Tuesday, March 12, 2013

Sunday, March 10, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog: Solemn, Joshua 5:9, 10-12, Psalms 34:2-7, Luke 15:1-3.11-32, Saint John Ogilivie, Glasglow Cross, Keith Moray Scotland, Catholic Catechism Part One Section 2 The Creeds Chapter 3:9:5 The Communion of Saints, The Election of The Roman Catholic Pontiff (Pope): Code of Canon Law I:IV,V Roman Curia, Legates of Roman Pontiff

Sunday, March 10, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog:

Solemn, Joshua 5:9, 10-12, Psalms 34:2-7, Luke 15:1-3.11-32, Saint John Ogilivie, Glasglow Cross, Keith Moray Scotland, Catholic Catechism Part One Section 2 The Creeds Chapter 3:9:5 The Communion of Saints, The Election of The Roman Catholic Pontiff (Pope): Code of Canon Law I:IV,V Roman Curia, Legates of Roman Pontiff

Good Day Bloggers!  Wishing everyone a Blessed Week!

Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. Its your choice whether to rise towards eternal light or lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to Purgatory and/or Heaven is our Soul, our Spirit...it's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


Prayers for Today: Sunday in Lent


 Prayer For the Holy Election of Our New Pope

Sadly Pope Benedict XVI has announced his retirement on the Feast Day of our Lady of Lourdes. We must pray together for Pope Benedict XVI retirement and our New Pope, yet to be elected, as well as all of Gods Shepherds.

May the Lord preserve the sanctity of the enclave as they embark on electing our new Holy Father, give him life, and make him blessed upon earth, and deliver him not to the will of his enemies.

O God, the Shepherd and Ruler of all the faithful, in Thy mercy look down upon Thy servant, (Our New Pope), whom Thou will appoint to preside over Thy Church, and grant we beseech Thee that both by word and example he may edify those who are under his charge; so that, with the flock entrusted to him, he may attain life everlasting. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.


March 2, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
“Dear children; Anew, in a motherly way, I am calling you not to be of a hard heart. Do not shut your eyes to the warnings which the Heavenly Father sends to you out of love. Do you love Him above all else? Do you repent for having often forgotten that the Heavenly Father, out of His great love, sent His Son to redeem us by the Cross? Do you repent for not having accepted the message? My children, do not resist the love of my Son. Do not resist hope and peace. Along with your prayers and fasting, by His Cross, my Son will cast away the darkness that wants to surround you and come to rule over you. He will give you the strength for a new life. Living it according to my Son, you will be a blessing and a hope to all those sinners who wander in the darkness of sin. My children, keep vigil. I, as a mother, am keeping vigil with you. I am especially praying and watching over those whom my Son called to be light-bearers and carriers of hope for you – for your shepherds. Thank you.”

February 25, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
“Dear children! Also today I call you to prayer. Sin is pulling you towards worldly things and I have come to lead you towards holiness and the things of God, but you are struggling and spending your energies in the battle with the good and the evil that are in you. Therefore, little children, pray, pray, pray until prayer becomes a joy for you and your life will become a simple walk towards God. Thank you for having responded to my call.”

 February 2, 2013 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:
"Dear children, love is bringing me to you - the love which I desire to teach you also - real love; the love which my Son showed you when He died on the Cross out of love for you; the love which is always ready to forgive and to ask for forgiveness. How great is your love? My motherly heart is sorrowful as it searches for love in your hearts. You are not ready to submit your will to God's will out of love. You cannot help me to have those who have not come to know God's love to come to know it, because you do not have real love. Consecrate your hearts to me and I will lead you. I will teach you to forgive, to love your enemies and to live according to my Son. Do not be afraid for yourselves. In afflictions my Son does not forget those who love. I will be beside you. I will implore the Heavenly Father for the light of eternal truth and love to illuminate you. Pray for your shepherds so that through your fasting and prayer they can lead you in love. Thank you."



