similar happens when he meets the Samaritan woman. The disciples went to get some food. When they returned they said to Jesus: “Master, eat something!” (Jn 4, 31), but he answers: “I have food to eat that you do not know about” (Jn 4, 32). The desire to respond to the needs of the Samaritan people leads him to forget his hunger. “My food is to do the will of the one who sent me and to complete his work” (Jn 4, 34). The first thing is to respond to the people who look for him. Then he can eat.

• Then Jesus began to teach them many things. The Gospel of Mark tells us many things that Jesus taught. The people were impressed: “A new teaching! He taught them with authority! It was unlike that of the Scribes!” (Mk 1, 22.27). Teaching was what Jesus did the most (Mk 2, 13; 4, 1-2; 6, 34). This is what he usually did (Mk 10, 1). For other fifteen times Mark says that Jesus taught. Was it perhaps because Mark was not interested in the content? It depends on what people understand when they speak about content! To teach is not only a question of teaching new truths in order to say something. The content which Jesus gave did not only appear in his words, but also in his gestures and in his way of relating with persons. The content is never separated from the person who communicates it. Jesus was a welcoming person (Mk 6, 34). He wanted the good of the people. The goodness and the love which came from his words formed part of the content. They were his temperament. A good content, without goodness and kindness would be like milk poured on the floor. This new way which Jesus had of teaching manifested itself in a thousand ways. Jesus accepts as disciples not only men, but also women. He does not only teach in the synagogue, but also in any place where there were people to listen to him: in the synagogue, in the house, on the shore, on the mountain, on the plain, in the boat, in the desert. It was not the relationship of pupil-teacher, but of disciple to Master. The professor teaches and the pupil is with him during the time of the class. The Master gives witness and the disciple lives with him 24 hours a day. It is more difficult to be a Master than a teacher! We are not pupils of Jesus, we are his disciples! The teaching of Jesus was a communication that came from the abundance of his Heart in the most varied forms: like a conversation by which he tries to clarify the facts (Mk 9, 9-13), like a comparison or parable that invites people to think and to participate (Mk 4, 33), like an explanation of what he himself thought and did (Mk 7, 17-23), like a discussion which does not necessarily avoid polemics (Mk 2, 6-12), like a criticism that denounces what is false and mistaken (Mk 12, 38-40). It was always a witness of what he himself lived, an expression of his love! (Mt 11, 28-30).
Personal questions
• What do you do when you want to teach others something about your faith and of your religion? Do you imitate Jesus?
• Jesus is concerned not only about the content, but also about rest. How was the teaching of religion that you received as a child? Did the catechists imitate Jesus?

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich

Feast DayFebruary 9

Patron Saintn/a

Attributes: Bedridden with bandaged head and holding a crucifix

Bl. Anne Catherine Emmerick
Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (German: Anna Katharina Emmerick) (8 September 1774 – 9 February 1824) was a Roman Catholic Augustinian Canoness Regular of Windesheim, stigmatic, mystic, visionary and ecstatic.[1]

She was born in Flamschen, a farming community at Coesfeld, in the Diocese of Münster, Westphalia, Germany and died at age 49 in Dülmen, where she had been a nun, and later became bedridden.[2][3]

During her bedridden years, a number of well known figures were inspired to visit her.[1] The poet Clemens Brentano interviewed her at length and wrote two books based on his notes of her visions.[4] The authenticity of Brentano's writings has been questioned and critics have characterized the books as "conscious elaborations by a poet" and a "well-intentioned fraud" by Brentano.[4][5][6]

Emmerich was beatified on October 3, 2004 by Pope John Paul II.[1] However, the Vatican focused on her own personal piety and set the books written by Brentano aside while analysing the cause for her beatification, given that "It is absolutely not certain that she ever wrote this".[7][8]

Early life

She was born as Anna Katharina into a family of poor farmers, and had nine brothers and sisters. From an early age, she had to help with the house and farm work. Her schooling was rather brief, but all those who knew her noticed that she felt drawn to prayer from an early age.[1][3] At twelve she started to work at a large farm in the vicinity for three years, and later learned to become a seamstress and worked as such for several years.[1][3]

She applied for admission to various convents, but was rejected because she could not afford a dowry to bring with her. Eventually, the Poor Clares in Münster agreed to accept her provided she would learn to play the organ. She went to the organist Söntgen in Coesfeld to study music and learn to play the organ there, but never got around to it because the poverty in the Söntgen family prompted her to just work there to help them, and she sacrificed her small savings for that.[1][3] Later, one of the Söntgen daughters entered the convent with her.[1]

Religious life

In 1802, at age 28, Anne Catherine and her friend Klara Söntgen finally managed to join the Augustinian nuns at the convent of Agnetenberg in Dülmen. The following year Anne Catherine took her religious vows.[1][3] In the convent, she became known for her strict observance of the order's rule but from the beginning to 1811 she was often quite ill and had to endure great pain.[1] At times, her zeal and strict adherence to rules disturbed some of the more tepid sisters, who were puzzled by her weak health, and religious ecstasies.[1][3]

When Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia suppressed the convent in 1812 she found refuge in a widow's house. There, the sick and poor came to her for help, and according to contemporaries she supernaturally knew what their diseases were, and prescribed cures.


Birthplace of Anne Catherine Emmerich in Coesfeld-Flamschen
In 1813 she was confined to bed, and stigmata were reported on her body. Her life and the claims regarding her miraculous signs were examined by an episcopal commission. The vicar-general, the Overberg, and three physicians conducted the investigation. They were reportedly convinced of her sanctity and the genuineness of the stigmata.

At the end of 1818 Emmerich stated that God granted her prayer to be relieved of the stigmata, and the wounds in her hands and feet closed, but the others remained, and on Good Friday all were reopened.

In 1819 Emmerich was investigated again, this time by secular authorities. She was forcibly removed to a large room in another house and kept under strict surveillance day and night for three weeks, away from all her friends except her confessor.

Visions and inspirations

Anne Catherine Emmerich said that as a child she had had visions, in which she talked with Jesus, had seen the souls in Purgatory, for whom she prayed, and also the core of Holy Trinity in the form of three concentric interpenetrating full spheres - the biggest but less lit sphere represented the Father core, the medium sphere the Son core, and the smallest and most lit sphere the Holy Spirit core. Each sphere of omnipresent God is extended toward infinity beyond God's core placed in Heaven.

Based on Anne Catherine's growing reputation, during her life a number of figures who were influential in the renewal movement of the Church early in the 19th century came to visit her, among them Clemens von Vischering, the Archbishop of Cologne; Johann Michael Sailer, the Bishop of Ratisbon, Bernhard Overberg and authors Luise Hensel and Friedrich Stolberg.[1] Clemens vou Vischering, who was the vicar‑general at that time, called Emmerich "a special friend of God" in a letter he wrote to Stolberg.[1]

Clemens Brentano's visits

The reconstruction of Emmerich's room with the original furniture, at the Holy Cross church in Dülmen, Germany
At the time of her second examination in 1819, the famous poet Clemens Brentano was induced to visit her. According to Brentano, she immediately recognized him, and he claimed she told him he had been pointed out to her as the man who was to enable her to fulfill God's command, namely, to write down for the good of innumerable souls the revelations made to her. Brentano became one of Emmerich's many supporters at the time, believing her to be a "chosen Bride of Christ". Suzanne Stahl claims that Brentano's own personal complexes were a factor in substituting Emmerich as a maternal figure in his own life.[4]

From 1819 until her death in 1824 Brentano took notes of the conversations he had about her visions, filling many notebooks with notes about scenes from the New Testament and the life of the Virgin Mary. Given that Emmerich only spoke the Westphalian dialect, Brentano could not transcribe her words directly, and often could not even take notes in her presence.[9] Brentano would quickly write a set of notes based on what he remembered of the conversations he had with Emmerich in standard German when he returned to his own apartment.[9] Brentano edited the notes later, years after the death of Emmerich.[9]

About ten years after Emmerich's recounting of her visions, Brentano completed editing his records for publication.[9] In 1833 he published his first volume, The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ according to the Meditations of Anne Catherine Emmerich. Brentano then prepared The Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary From the Visions of Anna Catherine Emmerich for publication, but he died in 1842. The book was published posthumously in 1852 in Munich.

