Friday, March 22, 2013

Saturday, March 16, 2013, Litany Lane Blog, Absolution, Jeremiah 11:18-20, Psalms 7:2-12, John 7:40-53, Pope Frances Activites, St Abban, Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis, Catholic Catechism Part One Section 2 The Creeds Chapter 3:12:1 I Believe in Life Everlasting

Saturday, March 16, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog:

Absolution, Jeremiah 11:18-20, Psalms 7:2-12, John 7:40-53, Pope Frances Activites, St Abban, Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis, Catholic Catechism Part One Section 2 The Creeds Chapter 3:12:1 I Believe in Life Everlasting

Good Day Bloggers!  Wishing everyone a Blessed Week!

Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. Its your choice whether to rise towards eternal light or lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to Purgatory and/or Heaven is our Soul, our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


Prayers for Today: Saturday in Lent


 Papam Franciscus
(Pope Francis)


Vatican City, 16 March 2013 (VIS) – Following is a list of the upcoming activities of the Holy Father scheduled between 17 and 24 March:

17 March, Sunday: 10:00am, private Mass in the Vatican parish of Santa Ana.
12:00pm, Angelus from the window of his private study overlooking St. Peter's Square.

18 March, Monday: Meeting with the President of the Republic of Argentina at the Domus Sancthae Marthae.

19 March, Tuesday: 9:30am, Eucharistic celebration to inaugurate the Petrine ministry in St. Peter's Square (Entrance into the square will be permitted beginning at 6:30am. No tickets will be issued for that Mass. All who wish may attend.) Afterwards, before the Altar of the Confession in the Basilica, he will receive the greetings of heads of official delegations and later will return to the Domus Sancthae Marthae for lunch.

20 March, Wednesday: 11:00am, audience with fraternal delegates in the Clementine Hall of the Vatican Apostolic Palace.

22 March, Friday: audience with members of the diplomatic corps accredited to the Holy See in the Sala Regia of the Vatican Apostolic Palace.

23 March, Saturday: 12:00pm, departure in helicopter from the Vatican heliport. At 12:15pm he will meet and lunch with Pope emeritus Benedict XVI at Castel Gandolfo and will then return to the Vatican.

24 March, Sunday: 9:30am, Palm Sunday Eucharistic celebration in St. Peter's Square.
12:00pm, Angelus.


  • Vatican News. From the Pope. © Copyright 2013 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Accessed 3/15/2013.


March 2, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
“Dear children; Anew, in a motherly way, I am calling you not to be of a hard heart. Do not shut your eyes to the warnings which the Heavenly Father sends to you out of love. Do you love Him above all else? Do you repent for having often forgotten that the Heavenly Father, out of His great love, sent His Son to redeem us by the Cross? Do you repent for not having accepted the message? My children, do not resist the love of my Son. Do not resist hope and peace. Along with your prayers and fasting, by His Cross, my Son will cast away the darkness that wants to surround you and come to rule over you. He will give you the strength for a new life. Living it according to my Son, you will be a blessing and a hope to all those sinners who wander in the darkness of sin. My children, keep vigil. I, as a mother, am keeping vigil with you. I am especially praying and watching over those whom my Son called to be light-bearers and carriers of hope for you – for your shepherds. Thank you.”

February 25, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
“Dear children! Also today I call you to prayer. Sin is pulling you towards worldly things and I have come to lead you towards holiness and the things of God, but you are struggling and spending your energies in the battle with the good and the evil that are in you. Therefore, little children, pray, pray, pray until prayer becomes a joy for you and your life will become a simple walk towards God. Thank you for having responded to my call.”

 February 2, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
"Dear children, love is bringing me to you - the love which I desire to teach you also - real love; the love which my Son showed you when He died on the Cross out of love for you; the love which is always ready to forgive and to ask for forgiveness. How great is your love? My motherly heart is sorrowful as it searches for love in your hearts. You are not ready to submit your will to God's will out of love. You cannot help me to have those who have not come to know God's love to come to know it, because you do not have real love. Consecrate your hearts to me and I will lead you. I will teach you to forgive, to love your enemies and to live according to my Son. Do not be afraid for yourselves. In afflictions my Son does not forget those who love. I will be beside you. I will implore the Heavenly Father for the light of eternal truth and love to illuminate you. Pray for your shepherds so that through your fasting and prayer they can lead you in love. Thank you."



Today's Word:  absolution  ab·so·lu·tion  [ab-suh-loo-shuhn]

Origin: 1175–1225; Middle English absolucion  < Latin absolūtiōn-  (stem of absolūtiō ) acquittal. See absolute, -ion
1. act of absolving; a freeing from blame or guilt; release from consequences, obligations, or penalties.
2. state of being absolved.
3. Roman Catholic Theology .

a. a remission of sin or of the punishment for sin, made by a priest in the sacrament of penance on the ground of authority received from Christ.
b. the formula declaring such remission.
4. Protestant Theology . a declaration or assurance of divine forgiveness to penitent believers, made after confession of sins.


Today's Old Testament Reading -  Psalms 7:2-3, 9-12

2 or he will savage me like a lion, carry me off with no one to rescue me.
3 Yahweh my God, if I have done this: if injustice has stained my hands,
9 Put an end to the malice of the wicked, make the upright stand firm, you who discern hearts and minds, God the upright.
10 God is a shield that protects me, saving the honest of heart.
11 God is an upright judge, slow to anger, but a God at all times threatening
12 for those who will not repent. Let the enemy whet his sword, draw his bow and make ready;


Today's Epistle -  Jeremiah 11:18-20

18 Yahweh informed me and I knew it; you then revealed their scheming to me.
19 I for my part was like a trustful lamb being led to the slaughterhouse, not knowing the schemes they were plotting against me, 'Let us destroy the tree in its strength, let us cut him off from the land of the living, so that his name may no longer be remebered!'
20 Yahweh Sabaoth, whose judgement is upright, tester of motives and thoughts, I shall see your vengeance on them, for I have revealed my cause to you.