Today's Word:  solemn  sol·emn [sol-uhm]

Origin: 1275–1325; Middle English solem ( p ) ne  (< Old French ) < Late Latin sōlennis, sōlempnis, Latin sōlemnis,  variant of sollemnis  consecrated, holy, derivative of sollus  whole

1. grave, sober, or mirthless, as a person, the face, speech, tone, or mood: solemn remarks.
2. gravely or somberly impressive; causing serious thoughts or a grave mood: solemn music.
3. serious or earnest: solemn assurances.
4. characterized by dignified or serious formality, as proceedings; of a formal or ceremonious character: a solemn occasion.
5. made in due legal or other express form, as a declaration or agreement: a solemn oath.
6. marked or observed with religious rites; having a religious character: a solemn holy day.
7. uttered, prescribed, or made according to religious forms: a solemn ban on sacrifice.


Today's Old Testament Reading -  Psalms 34:2-7

2 I will praise Yahweh from my heart; let the humble hear and rejoice.
3 Proclaim with me the greatness of Yahweh, let us acclaim his name together.
4 I seek Yahweh and he answers me, frees me from all my fears.
5 Fix your gaze on Yahweh and your face will grow bright, you will never hang your head in shame.
6 A pauper calls out and Yahweh hears, saves him from all his troubles.
7 The angel of Yahweh encamps around those who fear him, and rescues them.


Today's Epistle -  Joshua 5:9, 10-12

9 Yahweh then said to Joshua, 'Today I have taken the shame of Egypt away from you.' Hence, the place has been called Gilgal ever since.
10 The Israelites pitched their camp at Gilgal and kept the Passover there on the fourteenth day of the month, at evening, in the plain of Jericho.
11 On the very next day after the Passover, they ate what the land produced, unleavened bread and roasted ears of corn.
12 The manna stopped the day after they had eaten the produce of the land. The Israelites from that year onwards ate the produce of Canaan and had no more manna.


Today's Gospel Reading - Luke 15:1-3.11-32

The Parable of the Prodigal Son
Luke 15,1-3.11-32


a) Opening prayer:
Come, Spirit Creator, reveal to us the great mystery of God the Father and of the Son united in one love. Grant that we may see the great day of God, resplendent with light: the dawn of a new world born in the blood of Christ. The prodigal son comes home, the blind sees the bright light; the pardoned good thief dissolves the ancient fear. Dying on the cross, Christ destroys death; death brings forth life, love conquers fear and sin seeks pardon. Amen.

b) Gospel reading
1 Now the tax collectors and sinners were all drawing near to hear Jesus. 2 And the Pharisees and the scribes murmured, saying, "This man receives sinners and eats with them."  3 So he told them this parable: 11 "There was a man who had two sons; 12 and the younger of them said to his father, 'Father, give me the share of property that falls to me.' And he divided his living between them. 13 Not many days later, the younger son gathered all he had and took his journey into a far country, and there he squandered his property in loose living.  14 And when he had spent everything, a great famine arose in that country, and he began to be in want. 15 So he went and joined himself to one of the citizens of that country, who sent him into his fields to feed swine. 16 And he would gladly have fed on the pods that the swine ate; and no one gave him anything. 17 But when he came to himself he said, 'How many of my father's hired servants have bread enough and to spare, but I perish here with hunger! 18 I will arise and go to my father, and I will say to him, "Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you; 19 I am no longer worthy to be called your son; treat me as one of your hired servants."' 20 And he arose and came to his father. But while he was yet at a distance, his father saw him and had compassion, and ran and embraced him and kissed him. 21 And the son said to him, 'Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you; I am no longer worthy to be called your son.' 22 But the father said to his servants, 'Bring quickly the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet; 23 and bring the fatted calf and kill it, and let us eat and make merry; 24 for this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found.' And they began to make merry. 25 "Now his elder son was in the field; and as he came and drew near to the house, he heard music and dancing. 26 And he called one of the servants and asked what this meant. 27 And he said to him, 'Your brother has come, and your father has killed the fatted calf, because he has received him safe and sound.' 28 But he was angry and refused to go in. His father came out and entreated him, 29 but he answered his father, 'Lo, these many years I have served you, and I never disobeyed your command; yet you never gave me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends. 30 But when this son of yours came, who has devoured your living with harlots, you killed for him the fatted calf!' 31 And he said to him, 'Son, you are always with me, and all that is mine is yours. 32 It was fitting to make merry and be glad, for this your brother was dead, and is alive; he was lost, and is found.'"