Catholic priest Father Karl Schmoger edited Brentano's manuscripts and from 1858 to 1880 published the three volumes of The Life of Our Lord. In 1881 a large illustrated edition followed, Schmoger also penned a biography of Anne Catherine Emmerich in two volumes, which has been republished in English language editions.

The Vatican does not endorse the authenticity of the books written by Brentano.[7][8] However, it views their general message as "an outstanding proclamation of the gospel in service to salvation".[10] Other critics have been less sympathetic and have characterized the books Brentano produced from his notes as "conscious elaborations of an overwrought romantic poet".[4]

Brentano's writings on Emmerich says she believed that Noah's son Ham was the progenitor of "the idolatrous, ignorant nations" of the world. The "Dolorous Passion" also reveals a "clear anti-semitic strain throughout",[11] with Brentano writing that Emmerich believed that, "Jews...strangled Christian children and used their blood for all sorts of suspicious and diabolical practices"[12]

Allegations of partial fabrication by Brentano

The tomb of Anne Catherine at the Holy Cross church in Dülmen, Germany
In 1892 when the case for Anne Catherine's beatification was submitted to the Vatican, a number of experts in Germany began to compare and analyze Brentano's original notes from his personal library with the books he had written.[5] The analysis of Brentano's personal library, after his death by experts in Germany revealed various apocryphal biblical sources, maps and travel guides among his papers which could have been used to enhance the narrations by Emmerich.[5]

In 1923, in his theological thesis, German priest Winfried Hümpfner, who had compared Brentano's original notes to the published books, wrote that Clemens Brentano had fabricated much of the material he had attributed to Emmerich.[6][13]

By 1928 the experts had come to the conclusion that only a small portion of Brentano's books could be safely attributed to Emmerich.[5][6]

At the time of the beatification of Catherine Anne in 2004, the Vatican position on the authenticity of the books produced by Brentano was stated by Father Peter Gumpel, who was involved in the study of the issues for the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints: "It is absolutely not certain that she ever wrote this. There is a serious problem of authenticity".[6][7][8] According to Gumpel, the writings attributed to Emmerich were "absolutely discarded" by the Vatican as part of her beatification process.[5]

Death and burial

Anne Catherine began to grow ever weaker during the summer of 1823. She died on 9 February 1824 in Dülmen and was buried in the graveyard outside the town, with a large number of people attending her funeral.[1] Her grave was reopened twice in the weeks following the funeral, due to a rumor that her body had been stolen, but the coffin and the body were found to be intact.[1][3] In February 1975, Emmerich's remains were moved to the Holy Cross Church in Dülmen, where they rest today.

House of the Virgin Mary

House of the Virgin Mary now a chapel in Ephesus, Turkey
Neither Brentano nor Emmerich had ever been to Ephesus, and indeed the city had not yet been excavated; but visions contained in The Life of The Blessed Virgin Mary were used during the discovery of the House of the Virgin Mary, the Blessed Virgin's supposed home before her Assumption, located on a hill near Ephesus, as described in the book Mary's House.[14]

In 1881, a French priest, the Abbé Julien Gouyet used Emmerich's book to search for the house in Ephesus and found it based on the descriptions. He was not taken seriously at first, but sister Marie de Mandat-Grancey persisted until two other priests followed the same path and confirmed the finding.[15][16]

The Holy See has taken no official position on the authenticity of the location yet, but in 1896 Pope Leo XIII visited it and in 1951 Pope Pius XII initially declared the house a Holy Place. Pope John XXIII later made the declaration permanent. Pope Paul VI in 1967, Pope John Paul II in 1979 and Pope Benedict XVI in 2006 visited the house and treated it as a shrine.[17]


An 18th century drawing of Anne Catherine
The process of Anne Catherine's beatification was started in 1892 by the Bishop of Münster. However, in 1928 the Vatican suspended the process when it was suspected that Clemens Brentano had fabricated some of the material that appeared in the books he wrote, and had attributed to Ann Catherine.[18]

In 1973 the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints allowed the case for her beatification to be re-opened, provided it only focused on the issue of her life, without any reference to the possibly doctored material produced by Clemens Brentano.[18]

In July 2003 the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints promulgated a decree of a miracle attributed to her, and that paved the way for her beatification.[18][19]

On 3 October 2004 Anne Catherine Emmerich was beatified by Pope John Paul II.[20] However, the books produced by Brentano were set aside, and her cause adjudicated solely on the basis of her own personal sanctity and virtue.[6] Father Peter Gumpel who was involved in the analysis of the matter at the Vatican told Catholic News Service: "Since it was impossible to distinguish what derives from Sister Emmerich and what is embroidery or additions, we could not take these writings as a criteria. Therefore, they were simply discarded completely from all the work for the cause".[7][8]

Cinematic portrayals

In 2003 actor Mel Gibson, a traditionalist Catholic, brought Anne Catherine Emmerich's vision to prominence as he used her book The Dolorous Passion as a key source for his movie The Passion of the Christ.[9][21][22] Gibson stated that Scripture and "accepted visions" were the only sources he drew on, and a careful reading of Emmerich's book shows the film's high level of dependence on it.[9][21] In his review of the movie in the Catholic publication America, Jesuit priest John O' Malley used the terms "devout fiction" and "well-intentioned fraud" to refer to the writings of Clemens Brentano.[5][6]

In 2007 German director Dominik Graf made the movie The Pledge as a dramatization of the encounters between Anne Catherine (portrayed by actress Tanja Schleiff) and Clemens Brentano, based on a novel by Kai Meyer.[23][24]


English editions of Emmerich's visions

  • Emmerich, Anna Catherine. The Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, Burns & Oates, 1899.
  • Emmerich, Anna Catherine. The Lowly Life and Bitter Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ and His Blessed Mother, Sentinel, 1915 [third volume only].
  • Emmerich, Anna Catherine. The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Charlotte, NC: Tan Books, 2009. ISBN 978-0-89555-210-5
  • Emmerich, Anna Catherine. The Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary: From the Visions of Anna Catherine Emmerich: Charlotte, NC: Tan Books, 2009. ISBN 978-0-89555-048-4
  • Emmerich, Anna Catherine. Life of Jesus Christ and Biblical Revelations. Charlotte, NC: TAN Books, 2008. ISBN 978-0-89555-791-9
  • Emmerich, Anna Catherine. The Bitter Passion and the Life of Mary: From the Visions of Anna Catherine Emmerich: As Recorded in the Journals of Clemens Brentano. Fresno, California: Academy Library Guild, 1954.