Today's Gospel Reading - John 7: 40-53

Some of the crowd who had been listening Jesus said, 'He is indeed the prophet,' and some said, 'He is the Christ,' but others said, 'Would the Christ come from Galilee? Does not scripture say that the Christ must be descended from David and come from Bethlehem, the village where David was?' So the people could not agree about him.

Some wanted to arrest him, but no one actually laid a hand on him. The guards went back to the chief priests and Pharisees who said to them, 'Why haven't you brought him?' The guards replied, 'No one has ever spoken like this man.' 'So,' the Pharisees answered, 'you, too, have been led astray? Have any of the authorities come to believe in him? Any of the Pharisees? This rabble knows nothing about the Law -- they are damned.'

One of them, Nicodemus -- the same man who had come to Jesus earlier -- said to them, 'But surely our Law does not allow us to pass judgement on anyone without first giving him a hearing and discovering what he is doing?' To this they answered, 'Are you a Galilean too? Go into the matter, and see for yourself: prophets do not arise in Galilee.' They all went home.
• In chapter 7, John confirms that there were diverse opinions and much confusion among the people regarding Jesus. The relatives thought something (Jn 7, 2-5), people thought something different (Jn 7, 12). Some said: “He is a prophet!” (Jn 7, 40). Others said: “He leads the people astray!” (Jn 7, 12). Some praised him: “He is a good man!” (Jn 7, 12). Others criticized him: “He has not been educated, has not studied!” (Jn 7, 15). Many opinions. Each one had his own arguments, taken from the Bible or from Tradition. But nobody remembered the Messiah Servant, announced by Isaiah (Is 42, 1-9; 49, 1-6; 50, 4-9; 52, 13-53, 12; 61, 1-2). Today, also, there is much discussion on religion, and all take their arguments from the Bible. As in the past, the same thing today, it happens many times that little ones are deceived by the discourses of the great ones and, some times, even by the discourses of those who belong to the Church.

• John 7, 40-44: The confusion among the people. The reaction of the people is very diverse. Some say: he is the prophet. Others: he is the Messiah; the Christ. Others claim: He cannot be because the Messiah will come from Bethlehem and he comes from Galilee! These diverse ideas on the Messiah produce division and confrontation. There were some who wanted to take him, to arrest him, but they did not do it. Perhaps because they were afraid of the people (cf. Mt 14, 2).

• John 7, 45-49: The arguments of the authority. Previously, before the reaction of the people who were in favour of Jesus, the Pharisees had sent some guards to arrest him (Jn 7, 32). But the guards returned without Jesus. They had been greatly impressed in hearing people speak so well: “No one has ever spoken like this man!” The Pharisees reacted: “Have you also been led astray?” According to the Pharisees who said: “This rabble knows nothing about the Law” and allows itself to be deceived by Jesus. It is as if they said: “No, we the chief priests know things better and we do not allow ourselves to be led astray!” and they say that the people are “damned”! The religious authority of that time treated people with great contempt.

• John 7, 50-52: The defence of Jesus by Nicodemus. Before this stupid argument, the honesty of Nicodemus revolts and he raises his voice to defend Jesus: “But surely our Law does not allow us to pass judgment on anyone without first giving him a hearing and discovering what he is doing?” The reaction of the others is that Nicodemus is mocking them: “Nicodemus are you also from Galilee? Look at the Bible and you will see for yourself that prophets do not arise in Galilee!” They are sure! Holding the book of the past, they defend themselves against the future which arrives and disturbs them. Today, many people continue to do the same thing. They only accept the novelty if it agrees with their own ideas which belong to the past.
Personal questions
• Today, which are the diverse opinions that people have about Jesus? And in your community, are there different opinions which cause confusion? Which? Say them, describe them.
• There are persons who accept only the novelty which agrees with their own ideas and which belongs to the past. And you?

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  Saint Abbán moccu Corbmaic

Feast DayMarch 16

Patron Saint:  Mag Arnaide (Adamstown, Co. Wexford), Cell Abbáin (Killabban, Co. Laois), etc.
Attributes: n/a

Chapel of St Cormac,
Christian chapel at Eilean Mòr, Jura,
in the MacCormaig Isles (Scotland).
Like the church of Keills (Kilvickocharmick)
on Scottish mainland, it may be associated with Abbán
Abbán moccu Corbmaic (d. 520?), also Eibbán or Moabba, is a saint in Irish tradition. He was associated, first and foremost, with Mag Arnaide (Moyarney or Adamstown, near New Ross, Co. Wexford) and with Cell Abbáin (Killabban, County Laois).[3] His cult was, however, also connected to other churches elsewhere in Ireland, notably that of his alleged sister Gobnait.

Three recensions of the saint's Life survive, two in Latin and one in Irish. The Latin versions are found in the Codex Dublinensis and the Codex Salmanticensis, while the Irish version is preserved incomplete in two manuscripts: the Mícheál Ó Cléirigh's manuscript Brussels, Royal Library MS 2324-40, fos. 145b-150b and also the RIA, Stowe MS A 4, pp. 205–21.[4] These Lives probably go back to a Latin exemplar written in ca. 1218 by the bishop of Ferns, Ailbe Ua Maíl Mhuaidh (Ailbe O'Mulloy), who died in 1223.[3] His interest in the saint partly stemmed from the fact that Mag Arnaide lay within the diocese of Ferns, but as this was only a minor church in his time, more must have been involved.[3] An episode which shows something of Ailbe's personal attachment to the saint's cult is that where the saint arrives in the area between Éile and Fir Chell, i.e. on the marches between Munster and Leinster: Abbán converts a man of royal rank from the area and baptises his son. Ailbe is known to have been a native of this area, but his own commentary as apparently preserved in the Dublin Life identifies the connection more nearly: "I who gathered together and wrote the Life am a descendant [nepos] of that son"[3][5] However, the immediate circumstances which prompted the composition of the Life are likely to have been political, relating to Norman presence in the diocese of Ferns. To support his case, Ailbe made much of the saint's wider connections to other churches and saints, making him travel all across the country and in the case of the anecdote about Abingdon (see below), even inventing tradition.[3]

Other sources for Abbán's life and cult include the Irish genealogies of the saints and the entries for his feast-day in the martyrologies. His pedigree is given in the Book of Leinster, Leabhar Breac, Rawlinson B 502 and in glosses to his entries in the Félire Óengusso.[6]