c) Prayerful silent time:  that the Word of God may enter into our hearts and enlighten our life.

a) A key to the reading:
Dante says that Luke is the ‹‹scriba mansuetudinis Christi››. Indeed, he is the Evangelist who loves to emphasise the mercy of the Master towards sinners and presents us with scenes of forgiveness (Lk 7: 36-50; 23: 39-43). In Luke’s Gospel the mercy of God is manifested in Jesus Christ. We can say that Jesus is the incarnation of the merciful presence of God among us. “Be compassionate as your Father is compassionate” (Lk 6: 36). Luke focuses on an image of God already revealed in the Old Testament (Es 34: 6), but which, unfortunately, seems to have been ignored by the Scribes and Pharisees who rather stressed the image of a God “who visits the sins of the fathers on the children” (Es 34: 7). Indeed, the Pharisees and the Scribes boasted on being just in the eyes of God because they did not break the law. Jesus criticises this attitude in his teaching and by his actions. He, the “just One” of God (1Pt 3: 18), “receives sinners and eats with them” (Lk 15: 2). Think of the parable of the publican who goes home from the temple justified in contrast with the Pharisee who praised himself before God while passing judgment on his neighbours (Lk 18: 9-14). Jesus points out to us that God’s way of thinking and acting is quite different from ours. God is different, and his transcendence is revealed in the mercy that forgives sins. “My heart recoils from it, my whole being trembles at the thought. I will not give rein to my fierce anger… for I am God, not man; I am the Holy One in your midst and have no wish to destroy” (Hos 11: 8-9).

This parable of the “prodigal son” brings out this merciful aspect of God the Father. That is why some people refer to this story as “the parable of the father who is prodigal with mercy and forgiveness”. The Gospel passage is part of a series of three parables on mercy and has a preamble that leads us to contemplate “all the publicans and sinners” who approach Jesus to listen to him (Lk 15: 1). These are reflected in the attitude of the younger son who comes to himself and begins to think on his state and on what he lost when he left his father’s house (Lk 15: 17-20). It is interesting to note the use of the verb “to listen”, which recalls the scene with Mary, Martha’s sister, “who sat down at the Lord’s feet and listened to him speaking” (Lk 10: 39); or the great crowd of people “who had come to hear him and to be cured of their diseases” (Lk 6: 18). Jesus acknowledges his relatives, not by their blood relationship, but from their listening attitude: “My mother and my brothers are those who hear the word o God and put it into practice” (Lk 8: 21). Luke seems to place importance on this attitude of listening. Mary, the mother of Jesus, is praised for having a contemplative listening attitude, she who “stored up all these things in her heart” (Lk 2: 19, 51). Elisabeth proclaims her blessed because “she has believed that the promise made by the Lord would be fulfilled” (Lk 1: 45), revealed at the time of the annunciation (Lk 1: 26-38).

The mercy of the compassionate father (Lk 15: 20), is in contrast with the severe attitude of the older son, who will not accept his brother as such and who, in the dialogue with the father, refers to him as: “this son of yours comes back after swallowing up your property – he and his women…” (Lk 15: 30). In this we can see the attitude of the Scribes and Pharisees who “murmured: ‹‹This man receives sinners and eats with them››.” They do not associate with “sinners” whom they consider unclean, but rather distance themselves from them. Jesus’ attitude is different and, in their sight, it is scandalous. He likes to associate with sinners and sometimes invites himself into their houses to eat with them (Lk 19: 1-10). The murmuring of the Scribes and Pharisees prevents them from listening to the Word.

The contrast between the two brothers is quite evocative. The younger brother recognises his misery and fault and returns home saying: “Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. I no longer deserve to be called your son” (Lk 15: 18-19, 21). The older brother takes an attitude of arrogance not only towards his brother but also towards his father! His scolding is in great contrast with the tenderness of the father who comes out of the house and goes to meet him to “entreat” him to go into the house (Lk 15: 20, 28). This is an image of God the Father who invites us to conversion, to return to him: “Come back, disloyal Israel – it is Yahweh who speaks – I shall frown on you no more, since I am merciful – it is Yahweh who speaks. I shall not keep my resentment for ever. Only acknowledge your guilt: how you have apostatised from Yahweh your God, how you have flirted with strangers and have not listened to my voice – it is Yahweh who speaks. Come back disloyal children –it is Yahweh who speaks – for I alone am your Master” (Jer 3: 12-14).