Suggested Literature

  • Corcoran, Rev. Mgr. "Anne Katherina Emmerich," The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. X, 1885.
  • Frederickson, Paula. ed. On the Passion of the Christ. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2006.
  • Kathleen Corley and Robert Webb. ed. Jesus and Mel Gibson's Passion of the Christ. The Film, the Gospel and the Claims of History. London: Continuum, 2004. ISBN 0-8264-7781-X
  • Ram, Helen. The Life of Anne Catharine Emmerich, Burns and Oates, 1874.
  • Schmoger, Karl. Life of Anna Katherina Emmerich. Rockford, Illinois: Tan Books and Publications, 1974. ISBN 0-89555-061-X (set); ISBN 0-89555-059-8 (volume 1); ISBN 0-89555-060-1 (volume 2)
  • Wegener, Thomas. Life of Sister Anna Katherina Emmerich: New York: Benziger Brothers: 1898.


        1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Vatican Biography
        2. ^ Emmerich, Anna Catherine: The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ ISBN 978-0-89555-210-5 page viii
        3. ^ a b c d e f g Catholic encyclopedia: Anne Catherine Emmerich
        4. ^ a b c d Suzanne Stahl, Between God and Gibson: German Mystical and Romantic Sources of "The Passion of the Christ", The German Quarterly Vol. 78, No. 4, Fall, 2005 Link to JSTOR
        5. ^ a b c d e f Father John O' Malley A Movie, a Mystic, a Spiritual Tradition America Magazine, 15 March 2004 [1]
        6. ^ a b c d e f Emmerich, Anne Catherine, and Clemens Brentano. The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Anvil Publishers, Georgia, 2005 pages 49-56 (Note: the hard copy of this book has a wrong ISBN printed within its frontmatter, but the text (and the wrong ISBN) show up on Google books as published by Anvil Press)
        7. ^ a b c d John Thavis, Catholic News Service 4 February 2004: "Vatican confirms papal plans to beatify nun who inspired Gibson film" [2]
        8. ^ a b c d John Thavis, Catholic News Service 4 October 2004: "Pope beatifies five, including German nun who inspired Gibson film" [3]
        9. ^ a b c d e f Jesus and Mel Gibson's The Passion of the Christ by Kathleen E. Corley, Robert Leslie Webb 2004 ISBN 0-8264-7781-X pages 160-161
        10. ^ "Her words, which have reached innumerable people in many languages from her modest room in Dülmen through the writings of Clemens Brentano, are an outstanding proclamation of the gospel in service to salvation right up to the present
        11. day". Quote from 18th paragraph of Vatican online biography Anna Katharina Emmerick (1774-1824)
        12. ^ Melissa Croteau, Apocalyptic Shakespeare: Essays of Vision and Chaos in Recent Film Adaptations, McFarland, 2009
        13. ^ Paula Frederiksen, On the Passion of the Christ, California, 2006, p203
        14. ^ Winfried Hümpfner, Clemens Brentanos Glaubwürdigkeit in seinen Emmerick-Aufzeichnungen; Untersuchung über die Brentano-Emmerick-frage unter erstmaliger Benutzung der tagebücher Brentanos Würzburg, St. Rita-verlag und -druckerei, 1923 (in German)
        15. ^ Mary's House by Donald Carroll (Apr 20, 2000) Veritas, ISBN 0-9538188-0-2
        16. ^ The Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption by Stephen J. Shoemaker 2006 ISBN 0-19-921074-8 page 76
        17. ^ Chronicle of the living Christ: the life and ministry of Jesus Christ by Robert A. Powell 1996 ISBN 0-88010-407-4 page 12
        18. ^ Zenit News
        19. ^ a b c EWTN on Emmerich
        20. ^ L'Osservatore Romano N. 29, 16 July 2003, 2
        21. ^ [4] Zenit News Agency article of 3 October 2004
        22. ^ a b Mel Gibson's Passion and philosophy by Jorge J. E. Gracia 2004 ISBN 0-8126-9571-2 page 145
        23. ^ Movies in American History: An Encyclopedia edited by Philip C. DiMare 2011 ISBN 1-59884-296-X page 909
        24. ^ Variety Feb 27. 2008
        25. ^ IMDB entry


        Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane



        Today's Snippet I:  House of the Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus

        The House of the Virgin Mary (Turkish: Meryem ana or Meryem Ana Evi, "Mother Mary's House") is a Catholic and Muslim shrine located on Mt. Koressos (Turkish: Bülbüldağı, "Mount Nightingale") in the vicinity of Ephesus, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from Selçuk in Turkey.[1]

        The house was discovered in the 19th century by following the descriptions in the reported visions of Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (1774–1824), a Roman Catholic nun and visionary, which were published as a book by Clemens Brentano after her death.[2] The Catholic Church has never pronounced in favour or against the authenticity of the house, but nevertheless maintains a steady flow of pilgrimage since its discovery. The shrine has also gained the Apostolic Blessing of the first pilgrimage by Pope Leo XIII in 1896, having been taken a positive attitude towards the site and towards Emmerich's visions.[3] Anne Catherine Emmerich was Beatified by Pope John Paul II on October 3, 2004.

        Catholic pilgrims visit the house based on the belief that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was taken to this stone house by Saint John and lived there until her Assumption (according to Catholic doctrine) (or what would be Dormition (according to Orthodox belief)).[4][5]

        The shrine has merited several papal Apostolic Blessings and visits from several popes, the earliest pilgrimage coming from Pope Leo XIII in 1896, and the most recent in 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI.

        Description of the site

        The Interior of the house.
        The shrine itself is not extensively large, but may rather be described as a modest chapel. The preserved stones and construction date back into the Apostolic Age, as consistent with other preserved buildings from that time, but with minor additions such as garden landscapes and devotional additions outside the shrine. Upon entrance to the chapel, a pilgrim is met by one single large room where an altar along with a large statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary is prominently displayed in the center.

        On the right side, a smaller room lies----traditionally associated with the actual room where the Virgin Mary is believed to have slept. Marian tradition holds that some form of running water used to flow like a canal in the smaller room where the Virgin Mary slept and rested, leading to the present drinking fountain outside the building structure.

        Outside the shrine is a particular "wishing wall" which pilgrims have used by tying their personal intentions on paper or fabric. Various types of florals and fruits are grown nearby, and additional lighting has been installed within the vicinity of the shrine for further monitoring of the site. A water fountain or well is also located nearby, believed by some pilgrims to have miraculous powers of healing or fertility.

        Description in Germany

        An 18th century drawing of Anne Catherine Emmerich
        At the beginning of the 19th century, Anne Catherine Emmerich, a bedridden Augustinian nun in Germany, reported a series of visions in which she recounted the last days of the life of Jesus, and details of the life of Mary, his mother.[3][6] Emmerich was ill for a long period of time in the farming community of Dülmen but was known in Germany as a mystic and was visited by a number of notable figures.[3]

         One of Emmerich's visitors was the author Clemens Brentano who after a first visit stayed in Dülmen for five years to see Emmerich every day and transcribe the visions she reported.[3][7] After Emmerich's death Brentano published a book based on his transcriptions of her reported visions, and a second book was published based on his notes after his own death.