Background and life

His pedigree in the Irish genealogies, which appear to have been composed in the interest of Cell Abbáin, suggests that he belonged to the Uí Chormaic (also Moccu Chormaic or Dál Chormaic).[3] It identifies his father as Laignech (lit. "Leinsterman"), son of Mac Cainnech, son of Cabraid, son of Cormac, son of Cú Corb,[7] while an Irish note to the Félire Óengusso (for 27 October) largely agrees if substituting Cabraid for Imchad.[6] The Lives, on the other hand, state that his father was Cormac son of Ailill, king of Leinster, who died in 435 according to the Annals of the Four Masters, and name his mother Mílla, sister to St Ibar.[8][9]

The Lives confuse the time of the saint's historical floruit by attributing to him a life-span of over 300 years.[10] He is brought into contact with such illustrious saints as Finnian of Clonard, Brendan of Clonfert (d. 577), Columba (d. 597), Gregory the Great, Munnu and Moling. One of the saint's foundations is said to have been repeatedly pillaged by Cormac mac Diarmata (fl. 2nd half of the 6th century), king of Leinster from the Uí Bairrche, who is portrayed in much Leinster hagiography as a rival to the Uí Chennselaig. Abbán is also made a contemporary of even earlier figures like Saint Íbar, who is claimed to be his maternal uncle, and St Patrick.

Nothing is known of Abbán's early life. The Lives tell that he was expected to succeed his father in Leinster, but that his devotion to God and the saintly miracles which he wrought while still in fosterage soon made clear that he was destined for a career in the church. The boy was sent to his maternal uncle, Bishop Íbar, with whom he travelled to Rome. In Italy, Abbán's saintly powers proved to be of much use in warding off any danger presented by men, monsters and supernatural phenomena. Throughout the text, Abbán can be seen demonstrating his powers, exercising special authority over rivers and seas.


The glosses to the two entries for Abbán in the Félire Óengusso associate him with Mag Arnaide (Co. Wexford), in the territory of the Uí Chennselaig (also Uí Buide), and with Cell Abbáin (Co. Loais), in the territory of the Uí Muiredaig.[6]

However, Abbán's activities were also linked to many other parts of Ireland. Of special note is the tradition that St Gobnait was his sister and that his grave was to be found near her church or nunnery in Bairnech, now Ballyvourney (Muskerry, Co. Cork).[3] As the later recensions suggest, Ailbe's original Life seems to build on this connection by claiming that Abbán founded Ballyvourney and gave it to his sister.[3] According to his Lives, he began to found a string of churches after returning from a second visit to Rome. Other churches said to have been founded by him include Cell Ailbe (Co. Meath) and Camross (Co. Laois).

The Bollandists argued that the Abbán of Mag Arnaide and the Abbán of Cell Abbáin were originally two distinct saints, one commemorated on 16 March, the other on 27 October, but that the two were conflated from an early period.[11] This conclusion, however, has been rejected by scholars like W.W. Heist and Charles Plummer.[11]

There is also a brief biographical reference to Saint Abbán in the official hagiographical compilation of the Orthodox Church, The Great Synaxaristes, for May 13.[2] This source states that he was baptized in 165 AD, became a missionary in the Abingdon area of England, and reposed in peace.

Abingdon and Irish-Norman relations

The Life puts forward the spurious claim that Abingdon, the town near Oxford, is to be explained etymologically as Abbain dun, "Abbán's town". The aetiological tale goes that the town took its name from the saint, because he had successfully converted the king and the people of the area.[3][12] The story was not an isolated one. The etymology is also brought up by the author who revised the 12h-century chronicle of the house, Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis ("The History of the Church of Abingdon"). As Abingdon Abbey lay in a valley, he prefers the Irish derivation: "For we have learnt from our contemporaries that, according to the language of the Irish, Abingdon is interpreted 'house of Aben'; but according to the language of the English, Abingdon commonly means 'the hill of Aben'."[13]

Pádraig Ó Riain proposes that the episode in the saint's Life was intended to offer some counterweight against English propaganda which asserted that the need for religious and ecclesiastical guidance justified English presence in Ireland; and that, in fact, the linguistic convenience was what made the saint of an otherwise minor church such a suitable protagonist.[3] More specifically, Ailbe may have written his Life in response to his quarrel with William Earl Marshall, who had seized two manors near New Ross, and Normans rather than Irishmen may have been his target audience.[14] It has been argued that the formative occasion for the story was a visit to Abingon made in 1080 by Lorcán Ua Tuathail (Lawrence O'Toole), Archbishop of Dublin, who stayed there for three weeks before accompanying Henry II to Normandy. Ailbe, being one of the archbishop's disciples, may have been present.[13]


In the Martyrology of Tallaght, the Félire Óengusso and the Martyrology of Gorman, Abbán has two feast-days: 16 March and 27 October,[6] which is identified in the Lives as his death-date. John Colgan and Ó Cléirigh's Martyrology of Donegal only mention Abbán for 16 March.

His entries in the Félire Óengusso praise him as an "angelic bush of gold" (doss óir ainglech) and "an abbot fair and train-having" (abb cain clíarach).[6]


  1. ^ See Fisher, I. (1997). "Early Christian archaeology in Argyll". In Graham Ritchie. Archaeology of Argyll. Edinburgh. pp. 181–204: 191.
  2. ^ a b (Greek) Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἀββανός. 13 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ó Riain, "Abbán"
  4. ^ Irish Life of St Abbán, ed. Plummer, p. xiv.
  5. ^ Latin Life of St Abbán in the Codex Dublinensis, ed. Plummer, §26.
  6. ^ a b c d e Félire Óengusso, 16 March and 27 October.
  7. ^ Corpus genealogiarum sanctorum Hiberniae, Ó Riain, p. 46.
  8. ^ Culleton, Celtic and early Christian Wexford, p. 98.
  9. ^ AFM M535.3.
  10. ^ Latin Life of St Abbán in the Codex Dublinensis, ed. Plummer, § 17.
  11. ^ a b Culleton, Celtic and early Christian Wexford, p. 97.
  12. ^ Latin Life of St Abbán in the Codex Dublinensis, ed. Plummer § 14.
  13. ^ a b Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis, ed. Hudson, p. xliii.
  14. ^ O'Neill, "The impact of the Norman invasion", p. 178.


    Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane



    Today's Snippet I:   Inner Hebrides

    The Inner Hebrides (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan a-staigh, "the inner isles") is an archipelago off the west coast of Mainland Scotland, to the southeast of the Outer Hebrides. Together these two island chains form the Hebrides, which experience a mild oceanic climate. There are 36 inhabited islands and a further 43 uninhabited Inner Hebrides with an area greater than 30 hectares (74 acres). The main commercial activities are tourism, crofting, fishing, and whisky distilling. In modern times the Inner Hebrides have formed part of two separate local government jurisdictions, one to the north and the other to the south. Together, the islands have an area of about 412,850 hectares (1,594 sq mi), and had a population of 18,257 people in 2001.[1] The population density is therefore a little over 4 persons per km2 (11 persons per square mile).

    There are various important prehistoric structures, many of which pre-date the first written references to the islands by Roman and Greek authors. In the historic period the earliest known settlers were Picts to the north and Gaels in the southern kingdom of Dalriada prior to the islands becoming part of the Suðreyjar kingdom of the Norse, who ruled for over 400 years until sovereignty was transferred to Scotland by the Treaty of Perth in 1266. Control of the islands was then held by various clan chiefs, principal of whom were the MacLeans, MacLeods and MacDonalds. The Highland Clearances of the 19th century had a devastating effect on many communities and it is only in recent years that population levels have ceased to decline.

    Sea transport is crucial and a variety of ferry services operate between the islands and to mainland Britain. The Gaelic language remains strong in some areas, the landscapes have inspired a variety of artists, and there is a diversity of wildlife.


    Inner Hebrides
    The islands form a disparate archipelago of which the largest are, from south to north Islay, Jura, Mull, Rùm, and Skye. Skye is the largest of all and most populous with an area of 165,625 hectares (639 sq mi) and a population of about 9,200.[2][3]

    The southern group are in Argyll, an area roughly corresponding with the heartlands of the ancient kingdom of Dál Riata and incorporated into the modern unitary council area of Argyll and Bute. The northern islands were part of the county of Inverness-shire and are now in the Highland Council area.

    The geology and geomorphology of the islands is varied. Some, such as Skye and Mull, are mountainous, whilst others like Tiree are relatively low lying. The highest eminences are found in the Cuillin hills of Skye, although peaks over 300 metres (980 ft) are common elsewhere.[2] Much of the coastline is machair, a fertile low-lying dune pastureland.[7] Many of the islands are swept by strong tides, and the Corryvreckan tide race between Scarba and Jura is one of the largest whirlpools in the world.[8]

    There are various small subsidiary archipelagoes including the Ascrib Islands, Crowlin Islands, Slate Islands, Small Isles, Summer Isles and Treshnish Islands.


    Adult Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica) in breeding plumage on Lunga in the Treshnish Isles.
    In some respects the Hebrides generally lack biodiversity in comparison to mainland Britain, with for example only half the number of mammalian species the latter has.[101] However, these islands have much to offer the naturalist. Observing the local abundance found on Skye in the 18th century Samuel Johnson noted that:
    At the tables where a stranger is received, neither plenty nor delicacy is wanting. A tract of land so thinly inhabited, must have much wild-fowl; and I scarcely remember to have seen a dinner without them. The moor-game is every where to be had. That the sea abounds with fish, needs not be told, for it supplies a great part of Europe. The Isle of Sky has stags and roebucks, but no hares. They sell very numerous droves of oxen yearly to England, and therefore cannot be supposed to want beef at home. Sheep and goats are in great numbers, and they have the common domestic fowls."

    In the modern era avian life includes the Corncrake, Red-throated Diver, Rock Dove, Kittiwake, Tystie, Atlantic Puffin, Goldeneye, Golden Eagle and White-tailed Sea Eagle. The last named was re-introduced to Rùm in 1975 and has successfully spread to various neighbouring islands, including Mull.There is a small population of Red-billed Chough concentrated on the islands of Islay and Colonsay.

    Mountain Hare (apparently absent from Skye in the 18th century) and Rabbit are now abundant and predated on by Wild Cat and Pine Marten. Red Deer are common on the hills and the Grey Seal and Common Seal are present around the coasts of Scotland in internationally important numbers, with colonies of the former found on Oronsay and the Treshnish Isles and the latter most abundant in the Firth of Lorn. The rich fresh water streams contain Brown Trout, Atlantic Salmon and Water Shrew. Offshore Minke Whales, Killer Whales, Basking Sharks, porpoises and dolphins are among the sea life that can be seen and Edible Crab and Oyster are also found, in for example, the Sound of Scalpay. There are nationally important Horse Mussel and Brittlestar beds in the sea lochs.

    Heather moor containing Ling, Bell Heather, Cross-leaved Heath, Bog Myrtle and Fescues is abundant and there is a diversity of Arctic and alpine plants including Alpine Pearlwort and Mossy Cyphal.

    Human Geography

    Laphroaig distillery, Islay
    The 36 inhabited islands of the Inner Hebrides had a population of 18,257 at the time of the 2001 census. There are a further 43 uninhabited Inner Hebrides with an area greater than 30 hectares (approximately 74 acres). Records for the last date of settlement for the smaller islands are incomplete, but most of them would have been inhabited at some point during the Neolithic, Iron Age, Early Historic or Norse periods. In common with the other main island chains of Scotland many of the smaller and more remote islands were abandoned during the 19th and 20th centuries, in some cases after continuous habitation since the prehistoric period. This process involved a transition from these places being perceived as relatively self-sufficient agricultural economies to a view becoming held by both island residents and outsiders alike that the more remote islands lacked the essential services of a modern industrial economy. However, the larger islands have retained their populations well, which grew overall by more than 12% from 1981-2001.