b) A few questions:  to direct our meditation and practice.
i) Luke focuses on an image of God already revealed in the Old Testament (Es 34: 6), but which, unfortunately, seems to have been ignored by the Scribes and Pharisees who stressed rather the image of a God “who visits the sins of the fathers on the children” (Es 34: 7). What image of God do I have?

ii) The Pharisees and Scribes boast that they are just in the sight of God because they do not break the law. Jesus criticises their attitude in his teaching and by his actions. He the “Just One” of God (1Pt 3: 18) “receives sinners and eats with them” (Lk 15: 2). Do I consider myself more just than others, perhaps because I try to observe the commandments of God? What are the motives that drive me to live a “just” life? Is it the love of God or personal satisfaction?

iii) “All the publicans and sinners” approached Jesus to listen to him (Lk 15: 1). Luke seems to place importance on this attitude of listening, reflection, entering into oneself, meditating and storing up the Word in our hearts. What place do I give to the contemplative listening of the Word of God in my daily life?

iv) The Scribes and Pharisees do not associate with “sinners” whom they consider unclean, but rather distance themselves from them. Jesus’ attitude is different and, in their sight, it is scandalous. He loves to be with sinners and sometimes invites himself to their houses to eat with them (Lk 19: 1-10). Do I judge others or do I try to pass on feelings of mercy and forgiveness, thus reflecting the tenderness of God the Father-Mother?

v) ‹‹“Bring the calf we have been fattening, and kill it; we are going to have a feast, a celebration, because this son of mine was dead and has come back to life; he was lost and is found.” And they began to celebrate.›› (Lk 15: 23). In the image of the father who celebrates the return to life of his son, we recognise God the Father who has loved us so much “that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not be lost but may have eternal life” (Jn 3: 16). In the killed “fattened calf”, we can see the Christ, the lamb of God who offers himself as a victim of expiation for the redemption of sin. I take part in the Eucharistic banquet full of grateful feelings for this infinite love of God who gives himself to us in his crucified and risen beloved Son.

a) Psalm 32 (31):
Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven,
whose sin is covered.
Blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputes no iniquity,
and in whose spirit there is no deceit.
When I declared not my sin,
my body wasted away through my groaning all day long.
For day and night thy hand was heavy upon me;
my strength was dried up as by the heat of summer.
I acknowledged my sin to thee,
and I did not hide my iniquity; I said,
"I will confess my transgressions to the Lord";
then thou didst forgive the guilt of my sin.
Thou art a hiding place for me,
thou preservest me from trouble;
thou dost encompass me with deliverance.
Be glad in the Lord, and rejoice,
O righteous, and shout for joy,
all you upright in heart!

Closing prayer:
O God, who rewards the just and will not deny pardon to repentant sinners, listen to our plea: may the humble confession of our faults obtain for us your mercy.

Contemplation is knowing how to adhere with one’s mind and heart to the Lord who by his Word transforms us into new beings who always do his will. “Knowing these things, you will be blessed if you do them.” (Jn 13: 17)

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites, www.ocarm.org.


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  Saint John Oglive

Feast DayMarch 10

Patron Saint:  Benedictine oblates; automobile drivers

Attributes: n/a

The hanging of Saint John Ogilvie SJ
Saint John Ogilvie (1579 – 10 March 1615) was a Scottish Roman Catholic Jesuit martyr.  Ogilvie, the son of a wealthy laird, was born into a respected Calvinist family at Drum-na-Keith near Keith in Banffshire, Scotland and was educated in mainland Europe where he attended a number of Roman Catholic educational establishments, under the Benedictines at Regensburg in Germany and with the Jesuits at the University of Olomouc and Brno in the present day Czech Republic. In the midst of the religious controversies and turmoil that engulfed the Europe of that era he decided to become a Roman Catholic. In 1596, aged seventeen, he was received into the Catholic Church at Louvain, Belgium. He joined the Society of Jesus in 1608 and was ordained priest in Paris in 1610. After ordination he served in Rouen in Normandy where he made repeated entreaties to be sent to Scotland to minister to the few remaining Roman Catholics in the Glasgow area (after 1560 it had become illegal to preach, proselytise for, or otherwise endorse Roman Catholicism).