        One of Emmerich's accounts was a description of the house Apostle John had built in Ephesus for Mary, the mother of Jesus, where she had lived to the end of her life. Emmerich provided a number of details about the location of the house, and the topography of the surrounding area:[8]

        Mary did not live in Ephesus itself, but in the country near it. ... Mary's dwelling was on a hill to the left of the road from Jerusalem, some three and half hours from Ephesus. This hill slopes steeply towards Ephesus; the city, as one approaches it from the south east seems to lie on rising ground.... Narrow paths lead southwards to a hill near the top of which is an uneven plateau, some half hour's journey.

        Emmerich also described the details of the house: that it was built with rectangular stones, that the windows were high up near the flat roof and that it consisted of two parts with a hearth at the center of the house. She further described the location of the doors, the shape of the chimney, etc.[8] The book containing these descriptions was published in 1852 in Munich, Germany.

        Discovery in Turkey

        Sister Marie de Mandat-Grancey
        On October 18, 1881, relying on the descriptions in the book by Brentano based on his conversations with Emmerich, a French priest, the Abbé Julien Gouyet, discovered a small stone building on a mountain overlooking the Aegean Sea and the ruins of ancient Ephesus in Turkey. He believed it was the house described by Emmerich and where the Virgin Mary had lived the final years of her life.[2][9][10]

        Abbé Gouyet's discovery was not taken seriously by most people, but ten years later, urged by Sister Marie de Mandat-Grancey, DC,[11] two Lazarist missionaries, Father Poulin and Father Jung, from Smyrna rediscovered the building on July 29, 1891, using the same source for a guide.[12][13] They learned that the four-walled, roofless ruin had been venerated for a long time by the members of a distant mountain village who were descended from the Christians of Ephesus. The house is called Panaya Kapulu ("Doorway to the Virgin").[14] Every year pilgrims made a pilgrimage to the site on August 15, the date on which most of the Christian world celebrated Mary's Dormition/Assumption.[15]

        Sister Marie de Mandat-Grancey was named Foundress of Mary's House by the Catholic Church and was responsible for acquiring, restoring and preserving Mary's House and surrounding areas of the mountain from 1891 until her death in 1915.[16] The discovery revived and strengthened a Christian tradition dating from the 12th century, 'the tradition of Ephesus', which has competed with the older 'Jerusalem tradition' about the place of the Blessed Virgin's dormition. Due to the actions of Pope Leo XIII in 1896 and Pope John XXIII in 1961, the Catholic Church first removed plenary indulgences from the Church of the Dormition in Jerusalem and then bestowed them for all time to pilgrims to Mary's House in Ephesus.[17]


        The wishing wall, believed by some pilgrims to be miraculous.
        The restored portion or the structure has been distinguished from the original remains of the structure by a line painted in red. Some have expressed doubt about the site, as the tradition of Mary's association with Ephesus arose only in the 12th century, while the universal tradition among the Fathers of the Church places her residence, and thereby her Dormition, in Jerusalem.[18] Supporters base their belief on the presence of the 5th century Church of Mary, the first basilica in the world dedicated to the Virgin Mary, in Ephesus.

        Position of the Roman Catholic Church

        Statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary in her house exterior.
        The Roman Catholic Church has never pronounced on the authenticity of the house, for lack of scientifically acceptable evidence. It has, however, from the blessing of the first pilgrimage by Pope Leo XIII in 1896, taken a positive attitude towards the site. Pope Pius XII, in 1951, following the definition of the dogma of the Assumption in 1950, elevated the house to the status of a Holy Place, a privilege later made permanent by Pope John XXIII. The site is venerated by Muslims as well as Christians.[19] Pilgrims drink from a spring under the house which is believed to have healing properties. A liturgical ceremony is held here every year on August 15 to commemorate the Assumption of Mary.

        Papal visits

        Pope Paul VI visited the shrine on July 26, 1967, and Pope John Paul II on November 30, 1979. Pope Benedict XVI visited this shrine on November 29, 2006 during his four-day pastoral trip to Turkey. The conclusion of his homily mentioned the martyrdom of Father Andrea Santoro in Trabzon which had taken place nine months prior to this visit.[20]


        • Mary's House by Donald Carroll (April 20, 2000) Veritas, ISBN 0-9538188-0-2


          1. ^ Frommer's Turkey by Lynn A. Levine 2010 ISBN 0-470-59366-0 pages 254-255
          2. ^The Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption by Stephen J. Shoemaker 2006 ISBN 0-19-921074-8 page 76
          3. Vatican Biography
          4. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV, Copyright © 1912 by Robert Appleton Company, Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight [1]
          5. ^ Home of the Assumption: Reconstructing Mary's Life in Ephesus by V. Antony John Alaharasan 2006 ISBN 1-929039-38-7 page 38
          6. ^ Emmerich, Anna Catherine: The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ ISBN 978-0-89555-210-5 page viii
          7. ^ Clemens Brentano by John F. Fetzer 1981 ISBN 0-8057-6457-7 page 146
          8. ^ The Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary by Anna Emmerich 2009 ISBN 0-89555-048-2 Chapter XVIII Section 2: Mary's House in Ephesus page 377
          9. ^ Page DuBois, Trojan horses: Saving the Classics from Conservatives, 2001, page 134
          10. ^ Chronicle of the living Christ: the life and ministry of Jesus Christ by Robert A. Powell 1996 ISBN 0-88010-407-4 page 12
          11. ^ Sister Marie de Mandat-Grancey, DC,
          12. ^ Fusaro, L., "Mary's House and Sister Marie", 2009
          13. ^ Zenit News
          14. ^ Poulin, Eugene P., "The Holy Virgin's House: The True Story of Its Discovery", Istanbul: 1999
          15. ^ The Blessed Virgin's House At Ephesus by Robert Larson (published as an endnote to Volume IV of The Life of Jesus Christ and Biblical Revelations by Anne Catherine Emmerich (TAN Books, 2004)).
          16. ^ The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey & Mary's House in Ephesus by Carl G. Schulte 2011, Saint Benedict Press ISBN 0-89555-870-X
          17. ^ Euzet, J., "History of the House of the Blessed Virgin near Ephesus (1891-1961)", Vincentian Archives, 1961.
          18. ^ Georges Henri Tavard. The Thousand Faces of the Virgin Mary. Liturgical Press, 1996. Pages 23-24.
          19. ^ [2]
          20. ^ "Apostolic Journey of Pope Benedict to Turkey". 2006-11-29. Retrieved 2008-02-22. "With firm trust let us sing, together with Mary, a magnificat of praise and thanksgiving to God who has looked with favour upon the lowliness of his servant (cf. Lk 1:48). Let us sing joyfully, even when we are tested by difficulties and dangers, as we have learned from the fine witness given by the Roman priest Don Andrea Santoro, whom I am pleased to recall in this celebration. Mary teaches us that the source of our joy and our one sure support is Christ, and she repeats his words: “Do not be afraid” (Mk 6:50), “I am with you” (Mt 28:20). Mary, Mother of the Church, accompany us always on our way! Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us! Aziz Meryem Mesih’in Annesi bizim için Dua et. Amen"


            Today's Snippet II:  Ephesus, Turkey

            The Library of Celsus in Ephesus.
            Ephesus (/ˈɛfəsəs/;[1] Greek Ἔφεσος, Ephesos; Turkish Efes) was an ancient Greek city, and later a major Roman city, on the west coast of Asia Minor, near present-day Selçuk, Izmir Province, Turkey. It was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League during the Classical Greek era. In the Roman period, Ephesus had a population of more than 250,000 in the 1st century BC, which also made it one of the largest cities in the Mediterranean world.[2]

            The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (completed around 550 BC), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Emperor Constantine I rebuilt much of the city and erected new public baths. Following the Edict of Thessalonica from emperor Theodosius I, the temple was destroyed in 401 AD by a mob led by St. John Chrysostom.[3] The town was partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614 AD. The city's importance as a commercial center declined as the harbor was slowly silted up by the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes).

            Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia that are cited in the Book of Revelation.[4] The Gospel of John may have been written here.[5] The city was the site of several 5th century Christian Councils, see Council of Ephesus. It is also the site of a large gladiators' graveyard.

            Today's archaeological site lies 3 kilometers southwest of the town of Selçuk, in the Selçuk district of İzmir Province, Turkey. The ruins of Ephesus are a favorite international and local tourist attraction, partly owing to their easy access from Adnan Menderes Airport.


            Neolithic age

            The area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited during the Neolithic Age (about 6000 BC), as was revealed by the excavations at the nearby hoyuk (artificial mounds known as tells) of Arvalya and Cukurici.[6][7]

            Bronze Age

            Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at the Ayasuluk Hill. In 1954, a burial ground from the Mycenaean era (1500–1400 BC) with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St. John.[8] This was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi/Ἀχαιοί (as they were called by Homer) settled in Ahhiyawa during the 14th and 13th centuries BC. Scholars believe that Ephesus was founded on the settlement of Apasa (or Abasa), a Bronze Age-city noted in 14th-century BC Hittite sources as the land of Ahhiyawa.[9]

            The Period of Greek Migrations

            Site of the Temple of Artemis in the town of Selçuk, near Ephesus.
            Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BC on the Ayasuluk Hill, three kilometers from the center of ancient Ephesus (as attested by excavations at the Seljuk castle during the 1990s). The mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos, who had to leave his country after the death of his father, King Kadros. According to the legend, he founded Ephesus on the place where the oracle of Delphi became reality ("A fish and a boar will show you the way"). Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and united his people with the remainder. He was a successful warrior, and as a king he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League. During his reign the city began to prosper. He died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League.[10] Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze, dating from the 2nd century. Later, Greek historians such as Pausanias, Strabo, the poet Kallinos, and the historian Herodotos reassigned the city's mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons.

            The Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. The many-breasted "Lady of Ephesus", identified with Artemis, was venerated in the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the World and the largest building of the ancient world according to Pausanias (4.31.8). Pausanias mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus[11] before the arrival of the Ionians. Of this structure, scarcely a trace remains.

            Archaic period

            About 650 BC, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. After the Cimmerians had been driven away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. After a revolt by the people, Ephesus was ruled by a council called the Kuretes. The city prospered again, producing a number of important historical figures such as the elegiac poet Callinus [12] and the iambic poet Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and later the grammarian Zenodotos and physicians Soranus and Rufus.

            About 560 BC, Ephesus was conquered by the Lydians under king Croesus. He treated the inhabitants with respect, despite ruling harshly, and even became the main contributor to the reconstruction of the temple of Artemis.[13] His signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple (now on display in the British Museum). Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup (synoikismos) in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis, enlarging the city.

            Later in the same century, the Lydians under Croesus invaded Persia. The Ionians refused a peace offer from Cyrus the Great, siding with the Lydians instead. After the Persians defeated Croesus, the Ionians offered to make peace but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire.[14] They were defeated by the Persian army commander Harpagos in 547 BC. The Persians then incorporated the Greek cities of Asia Minor into the Achaemenid Empire. Those cities were then ruled by satraps.

            Ephesus has intrigued archaeologists because for the Archaic Period there is no definite location for the settlement. There are numerous sites to suggest the movement of a settlement between the Bronze Age and the Roman period, but the silting up of the natural harbors as well as the movement of the Kayster River meant that the location never remained the same.

            Classical period

            Ephesus continued to prosper. But when taxes continued to be raised under Cambyses II and Darius, the Ephesians participated in the Ionian Revolt against Persian rule in the Battle of Ephesus (498 BC), an event which instigated the Greco-Persian wars. In 479 BC, the Ionians, together with Athens and Sparta, were able to oust the Persians from the shores of Asia Minor. In 478 BC, the Ionian cities entered with Athens and Sparta into the Delian League against the Persians. Ephesus did not contribute ships but gave financial support by offering the treasure of Apollo to the goddess Athena, protectress of Athens.

            During the Peloponnesian War, Ephesus was first allied to Athens but sided in a later phase, called the Decelean War, or the Ionian War, with Sparta, which also had received the support of the Persians. As a result, rule over the cities of Ionia was ceded again to Persia.

            These wars did not much affect daily life in Ephesus. The Ephesians were surprisingly modern in their social relations. They allowed strangers to integrate. Education was much valued. Through the cult of Artemis, the city also became a bastion of women's rights. Ephesus even had female artists. In later times, Pliny the Elder mentioned having seen at Ephesus a representation of the goddess Diana by Timarata, the daughter of a painter.

            In 356 BC the temple of Artemis was burned down, according to legend, by a lunatic called Herostratus. The inhabitants of Ephesus at once set about restoring the temple and even planned a larger and grander one than the original.

            Hellenistic period

            Historical map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1888
            When Alexander the Great defeated the Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus in 334 BC, the Greek cities of Asia Minor were liberated. The pro-Persian tyrant Syrpax and his family were stoned to death, and Alexander was greeted warmly when he entered Ephesus in triumph. When Alexander saw that the temple of Artemis was not yet finished, he proposed to finance it and have his name inscribed on the front. But the inhabitants of Ephesus demurred, claiming that it was not fitting for one god to build a temple to another. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Ephesus in 290 BC came under the rule of one of Alexander's generals, Lysimachus.

            As the river Cayster (Grk. name Κάϋστρος) silted up the harbor, the resulting marshes caused malaria and many deaths among the inhabitants. The people of Ephesus were forced to move to a new settlement two kilometers further on, when the king flooded the old city by blocking the sewers.[15] This settlement was officially called Arsinoea (Ancient Greek: Ἀρσινόεια[16] or Ἀρσινοΐα[17]) after the king's second wife, Arsinoe II of Egypt. After Lysimachus had destroyed the nearby cities of Lebedos and Colophon in 292 BC, he relocated their inhabitants to the new city.

            Ephesus revolted after the treacherous death of Agathocles, giving the Hellenistic king of Syria and Mesopotamia Seleucus I Nicator an opportunity for removing and killing Lysimachus, his last rival, at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC. After the death of Lysimachus the town again was named Ephesus.

            Thus Ephesus became part of the Seleucid Empire. After the murder of king Antiochus II Theos and his Egyptian wife, pharaoh Ptolemy III invaded the Seleucid Empire and the Egyptian fleet swept the coast of Asia Minor. Ephesus came under Egyptian rule between 263–197 BC.

            When the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great tried to regain the Greek cities of Asia Minor, he came in conflict with Rome. After a series of battles, he was defeated by Scipio Asiaticus at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC. As a result, Ephesus came under the rule of the Attalid king of Pergamon Eumenes II (197–133 BC). When his grandson Attalus III died without male children of his own, he left his kingdom to the Roman Republic.