    The main commercial activities are tourism, crofting, fishing, and whisky distilling (centred on Islay but also including Talisker from Skye, Isle of Jura Single Malt and Tobermory and Ledaig from Mull). Overall, the area is relatively reliant on primary industries and the public sector; there is a dependence on self-employment and micro-business, and most parts are defined by Highlands and Islands Enterprise as economically "Fragile Areas". However, the islands are well placed to exploit renewable energy, particularly onshore and offshore wind and the Sleat peninsula of Skye is an example of a more economically robust area. Some of the islands have development trusts that support the local economy.

    There have been speakers of Goidelic languages in the Inner Hebrides since the time of Columba or before and the modern variant of Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) remains strong in some parts. However, the Education (Scotland) Act 1872 led to generations of Gaels being forbidden to speak their native language in the classroom, and is now recognised as having dealt a major blow to the language. Children were being beaten for speaking Gaelic in school as late as the 1930s. More recently the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act was enacted by the Scottish Parliament in 2005 in order to provide continuing support for the language.

    By the time of the 2001 census Kilmuir parish in Skye had 47% Gaelic Speakers, with Skye overall having an unevenly distributed 31%. At that time Tiree had 48% of the population Gaelic-speaking, Lismore 29%, Islay 24%, Coll 12%, Jura 11%, Mull 13%, and Iona 5%.[92] Students of Scottish Gaelic travel from all over the world to attend Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, a Scottish Gaelic college based on Skye.[93]

    The arts

    Entrance to Fingal's Cave, Staffa
    Hebridean landscapes have inspired a variety of musicians, writers and artists. The Hebrides, also known as Fingal's Cave, is a famous overture written by Felix Mendelssohn inspired by his visit to Staffa. Contemporary musicians associated with the islands include Ian Anderson, Donovan and Runrig. Enya's song "Ebudæ" from Shepherd Moons is based on a traditional waulking song.

    The poet Sorley MacLean was born on Raasay, the setting for his best known poem, Hallaig. George Orwell wrote much of the novel 1984 whilst living at Barnhill on Jura and J.M. Barrie wrote a screenplay for the 1924 film adaptation of Peter Pan whilst on Eilean Shona. Cressida Cowell, the author of How to Train Your Dragon, spent childhood summers in the Inner Hebrides and has stated that they are "one of the most beautiful places on Earth" and "the kind of place where you expect to see dragons overhead".


    The influence of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream create a mild oceanic climate. Temperatures are generally cool, averaging 6.5 °C (44 °F) in January and 15.4 °C (60 °F) in July at Duntulm on the Trotternish peninsula of Skye. Snow seldom lies at sea level and frosts are fewer than the mainland. Winds are a limiting factor for vegetation with speeds of 128 km/h (80 mph) being recorded and south-westerlies the most common. Rainfall is generally high at between 1300–2000 mm (50–80 in) per annum and the elevated mountains and hills are wetter still. Tiree is one of the sunniest places in the country and had 300 days of sunshine in 1975. Trotternish typically has 200 hours of bright sunshine in May, the sunniest month.


    The ruins of Dun Ringill, near Elgol on the island of Skye
    The Hebrides were originally settled in the Mesolithic era and have a diversity of prehistoric sites. A flint arrowhead found in a field near Bridgend, Islay has been dated to 10,800 BC. This find may indicate the presence of a summer hunting party rather than permanent settlement. Burnt hazelnut shells and microscopic charcoal found at Farm Fields, Kinloch on Rùm indicate a settlement of some kind and this is amongst the oldest evidence of occupation in Scotland.

    Evidence of large-scale Mesolithic nut processing, radiocarbon dated to circa 7000 BC, has been found in a midden pit at Staosnaig on Colonsay. The dig discovered the remains of hundreds of thousands of burned hazelnut shells and gives an insight into communal activity and forward planning in the period. The nuts were harvested in a single year and pollen analysis suggests that the hazel trees were all cut down at the same time. The scale of the activity, unparalleled elsewhere in Scotland, and the lack of large game on the island, suggests the possibility that Colonsay contained a community with a largely vegetarian diet for the time they spent on the island.

    Three stone hearths and traces of red ochre found on Jura and dated to 6000 BC are the earliest stone-built structures found so far in Scotland. However in general the Neolithic sites in the Inner Hebrides lack the scale and drama of those found in Orkney and the Western Isles. There are numerous Iron Age sites including the remains of Dun Ringill fort on Skye, which are similar in layout to that of both a broch and a complex Atlantic roundhouse.


    The earliest written references that have survived relating to these islands were made by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, where he states that there are 30 "Hebudes". Writing about 80 years later in the period 140-150 AD, Ptolemy, drawing on the earlier naval expeditions of Agricola refers to the "Ebudes", of which he writes there were only five, thus possibly specifically meaning the Inner Hebrides. Pliny probably took his information from Pytheas of Massilia who visited Britain sometime between 322 and 285 BC. It is possible that Ptolemy did as well, as Agricola's information about the west coast of Scotland was of poor quality.

    Watson (1926) states that the meaning of Ptolemy's "Eboudai" is unknown and that the root may be pre-Celtic. Other early written references include the flight of the Nemed people from Ireland to "Domon and to Erdomon in the north of Alba", which is mentioned in the 12th century Lebor Gabála Érenn. Domon, meaning the "deep sea isle" refers to the Outer Hebrides and Erdomon, meaning "east of, on or near Domon" is thus the Inner Hebrides.

    The individual island and place names in the Outer Hebrides have mixed Gaelic and Norse origins.


    Dál Riata

    The 8th century St Martin's Cross on Iona
    Although Ptolemy's map identifies various tribes such as the Creones that might conceivably have lived in the Inner Hebrides in the Roman era, the first written records of life begin in the 6th century AD when the founding of the kingdom of Dál Riata is recorded. This encompassed roughly what is now Argyll and Bute and Lochaber in Scotland and County Antrim in Ireland.In Argyll it consisted initially of three main kindreds: Cenél Loairn in north and mid-Argyll, Cenél nÓengusa based on Islay and Cenél nGabráin based in Kintyre. By the end of the 7th century a fourth kindred, Cenél Comgaill had emerged, based in eastern Argyll.