It was his hope that some Catholic nobles there would aid him given his lineage. Finding none, he went to London, then back to Paris, and finally returned to Scotland in November 1613 disguised as a horse trader named John Watson. Thereafter he began to preach in secret, celebrating mass clandestinely in private homes.

This ministry was to last less than a year. In 1614, he was betrayed and arrested in Glasgow and taken to gaol in Paisley. He suffered terrible tortures, including being kept awake for eight days and nine nights, in an attempt to make him divulge the identities of other Roman Catholics. Nonetheless, Ogilvie did not relent; consequently he was convicted of high treason for refusing to accept the King's spiritual jurisdiction. On 10 March 1615, aged thirty-six years, he was paraded through the streets of Glasgow and hanged and disembowelled, according to the penalty of the time, at Glasgow Cross.

His last words were "If there be here any hidden Catholics, let them pray for me but the prayers of heretics I will not have". After he was pushed from the stairs, he threw his concealed rosary beads out into the crowd. The tale is told that one of his enemies caught them and subsequently became a devout lifelong Roman Catholic. After his execution Ogilvie's followers were rounded up and put in gaol. They suffered heavy fines, but none was to receive the death penalty.

As a martyr of the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation he was beatified in 1929 and canonised in 1976. He is the only post-Reformation saint from Scotland. His feast day is celebrated on 10 March in the Roman Catholic Church.


    1. ^ Farmer, David Hugh (1997). The Oxford dictionary of saints (4. ed. ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-280058-2.


      Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane



      Today's Snippet I: Glasglow Cross

      Tolbooth Steeple at Glasgow Cross
      Glasgow Cross is a major junction in the city centre of Glasgow, which has, at its centre, five streets running from it: the High Street to the north, Gallowgate and London Road heading east, the Saltmarket to the south, and the Trongate running west to the Merchant City. Its most recognisable feature is the Tolbooth Steeple, part of the 17th century tolbooth.

      There is a monument to St. John Ogilvie, who was martyred at Glasgow Cross on 10 March 1615. The mercat cross was commissioned for construction in 1929–30 by William George Black, and designed by the architect Edith Hughes.[1][2]

      Standing on an island in the middle of Glasgow Cross is the Tolbooth Steeple, built in 1625-26 at what was the crossing point for the main streets of Glasgow at that time. The Steeple is all that remains of the old Tolbooth buildings which were demolished in 1921. The Tolbooth was the site of the Glasgow Council Chambers until 1814, when the council sold the Tolbooth and moved to Jail Square in the Saltmarket, before eventually moving to the current City Chambers on George Square. The 126ft tall Steeple was repaired in 2008 after cracks were discovered in the structure, along with masonry, lead and guttering repairs.

      The Tolbooth Steeple was where the public hangings of Glasgow used to occur.[3] Along with the nearby Tron Theatre, it is one of the few remaining medieval buildings in the city.


        1. ^ "Glasgow - Mercat Cross". The Scotland Guide. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
        2. ^ McKenzie, Raymond; Nisbet, Gary (2001-12-01). Public sculpture of Glasgow. Liverpool University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-85323-937-6. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
        3. ^ Billy Connolly's World Tour of Scotland (1994)


          Today's Snippet I:  Keith, Moray Scotland

          St. Rufus Church
          Keith (Scottish Gaelic: Baile Chèith, or Cèith Mhaol Rubha (archaic)) is a small town in the Moray council area in north east Scotland. It has a population of around 4,500.[1]

          Until 1975 it was in Banffshire, a name which persists in postal addresses, common usage and historical references. Keith has three distinct sections: Old Town, where the original settlement was first established; Keith which is the main commercial centre and Fife Keith which was originally a separate town built in competition by the Earl of Fife but which, having proved less economically vibrant, was eventually joined to form one homogeneous settlement separated now only by the river.