            Roman period

            Artist Simon Kozhin Ephesus. Ruins Temple of Hadrian.
            The 'terrace houses' at Ephesus, showing how the wealthy lived during the Roman period.
            Ephesus, a territory that was traditionally Greek to the core,[18] became subject of the Roman Republic. The city felt at once the Roman influence. Taxes rose considerably, and the treasures of the city were systematically plundered. In 88 BC Ephesus welcomed Archelaus, a general of Mithridates the Great, king of Pontus, when he conquered Asia (the Roman name for western Asia Minor). This led to the Asiatic Vespers, the slaughter of 80,000 Roman citizens in Asia, or any person who spoke with a Latin accent. Many had lived in Ephesus. But when they saw how badly the people of Chios had been treated by Zenobius, a general of Mithridates, they refused entry to his army. Zenobius was invited into the city to visit Philopoemen (the father of Monime, the favorite wife of Mithridates) and the overseer of Ephesus. As the people expected nothing good of him, they threw him into prison and murdered him. Mithridates took revenge and inflicted terrible punishments. However, the Greek cities were given freedom and several substantial rights. Ephesus became, for a short time, self-governing. When Mithridates was defeated in the First Mithridatic War by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Ephesus came back under the Roman rule in 86 BC. Sulla imposed a huge indemnity, along with five years of back taxes, which left Asian cities heavily in debt for a long time to come.[19]

            When Augustus became emperor in 27 BC, he made Ephesus the capital of proconsular Asia(which covered western Asia Minor) instead of Pergamum. Ephesus then entered an era of prosperity, becoming both the seat of the governor and a major center of commerce. According to Strabo, it was second in importance and size only to Rome.[20] Ephesus has been estimated to be in the range of 400,000 to 500,000 inhabitants in the year 100, making it the largest city in Roman Asia and of the day. Ephesus was at its peak during the 1st and 2nd century AD.

            The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (Diana),[21] who had her chief shrine there, the Library of Celsus, and its theatre, which was capable of holding 25,000 spectators.[22] This open-air theater was used initially for drama, but during later Roman times gladiatorial combats were also held on its stage, with the first archaeological evidence of a gladiator graveyard found in May 2007.[23] The population of Ephesus also had several major bath complexes, built at various points while the city was under Roman rule. The city had one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world, with multiple aqueducts of various sizes to supply different areas of the city, including 4 major aqueducts. They fed a multiple set of water mills, one of which has been identified as a sawmill for marble. The city and temple were destroyed by the Goths in 263 AD. This marked the decline of the city's splendor.

            Byzantine era (395–1308)

            The emperor Constantine I rebuilt much of the city and erected a new public bath. Ephesus remained the most important city of the Byzantine Empire in Asia after Constantinople in the 5th and 6th centuries. Emperor Flavius Arcadius raised the level of the street between the theatre and the harbour. The basilica of St. John was built during the reign of emperor Justinian I in the 6th century. The town was again partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614.

            The importance of the city as a commercial center declined as the harbor was slowly silted up by the river (today, Küçük Menderes) despite repeated dredging during the city's history.[24] (Today, the harbor is 5 kilometers inland). The loss of its harbor caused Ephesus to lose its access to the Aegean Sea, which was important for trade. People started leaving the lowland of the city for the surrounding hills. The ruins of the temples were used as building blocks for new homes. Marble sculptures were ground to powder to make lime for plaster.

            Sackings by the Arabs first in the year 654–655 by caliph Muawiyah I, and later in 700 and 716 hastened the decline further.  When the Seljuk Turks conquered Ephesus in 1090,[25] it was a small village. The Byzantines resumed control in 1097 and changed the name of the town to Hagios Theologos. They kept control of the region until 1308. Crusaders passing through were surprised that there was only a small village, called Ayasalouk, where they had expected a bustling city with a large seaport. Even the temple of Artemis was completely forgotten by the local population. The Crusaders of the Second Crusade fought the Seljuks just outside the town in December 1147.

            Turkish era

            İsa Bey Mosque.
            The town was conquered in 1304 by Sasa Bey, an army commander of the Menteşoğulları principality. Shortly afterwards, it was ceded to the Aydinid principality that stationed a powerful navy in the harbour of Ayasuluğ (the present-day Selçuk, next to Ephesus). Ayasoluk became an important harbour, from whence the navy organised raids to the surrounding regions.

            The town knew again a short period of flourishing during the 14th century under these new Seljuk rulers. They added important architectural works such as the İsa Bey Mosque, caravansaries and Turkish bathhouses (hamam).

            They were incorporated as vassals into the Ottoman Empire for the first time in 1390. The Central Asian warlord Tamerlane defeated the Ottomans in Anatolia in 1402, and the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I died in captivity. The region was restored to the Anatolian beyliks. After a period of unrest, the region was again incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1425.

            Ephesus was eventually completely abandoned in the 15th century and lost her former glory. Nearby Ayasuluğ was renamed Selçuk in 1914.

            Ephesus and Christianity

            House of the Virgin Mary
            Ephesus was an important center for Early Christianity from the AD 50s. From AD 52–54, Paul lived in Ephesus, working with the congregation and apparently organizing missionary activity into the hinterlands.[26] He became embroiled in a dispute with artisans, whose livelihood depended on selling the statuettes of Artemis in the Temple of Artemis (Acts 19:23–41). He wrote between 53 and 57 AD the letter 1 Corinthians from Ephesus (possibly from the "Paul tower" close to the harbour, where he was imprisoned for a short time). Later Paul wrote the Epistle to Ephesians while he was in prison in Rome (around 62 AD).

            Roman Asia was associated with John,[27] one of the chief apostles, and the Gospel of John might have been written in Ephesus, c 90–100.[28] Ephesus was one of the seven cities addressed in Revelation (Revelation 2:1–7), indicating that the church at Ephesus was strong.

            Two decades later, the church at Ephesus was still important enough to be addressed by a letter written by Bishop Ignatius of Antioch to the Ephesians in the early 2nd century AD, that begins with, "Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which is at Ephesus, in Asia, deservedly most happy, being blessed in the greatness and fullness of God the Father, and predestinated before the beginning of time, that it should be always for an enduring and unchangeable glory" (Letter to the Ephesians). The church at Ephesus had given their support for Ignatius, who was taken to Rome for execution.

            A legend, which was first mentioned by Epiphanius of Salamis in the 4th century AD, purported that Mary may have spent the last years of her life in Ephesus. The Ephesians derived the argument from John's presence in the city, and Jesus’ instructions to John to take care of Mary after his death. Epiphanius, however, was keen to point out that, while the Bible says John was leaving for Asia, it specifically does not say that Mary went with him. He later stated that she was buried in Jerusalem.[29] Since the 19th century, The House of the Virgin Mary, about 7 km (4 mi) from Selçuk, is purported to have been the last home of Mary, mother of Jesus in the Roman Catholic tradition, based on the visions of Sister Anne Catherine Emmerich. It is a popular place of Catholic pilgrimage which has been visited by three recent popes.

            The Church of Mary close to the harbor of Ephesus was the setting for the Third Ecumenical Council in 431, which resulted in the condemnation of Nestorius. A Second Council of Ephesus was held in 449, but its controversial acts were never approved by the Catholics. It came to be called the Robber Council of Ephesus or Robber Synod of Latrocinium by its opponents.