    The figure of Columba looms large in any history of Dál Riata and his founding of a monastery on Iona ensured that Dál Riata would be of great importance in the spread of Christianity in northern Britain. However, Iona was far from unique. Lismore in the territory of the Cenél Loairn, was sufficiently important for the death of its abbots to be recorded with some frequency and many smaller sites, such as on Eigg, Hinba and Tiree, are known from the annals. The kingdom's independent existence ended in the Viking Age, and it eventually merged with the lands of the Picts to form the Kingdom of Alba.

    North of Dál Riata the Inner Hebrides were nominally under Pictish control although the historical record is sparse.

    Norse rule

    Folio 32v of the Book of Kells which may have been produced by the monks of Iona and taken to Ireland for safekeeping after repeated Viking raids of the Hebrides.
    According to Ó Corráin (1998) "when and how the Vikings conquered and occupied the Isles is unknown, perhaps unknowable" although from 793 onwards repeated raids by Vikings on the British Isles are recorded. "All the islands of Britain" were devastated in 794 with Iona being sacked in 802 and 806. In 870 Dumbarton was besieged by Amlaíb Conung and Ímar, "the two kings of the Northmen". It is therefore likely that Scandinavian hegemony was already significant on the western coasts of Scotland by then. In the 9th century the first references to the Gallgáedil (i.e. "foreign Gaels") appear. This term was variously used in succeeding centuries to refer to individuals of mixed Scandinavian-Celtic descent and/or culture who became dominant in south-west Scotland, parts of northern England and the isles.

    The early tenth century are an obscure period so far as the Hebrides are concerned but Aulaf mac Sitric, who fought at the Battle of Brunanburh in 937 is recorded as a King of the Isles from c. 941-980.

    It is difficult to reconcile the records of the Irish annals with Norse sources such as the Orkneyinga Saga but it is likely that Norwegian and Gallgáedil Uí Ímair warlords fought for control for much of period from the 9th to the 12th centuries. In 990 Sigurd the Stout, Earl of Orkney took command of the Hebrides, a position he retained for most of the period until he was killed at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. There is then a period of uncertainty but it is possible that Sigurd's son Thorfinn the Mighty became ruler circa 1035 until his own death some two decades later.[48]

    By the late 12th century Irish influence became a significant feature of island life and Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó, the High King of Ireland took possession of Mann and the Isles until 1072. The records for the rulers of the Hebrides are obscured again until the arrival of Godred Crovan as King of Dublin and the Isles. The ancestor of many of the succeeding rulers of Mann and the Isles, he was eventually ousted by Muirchertach Ua Briain and fled to Islay, where he died in the plague of 1095. It is not clear the extent to which Ui Briain dominance was now asserted in the islands north of Man, but growing Irish influence in these seas brought a rapid and decisive response from Norway.

    The army of King Magnus Barefoot of Norway in Scotland, ca 1100. Illustration by Christian Krohg.
    Magnus Barelegs had re-established direct Norwegian overlordship by 1098. A second expedition in 1102 saw incursions into Ireland but in August 1103 he was killed fighting in Ulster. The next king of the isles was Lagmann Godredsson and there followed a succession of Godred Crovan's descendants who, (as vassals of the kings of Norway) ruled the Hebrides north of Ardnamurchan for the next 160 years. However, their control of the southern Inner Hebrides was lost with the emergence of Somerled, the self-styled Lord of Argyle.

    For a while Somerled took control of Mann and the Hebrides in toto, but he met his death in 1164 during an invasion of the Scottish mainland. At this point Godred the Black, grandson of Godred Crovan re-took possession of the northern Hebrides and the southern isles were distributed amongst Somerled's sons, his descendant's eventually becoming known as the Lords of the Isles, and giving rise to Clan MacDougall, Clan Donald and Clan Macruari. However, both during and after Somerled's life the Scottish monarchs sought to take a control of the islands he and his descendants held. This strategy eventually led to an invasion by Haakon Haakonarson, King of Norway. After the stalemate of the Battle of Largs, Haakon retreated to Orkney, where he died in 1263. Following this expedition, the Hebrides and Mann and all rights that the Norwegian crown "had of old therein" were yielded to the Kingdom of Scotland as a result of the 1266 Treaty of Perth.

    Clans and Scottish rule

    Portrait of Flora MacDonald by Alan Ramsay
    The Lords of the Isles, a phrase first recorded in 1336, would continue to rule the Inner Hebrides as well as part of the Western Highlands as subjects of the King of Scots until John MacDonald, fourth Lord of the Isles, squandered the family's powerful position. Through a secret treaty with Edward IV of England, negotiated at Ardtornish Castle and signed in 1462, he made himself a servant of the English crown. When James III of Scotland found out about the treaty in 1476, he issued a sentence of forfeiture for MacDonald's lands. Some were restored for a promise of good behaviour, but MacDonald was unable to control his son Aonghas Óg, who defeated him at the Battle of Bloody Bay fought of the coast of Mull near Tobermory in 1481. A further rebellion by his nephew, Alexander of Lochalsh provoked an exasperated James IV to forfeit the lands for the last time in 1493.

    The most powerful clans on Skye in the post–Norse period were Clan MacLeod, originally based in Trotternish, and Clan MacDonald of Sleat. Following the disintegration of the Lordship of the Isles, the Mackinnons also emerged as an independent clan, whose substantial landholdings in Skye were centred on Strathaird. The MacDonalds of South Uist were bitter rivals of the MacLeods, and an attempt by the former to murder church-goers at Trumpan in retaliation for a previous massacre on Eigg, resulted in the Battle of the Spoiling Dyke of 1578.

    After the failure of the Jacobite rebellion of 1745, Flora MacDonald became famous for rescuing Prince Charles Edward Stuart from the Hanoverian troops. Her story is strongly associated with their escape via Skye and she is buried at Kilmuir. She was visited by Samuel Johnson and James Boswell during their 1773 Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland and written on her gravestone are Johnson's words that hers was "A name that will be mentioned in history, and if courage and fidelity be virtues, mentioned with honour". In the wake of the rebellion the clan system was broken up and islands of the Hebrides became a series of landed estates.