          The oldest part of Keith dates to around 1180 where the Old Town still remains, now almost indistinguishable from the rest of the town. It developed around the old bridge which was built there by two mourning parents as a permanent memorial to their dear child who drowned in the river at that crossing point in the hope that none should suffer similar loss. The main part of the town is on higher ground above the river, laid out around 1750 by the Earl of Findlater.[2] It is located at the crossing of the A95 and A96 roads. Local services include a health centre, dentist, optician and multiple hairdressing salons. The town has three schools: Keith Grammar School, Keith Primary School and St Thomas RC Primary School.

          The annual Keith Country Show, held at Seafield Park, is an event in the farming calendar of north-east Scotland.

          History and culture

          The name appears to come from Brythonic coed meaning "wood", but it may also be related to the Pictish territorial division in this area, which was known as .[3] Another local tradition is that it derives from the Gaelic “gaoth”, meaning “wind”, since locals attest to how fiercely the winter winds blow.

          The Chronicles of Keith, compiled in the 19th century, provide an unusually comprehensive view of the area's history. According to them Keith was originally known as "Kethmalruff", a dedication to Saint Maol Rubha (d. 722), also Latinised as "St Rufus". This dedication to an early medieval saint may imply a Dark Age origin for the first church at Keith (still marked by an ancient graveyard, though the parish church was rebuilt on another site in Victorian times), though no archaeological evidence for this has been identified.

          The language spoken indigenously round Keith is Doric, which superseded Scottish Gaelic.

          Doric Dialect

          Doric, the popular name for Mid Northern Scots or Northeast Scots, refers to the dialects of Scots spoken in the northeast of Scotland. There is an extensive body of literature, mostly poetry, ballads, and songs.


          The term "Doric" was used to refer to all dialects of Lowland Scots but during the twentieth century it became increasingly associated with Mid Northern Scots.

          The term possibly originated as a jocular reference to the Doric dialect of the Ancient Greek language. Greek Dorians lived in Sparta amongst other places, a more rural area, and were supposed by the ancient Greeks to have spoken laconically and in a language that was thought harsher in tone and more phonetically conservative than the Attic spoken in Athens. Doric Greek was used for some of the verses spoken by the chorus in Greek tragedy.

          As The Oxford Companion to English Literature explains:
          "Since the Dorians were regarded as uncivilised by the Athenians, 'Doric' came to mean 'rustic' in English, and was applied particularly to the language of Northumbria and the Lowlands of Scotland and also to the simplest of the three orders in architecture."
          Use of the term Doric in this context may also arise out of a contrast with the anglicised speech of the Scottish capital, because at one point, Edinburgh was nicknamed 'Athens of the North'. The upper/middle class speech of Edinburgh would thus be 'Attic', making the rural areas' speech 'Doric'. According to another source, 18th century Scots writers like Allan Ramsay justified their use of Scots (instead of English) by comparing it to the use of Ancient Greek Doric by Theocritus.