            Main sites

            Roman Library of Celsus.
            Gate of Augustus.
            Tomb of John the Apostle at the Basilica of St. John.
            Ephesus contains the largest collection of Roman ruins in the eastern Mediterranean. Only an estimated 15% has been excavated. The ruins that are visible give some idea of the city's original splendor, and the names associated with the ruins are evocative of its former life. The theater dominates the view down Harbor Street, which leads to the silted-up harbor.

            The Library of Celsus, the façade of which has been carefully reconstructed from all original pieces, it was originally built c. 125 AD in memory of Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, an Ancient Greek[30][31][32] who served as governor of Roman Asia (105–107) in the Roman Empire. Celsus paid for the construction of the library with his own personal wealth,[33] and is buried in a sarcophagus beneath it.[34] The library was mostly built by his son Gaius Julius Aquila[35] and once held nearly 12,000 scrolls. Designed with an exaggerated entrance — so as to enhance its perceived size, speculate many historians — the building faces east so that the reading rooms could make best use of the morning light.

            A part of the site, Basilica of St. John, was built in the 6th century AD, under emperor Justinian I over the supposed site of the apostle's tomb. It is now surrounded by Selçuk.

            The Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is represented only by one inconspicuous column, revealed during an archaeological excavation by the British Museum in the 1870s. Some fragments of the frieze (which are insufficient to suggest the form of the original) and other small finds were removed – some to London and some to the Archaeological Museum, Istanbul.

            The Odeon was a small roofed theater[36] constructed by Vedius Antonius and his wife around 150 AD. It was a small salon for plays and concerts, seating about 1,500 people. There were 22 stairs in the theater. The upper part of the theater was decorated with red granite pillars in the Corinthian style. The entrances were at both sides of the stage and reached by a few steps.[37]

            The Temple of Hadrian dates from the 2nd century but underwent repairs in the 4th century and has been reerected from the surviving architectural fragments. The reliefs in the upper sections are casts, the originals being now exhibited in the Ephesus Archaeological Museum. A number of figures are depicted in the reliefs, including the emperor Theodosius I with his wife and eldest son.[38] The temple was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 20 million lira banknote of 2001–2005[39] and of the 20 new lira banknote of 2005–2009.[40]
            The Temple of Domitian was one of the largest temples in the city. It was erected on a pseudodipteral plan with 8 x 13 columns. The temple and its statue are some of the few remains connected with Domitian.[38]

            At an estimated 24,000 seating capacity, the Theater is believed to be the largest outdoor theater in the ancient world.  The Tomb/Fountain of Pollio was erected in 97 AD in honor of C. Sextilius Pollio, who constructed the Marnas aqueduct, by Offilius Proculus. It has a concave façade.[37][38] There were two agoras, one for commercial and one for state business.[41][42]

            Seven sleepers

            Ephesus is believed to be the city of the Seven Sleepers. The story of the Seven Sleepers, who are considered saints by Catholics and Orthodox Christians and whose story is also mentioned in the Qur'an,[43] tells that they were persecuted because of their belief in God and that they slept in a cave near Ephesus for centuries.


            The history of archaeological research in Ephesus stretches back to 1863, when British architect John Turtle Wood, sponsored by the British Museum, began to search for the Artemision. In 1869 he discovered the pavement of the temple, but since further expected discoveries were not made the excavations stopped in 1874. In 1895 German archaeologist Otto Benndorf, financed by a 10,000 guilder donation made by Austrian Karl Mautner Ritter von Markhof, resumed excavations. In 1898 Benndorf founded the Austrian Archaeological Institute which plays a leading role in Ephesus today.[44]  Finds from the site are exhibited notably in the Ephesos Museum in Vienna, the Ephesus Archaeological Museum in Selçuk and in the British Museum.


                  1. ^ Olausson, Lena; Sangster, Catherine (2006). Oxford BBC Guide to Pronunciation. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-19-280710-6.
                  2. ^ Oklahoma Christian University: Ephesus
                  3. ^ Freely, John (2004). The western shores of Turkey: discovering the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. New York: I.B. Tauris. pp. 147–8. ISBN 1-85043-618-5.
                  4. ^ 2:1–7
                  5. ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible, Palo Alto, Mayfield, 1985.
                  6. ^ [VIII. Muze Kurtrma Kazilari Semineri ] Adil Evren – Cengiz Icten,pp 111–133 1997
                  7. ^ [Arkeoloji ve Sanat Dergisi – Cukurici Hoyuk sayi 92 ] Adil Evren 1998
                  8. ^ Coskun Özgünel (1996). "Mykenische Keramik in Anatolien". Asia Minor Studien 23.
                  9. ^ Akurgal, Ekrem (2001). The Hattian and Hittite Civilizations. Publications of the Republic of Turkey; Ministry of Culture. p. 111. ISBN 975-17-2756-1.
                  10. ^ Pausanias (1965). Description of Greece,. New York: Loeb Classical Library. pp. 7.2.8–9.
                  11. ^ "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology". Retrieved 2009-04-20.
                  12. ^ translation by M.L. West (1999). Greek Lyric Poetry. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-19-283678-1.
                  13. ^ Cremin, Aedeen (2007). The World Encyclopedia of Archaeology. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Firefly Books. p. 173. ISBN 1-55407-311-1.
                  14. ^ Herodotus i. 141
                  15. ^ Strabo (1923-19-32). Geography (volume 1–7). Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press. pp. 14.1.21.
                  16. ^ Edwyn Robert Bevan, The House of Seleucus, Vol. 1 (E. Arnold, 1902), p. 119.
                  17. ^ Wilhelm Pape, Wörterbuch der griechischen Eigennamen, Vol. 3 (Braunschweig, 1870), p. 145.
                  18. ^ Makowiecka, Elżbieta (1978). The origin and evolution of architectural form of Roman library. Wydaw-a UW. p. 62. OCLC 5099783. "It was erected in Ephesus, in Asia Minor, in territory that was traditionally Greek to the core. That is why Celsus’ library in Ephesus represents very important element in tracing the development of Roman libraries."
                  19. ^ Appian of Alexandria (c.95 AD-c.165 AD). "History of Rome: The Mithridatic Wars §§46–50". Retrieved 2007-10-02.
                  20. ^ Strabo . Geography (volume 1–7) 14.1.24. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press
                  21. ^ "accessed September 14, 2007". Retrieved 2009-04-20.
                  22. ^ Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert (1995). "Ephesus". International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2.
                  23. ^ Kupper, Monika (2007-05-02). "". BBC News. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
                  24. ^ Kjeilen, Tore (2007-02-20). "accessed September 24, 2007". Retrieved 2009-04-20.
                  25. ^ Foss, Clive (1979) Ephesus after antiquity: a late antique, Byzantine, and Turkish city, Cambridge University Press, p. 121.
                    Gökovalı, Şadan; Altan Erguvan (1982) Ephesus, Ticaret Matbaacılık, p.7.
                  26. ^ "Paul, St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
                  27. ^ Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972
                  28. ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "The Gospels" p. 266-268
                  29. ^ Vasiliki Limberis, 'The Council of Ephesos: The Demise of the See of Ephesos and the Rise of the Cult of the Theotokos' in Helmut Koester, Ephesos: Metropolis of Asia (2004), 327.
                  30. ^ Richard Wallace, Wynne Williams (1998). The three worlds of Paul of Tarsus. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 0-415-13591-5, 9780415135917. "Apart from the public buildings for which such benefactors paid – the library at Ephesos, for example, recently reconstructed, built by Tiberius Iulius Aquila Polmaeanus in 110–20 in honour of his father Tiberius Iulius Celsus Polemaeanus, one of the earliest men of purely Greek origin to become a Roman consul"
                  31. ^ Nicols, John (1978). Vespasian and the partes Flavianae, Issues 28–31. Steiner. p. 109. ISBN 3-515-02393-3, 9783515023931. "Ti. Julius Celsus Polemaeanus (PIR2 J 260) was a romanized Greek of Ephesus or Sardes who became the first eastern consul."
                  32. ^ Forte, Bettie (1972). Rome and the Romans as the Greeks saw them. American Academy in Rome. p. 260. OCLC 560733. "The Julio-Claudian emperors admitted relatively few Greeks to citizenship, but these showed satisfaction with their new position and privileges. Tiberius is known to have enfranchised only Tib. Julius Polemaeanus, ancestor of a prominent governor later in the century)"
                  33. ^ Too, Yun Lee (2010). The idea of the library in the ancient world. Oxford University Press. p. 213. ISBN 0-19-957780-3, 9780199577804. "... and son of Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, proconsul of Asia, who founds the Celsian library from his own wealth ..."
                  34. ^ Hanfmann, George Maxim Anossov (1975). From Croesus to Constantine: the cities of western Asia Minor and their arts in Greek and Roman times. University of Michigan Press. p. 65. ISBN 0-472-08420-8, 9780472084203. "…statues (lost except for their bases) were probably of Celsus, consul in A.D. 92, and his son Aquila, consul in A.D. 110. A cuirass statue stood in the central niche of the upper storey. Its identification oscillates between Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, who is buried in a sarcophagus under the library, and Tiberius Julius Aquila Polemaeanus, who completed the building for his father"
                  35. ^ Swain, Simon (1998). Hellenism and empire: language, classicism, and power in the Greek world, AD 50–250. Oxford University Press. p. 171. ISBN 0-19-815231-0, 9780198152316. "Sardis had already seen two Greek senators ... Ti. Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, cos. Suff. N 92 (Halfmann 1979: no 160), who endowed the remarkable Library of Celsus at Ephesus, and his son Ti. Julius Aquila Polemaeanus, cos. suff. in 110, who built most of it."
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                  37. Keskin, Naci. Ephesus. ISBN 975-7559-48-2
                  38. Ephesus. Distributed by Rehber Basım Yayın Dağıtım Reklamcılık ve Tic. A.Ş. and Revak publishers. ISBN 975-8212-11-7,
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                    Announcement on the Withdrawal of E8 New Turkish Lira Banknotes from Circulation, 8 May 2007. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
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                  43. ^ O'Mahony, Anthony (2004). "Louis Massignon, The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus". In Bartholomew, Craig G. Explorations in a Christian Theology of Pilgrimage. Aldershot, England: Ashgate. pp. 135–6. ISBN 0-7546-0856-5.
                  44. ^ "Ephesos – An Ancient Metropolis: Exploration and History". Austrian Archaeological Institute. October 2008. Retrieved 2009-11-01.