    British era

    Sea filled slate quarries on Seil (foreground) and Easdale in the Slate Islands
    With the implementation of the Treaty of Union in 1707 the Hebrides became part of the new Kingdom of Great Britain, but the clans' loyalties to a distant monarch were not strong. A considerable number of islesmen "came out" in support of the Jacobite Earl of Mar in the "15" and again in the 1745 rising including Macleod of Dunvegan and MacLea of Lismore. The aftermath of the decisive Battle of Culloden, which effectively ended Jacobite hopes of a Stuart restoration, was widely felt. The British government's strategy was to estrange the clan chiefs from their kinsmen and turn their descendants into English-speaking landlords whose main concern was the revenues their estates brought rather than the welfare of those who lived on them. This may have brought peace to the islands, but in the following century it came at a terrible price.

    The early 19th century was a time of improvement and population growth. Roads and quays were built, the slate industry became a significant employer on Easdale and surrounding islands, and the construction of the Crinan and Caledonian canals and other engineering works such as Telford's "Bridge across the Atlantic" improved transport and access. However, in the mid-19th century, the inhabitants of many parts of the Hebrides were devastated by the clearances, which destroyed communities throughout the Highlands and Islands as the human populations were evicted and replaced with sheep farms. The position was exacerbated by the failure of the islands' kelp industry that thrived from the 18th century until the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and large scale emigration became endemic. The "Battle of the Braes" involved a demonstration against lack of access to land and the serving of eviction notices. This event was instrumental in the creation of the Napier Commission, which reported in 1884 on the situation in the Highlands. Disturbances continued until the passing of the 1886 Crofters' Act and on one occasion 400 marines were deployed on Skye to maintain order.

    For those who remained new economic opportunities emerged through the export of cattle, commercial fishing and tourism. Nonetheless emigration and military service became the choice of many and the archipelago's populations continued to dwindle throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries. Jura's population fell from 1300 in 1831 to less than 250 by 1961 and Mull's from 10,600 in 1821 to less than 3,000 in 1931. Lengthy periods of continuous occupation notwithstanding, some of the smaller islands were abandoned - the Treshnish Isles in 1934, Handa in 1948, and Eilean Macaskin in the 1880s among them.

    Nonetheless, there were continuing gradual economic improvements, among the most visible of which was the replacement of the traditional thatched black house with accommodation of a more modern design and in recent years, with the assistance of Highlands and Islands Enterprise many of the island's populations have begun to increase after decades of decline.


    1. ^ Leo Steinberg, Michelangelo’s Last Paintings: The Conversion of St. Paul and the Crucifixion of St. Peter in the Cappella Paolina, Vatican Palace (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), 15-16.
    2. ^ D. Redig de Campos, Michelangelo: The Frescoes of the Pauline Chapel in the Vatican (Milan: Art Editions Amilcare Pizzi, 1951), 6.
    3. ^ Leo Steinberg, Michelangelo’s Last Paintings: The Conversion of St Paul and the Crucifixion of St. Peter in the Cappella Paolina, Vatican Palace (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), 17.


    Today's Snippet II:  Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis

    The Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis or History of the Church of Abingdon (sometimes known by its older printed title of Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon or occasionally as the Abingdon Chronicle) was a medieval chronicle written at Abingdon Abbey in England in the 12th century.
    The Historia is one of a number of monastic histories written during the middle and later parts of the 12th century, when a number of monasteries produced works devoted to recording the histories of their monasteries and local areas. In the south, these included the Liber Eliensis of Ely Abbey, the Chronicon Abbatiae Rameseiensis of Ramsey Abbey, the Chronicon Angliae Petriburgense of Peterborough Abbey, a history of the see of Bath and Wells, and the Chronicon Monasterii de Bello of Battle Abbey. The northern histories produced foundation stories of the various Cistercian houses, along with other works. The southern works, including the Chronicon, are mainly concerned with the various controversies that their religious houses were involved in. The northern histories are less concerned with controversy, and overall are more prone to hagiography.

    Authorship and contents

    The History of the Church of Abingdon was written by an anonymous author, probably a monk of the Abbey. The History covers approximately 400 years, from the time of King Ine of Wessex (to whom the first charter in the History is dated in 699) the end of the reign of King Stephen in 1154.

    Little is known of the authorship of the document, other than that he was a monk of the Abbey and that he had entered by 1117. According to Sir Frank Stenton, this timing is suggested by the presence of certain passages that are apparently contemporary with Abbot Faritius, who died that year, is referred to several times in the first person by the author: “Moreover, we were without an Abbot for four years” and, again concerning Faritius, “we saw him buy more than sixty silk cloths”. Hudson, however, infers that the text may have been revised in the 1160s.


    Whilst the earliest surviving text of the History is the Cotton Claudius C IX in the British Museum, it has been suggested by Stenton and John Hudson that the author drew upon previously extant works, notably the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Wulfstan’s Life of St. Æthelwold and possibly a now-lost Book of Commemorations. The Chronicle of John of Worcester was also apparently used; Hudson states “An Abingdon manuscript of John of Worcester, in the same hand as the History, does survive”.


    A particular concern in the Historia is the legendary foundation of the abbey, and the author stressed the fact that the abbey was founded much earlier than its refoundation by Æthelwold in 10th century. He based his account in the Historia on Geoffrey of Monmouth's work Historia Regum Britanniae, tracing the first foundation of Abingdon to an Irish monk supposedly named Abbennus, who founded the abbey on the Mount of Abbennus in Berkshire. Other sources besides Geoffrey of Monmouth included Ælfric's Vita Sancti Æthelwoldi. Also included was a list of the abbey's relics that had originally been compiled by Abbot Faricius.

    However, up until the Norman conquest, the History is primarily concerned with charters and land documents; indeed, Gransden has described it as “little more than an inflated cartulary” . There are rare narrative sections concerning major events, presumably drawn from various chronicles, as mentioned above.
    One important part of the Historia is the description of the collapse of one of the abbey church's towers in 1091. The chronicle records that the monks were celebrating matins, which would normally have been done in the abbey church, but on this occasion, the prior had decided to have the office celebrated in the chapter house instead, which allowed all the monks to escape the collapse unharmed.