                        Catechism of the Catholic Church

                        Part One: Profession of Faith, Sect 2 The Creeds, Ch 2 Art 2

                        CHAPTER TWO

                        ARTICLE 2
                        "AND IN JESUS CHRIST, HIS ONLY SON, OUR LORD" 

                        The Good News: God has sent his Son
                         422 'But when the time had fully come, God sent forth his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as sons.'Gal 4:4-5. This is 'the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God':Mk 1:1 God has visited his people. He has fulfilled the promise he made to Abraham and his descendants. He acted far beyond all expectation - he has sent his own 'beloved Son'.Mk 1:11; cf. Lk 1:5, 68

                        423 We believe and confess that Jesus of Nazareth, born a Jew of a daughter of Israel at Bethlehem at the time of King Herod the Great and the emperor Caesar Augustus, a carpenter by trade, who died crucified in Jerusalem under the procurator Pontius Pilate during the reign of the emperor Tiberius, is the eternal Son of God made man. He 'came from God',Jn 13:3'descended from heaven',Jn 3:13; 6:33 and 'came in the flesh'.1 Jn 4:2 For 'the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth; we have beheld his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father. . . and from his fullness have we all received, grace upon grace.'Jn 1:14,16

                        424 Moved by the grace of the Holy Spirit and drawn by the Father, we believe in Jesus and confess: 'You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.'Mt 16:16 On the rock of this faith confessed by St. Peter, Christ built his Church.Mt 16:18; St. Leo the Great, Sermo 4 3: PL 54,150 - 152; 51,1: PL 54, 309B; 62, 2: PL 54, 350-351; 83, 3: PL 54, 431-432

                        "To preach. . . the unsearchable riches of Christ"Eph 3:8
                         425 The transmission of the Christian faith consists primarily in proclaiming Jesus Christ in order to lead others to faith in him. From the beginning, the first disciples burned with the desire to proclaim Christ: "We cannot but speak of what we have seen and heard." Acts 4:20 It and they invite people of every era to enter into the joy of their communion with Christ: 

                        That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon and touched with our hands, concerning the word of life - the life was made manifest, and we saw it, and testify to it, and proclaim to you the eternal life which was with the Father and was made manifest to us - that which we have seen and heard we proclaim also to you, so that you may have fellowship with us; and our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ. and we are writing this that our joy may be complete.Jn 1:1-4

                        At the heart of catechesis: Christ
                        426 "At the heart of catechesis we find, in essence, a Person, the Person of Jesus of Nazareth, the only Son from the Father. . .who suffered and died for us and who now, after rising, is living with us forever."CT 5 To catechize is "to reveal in the Person of Christ the whole of God's eternal design reaching fulfilment in that Person. It is to seek to understand the meaning of Christ's actions and words and of the signs worked by him."CT 5 Catechesis aims at putting "people . . . in communion . . . with Jesus Christ: only he can lead us to the love of the Father in the Spirit and make us share in the life of the Holy Trinity."CT 5

                        427 In catechesis "Christ, the Incarnate Word and Son of God,. . . is taught - everything else is taught with reference to him - and it is Christ alone who teaches - anyone else teaches to the extent that he is Christ's spokesman, enabling Christ to teach with his lips. . . Every catechist should be able to apply to himself the mysterious words of Jesus: 'My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me.'"CT 6; cf. Jn 7:16

                        428 Whoever is called "to teach Christ" must first seek "the surpassing worth of knowing Christ Jesus"; he must suffer "the loss of all things. . ." in order to "gain Christ and be found in him", and "to know him and the power of his resurrection, and (to) share his sufferings, becoming like him in his death, that if possible (he) may attain the resurrection from the dead".Phil 3:8-11

                        429 From this loving knowledge of Christ springs the desire to proclaim him, to "evangelize", and to lead others to the "yes" of faith in Jesus Christ. But at the same time the need to know this faith better makes itself felt. To this end, following the order of the Creed, Jesus' principal titles - "Christ", "Son of God", and "Lord" (article 2) - will be presented. the Creed next confesses the chief mysteries of his life - those of his Incarnation (article 3), Paschal mystery (articles 4 and 5) and glorification (articles 6 and 7).