    The Author, although unknown, displays certain partisan opinions of some events. Presumably a monk of English descent (as he could read the Old English of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle), he displays a certain hostility to the Danes but not a particularly hostile one towards Normans in general, except to those who cause the Abbey to suffer, such as the “Imperious Queen” Matilda.  In general, as might be expected, he is hostile to all who oppose the Abbey.

    Land Laws

    The history, in its recording of the various land disputes of concern to the Abbey, refers numerous times to Charters or “land-books” .  These were the basis by which land was granted to the Abbey or another individual, usually confirmed by the King in front of witnesses. The volume of witnesses at two of King Edward’s Charters in 1052 (Earls Harold, Leofric and Siward, and 4 bishops) concerning 4 hides at Sandford and five hides at Chilton respectively, bears out the importance of witnesses, and also the likelihood of a Royal Court where the charters were signed and witnessed from.

    There was a practice of leasing land to laymen for “two or three generations”  however; the Abbey often experienced difficulties in reclaiming such lands. However, the History points out that during King Edward’s reign this “custom got out of control, to considerable future damage”.  This is perhaps an allusion to the problems that the Abbey faced when it came to trying to recover Abbey land from later Norman settlers.

    There is one explicit example of "an Assembly of high-ranking men" possibly analogous to the land-court of the Abbot after the Norman Conquest.

    The power of the Abbey is highlighted in certain episodes; such as “the Earl Harold’s favour that the Abbot enjoyed in this matter” importance of Abbot Ealdred making oaths of loyalty to King William in 1066. The wealth of the Church is inferred by various episodes of looting that went on immediately following the Conquest, one, notably by William’s Queen  and a by the calculation of its holding of 624½ hides in 1066 by Holister.  By 1086 this had fallen to 425 1/4 hides. For instance, the Abbot was unable to recover lands seized by Henry de Ferrers in the wake of the Conquest.

    What the History tells us about Anglo-Saxon Society

    From the History one can discern evidence of a strong English monarchy prior to 1066, with a recognised legal system of charters for land. The diversity of witnesses to the charters bears evidence to a royal court, where magnates from around the country gathered at certain times. The wealth and power of the abbey, and its role in temporal affairs is prominent. Nor is the church afraid to use ecclesiastical powers to get its way, as in the excommunication of Brithwine who had argued with the abbey over land in the 1050s.  Equally, however, whilst the charters frequently feature colourful religious threats against breakers of the charter, there is no temporal threat or enforcement. “If anyone brings forth into the open any document previously drawn up with the ink of false greed against this one drawn up above, let it profit neither him nor his avarice, but pierced in perpetuity by a divine sword” from a charter of Æthelred II.

    Immediately following the Conquest in 1066, it is inferred that there was a period of disorder, during which the abbey was looted and “devastation was dispensed indiscriminately throughout the villages”. One might safely presume, therefore that such disorder was more unusual under the Anglo-Saxons.

    Printing history

    The Historia has been published in two editions. One, titled Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon and containing just the Latin text, was edited by Joseph Stevenson in two volumes and published by the Rolls Series, London in 1858. A newer edition, with a translation, has appeared in two volumes, edited by John Hudson and published by Oxford University Press under their Oxford Medieval Texts series. The second volume appeared first in print, published in 2002. The first volume was published in 2007.


    • Gransden, Antonia (1974). Historical Writing in England c. 550–c. 1307. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0770-2.
    • Graves, Edgar B. (ed.) (1975). A Bibliography of English History to 1485. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822391-9.
    • Hudson, John (ed.) (2007). Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis: The History of the Church of Abingdon Volume 1. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-929937-4.
    • Hudson, John (ed.) (2002). Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis: The History of the Church of Abingdon Volume 2. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820742-5

    Further Reading

    • Biddle, M, Lambrick, G, and Myres, J. N. L. "The Early History of Abingdon, Berkshire and its Abbey" Medieval Archaeology xii 1968
    • Stenton, F. M. Early History of the Abbey of Abingdon Oxford, 1913


    Catechism of the Catholic Church

    Part One: Profession of Faith, Sect 2 The Creeds, Ch 3:12:1

    Article 12

    1020 The Christian who unites his own death to that of Jesus views it as a step towards him and an entrance into everlasting life. When the Church for the last time speaks Christ's words of pardon and absolution over the dying Christian, seals him for the last time with a strengthening anointing, and gives him Christ in viaticum as nourishment for the journey, she speaks with gentle assurance:

    Go forth, Christian soul, from this world
    in the name of God the almighty Father,
    who created you,
    in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of the living God,
    who suffered for you,
    in the name of the Holy Spirit,
    who was poured out upon you.
    Go forth, faithful Christian!
    May you live in peace this day,
    may your home be with God in Zion,
    with Mary, the virgin Mother of God,
    with Joseph, and all the angels and saints....
    May you return to [your Creator]
    who formed you from the dust of the earth.
    May holy Mary, the angels, and all the saints
    come to meet you as you go forth from this life....
    May you see your Redeemer face to face. OCF, Prayer of Commendation.

    I. The Particular Judgment
    1021 Death puts an end to human life as the time open to either accepting or rejecting the divine grace manifested in Christ.2 Tim 1:9-10 The New Testament speaks of judgment primarily in its aspect of the final encounter with Christ in his second coming, but also repeatedly affirms that each will be rewarded immediately after death in accordance with his works and faith. the parable of the poor man Lazarus and the words of Christ on the cross to the good thief, as well as other New Testament texts speak of a final destiny of the soul -a destiny which can be different for some and for others.Lk 16:22

    1022 Each man receives his eternal retribution in his immortal soul at the very moment of his death, in a particular judgment that refers his life to Christ: either entrance into the blessedness of heaven-through a purificationCf. Council of Lyons II (1274): DS 857-858; Council of Florence (1439): DS 1304- 1306; Council of Trent (1563): DS 1820. or immediately,Cf. Benedict XII, Benedictus Deus (1336): DS 1000-1001; John XXII, Ne super his (1334): DS 990.-or immediate and everlasting damnation.Benedict XII, Benedictus Deus (1336): DS 1002 At the evening of life, we shall be judged on our love. St. John of the Cross, Dichos 64