          Most consonants are usually pronounced much as in other Modern Scots dialects but:
          • In Buchan the cluster cht, also ght, may be realised /ð/ in a few words, rather than /xt/ as in other dialects, for example: dochter (daughter), micht (might) and nocht (nought), often written dother, mith and noth in dialect writing.
          • The clusters gn and kn are realised /ɡn/ and /kn/, for example gnaw, gnap, knee, knife, knock (a clock) and knowe (knoll).
          • In Buchan, towards the coast, th followed by er may be realised /d/, rather than /ð/ as in other dialects, for example: brither (brother), faither (father), gaither (gather) and mither (mother), often written bridder, fadder, gaider~gedder and midder in dialect writing.
          • wh is realised /f/, rather than /ʍ/ as in Central Scots dialects, for example whit (what) and wha (who), often written fit and fa(a) in dialect writing.
          • The cluster wr may be realised /vr/, rather than /r/ as in Central Scots dialects, for example wratch (wretch), wrath, wricht (wright) and wrocht (wrought~worked), often written vratch, vrath, vricht and vrocht in dialect writing.
          Some vowel realisations differ markedly from those of Central Scots dialects. The vowel numbers are from Aitken.
          • a (vowel 17) before /b/, /ɡ/, /m/ and /ŋ/ may be /ə/ or /ʌ/ rather than /a(ː)/.
          • aw and au (vowel 12), sometimes a or a' representing L-vocalisation, are realised /aː/, rather than /ɑː/ or /ɔː/ as in Central Scots dialects, for example aw (all), cauld (cold), braw (brave, handsome, fine, splendid), faw (fall) and snaw (snow), often written aa, caal(d), braa, faa and snaa in dialect writing. In Buchan, in some words the stem final w may be realised /v/, often with a /j/ glide before the preceding vowel, for example awe [jaːv] (awe), blaw [bl(j)aːv] (blow), gnaw [ɡnjaːv], law [ljaːv], snaw [snjaːv] (snow) and taw [tjaːv]~[tʃaːv] often written yaave, blyaave, gnaave, snyaave and tyauve~tyaave~chaave in dialect writing.
          • In some areas ai or a(consonant)e /e(ː)/ (vowel 4 or 8) may be realised /əi/ after /w/, dark /l/ and occasionally after other consonants, for example claes (clothes), coal, coat, gape, wade, waik (weak), wait, wale (choose) and wame (belly), often written clyes, kwile, kwite, gype, wyde, wyke, wyte, wyle and wyme in dialect writing. A preceding /k/ or /n/ may produce a /j/ glide, with the vowel realised /a/, for example caird [kjard] (card), cake [kjak], naig [njaɡ] (nag) and nakit [njakɪt] (naked). The cluster ane is realised /en/ in Moray and Nairn but is usually /in/ in other areas,[9] for example, ane (one) ance (once), bane (bone) and stane (stone), often written een, eence, been and steen in dialect writing.
          • ea, ei (vowel 3) is usually /i(ː)/, though the realisation may be /e(ː)/ along the coast and in Moray and Nairn. The realisation may also be /əi/ in, for example, great, quean (girl), seiven (seven), sweit (sweat), weave and wheat, and /ɪ/ before /k/ in, for example, speak, often written gryte, quine, syven, swyte, wyve, fyte and spik(k) in dialect writing. Before /v/ and /z/ the realisation may be /ɪ/ in, for example, heiven (heaven), reason, season and seiven (seven), often written hivven, rizzon, sizzon and sivven in dialect writing.
          • ee (vowels 2 and 11), e(Consonant)e (vowel 2). Occasionally ei and ie with ei generally before ch (/x/), but also in a few other words, and ie generally occurring before l and v. The realisation is generally /i(ː)/ but may be /əi/ after /w/, dark /l/ and occasionally after other consonants in, for example, cheenge (change), heeze (lift) and swee (sway), often written chynge, hyse and swye in dialect writing.
          • eu (vowel 7 before /k/ and /x/ see ui), sometimes ui and oo after Standard English also occur, is generally /ju/ in for example, beuk (book), eneuch (enough), ceuk (cook), leuk (look) and teuk (took).
          • Stem final ew (vowel 14) may be realised /jʌu/ in, for example, few, new and also in beauty and duty, often written fyow(e), nyow(e), byowty and dyowty in dialect writing. Before /k/ the realisation may be /ɪ/ in, for example, week, often written wyke in dialect writing.
          • ui (vowel 7) is realised /i(ː)/ and /wi(ː)/ after /ɡ/ and /k/. Also u(consonant)e, especially before nasals,[10] and oo from the spelling of Standard English cognates, in for example, abuin (above), cuit (ankle) and guid (good), often written abeen, queet and gweed in dialect writing. In Moray and Nairn the realisation is usually /(j)uː/ before /r/ in, for example, buird (board), fluir (floor) and fuird (ford), often written boord, floor and foord in dialect writing. The realisation [i(ː)] also occurs in adae (ado), dae (do), shae (shoe) and tae (to~too).


          North East Scots has an extensive body of literature, mostly poetry, ballads and songs. During the Middle Scots period writing from the North East of Scotland adhered to the literary conventions of the time; indications of particular "Doric" pronunciations were very rare. The 18th century literary revival also brought forth writers from the North East but, again, local dialect features were rare, the extant literary Scots conventions being preferred. In later times, a more deliberately regional literature began to emerge.

          In contemporary prose writing, Doric occurs usually as quoted speech, although this is less and less often the case. As is usually the case with marginalised languages, local loyalties prevail in the written form, showing how the variety "deviates" from standard ("British") English as opposed to a general literary Scots "norm". This shows itself in the local media presentation of the language, e.g., Grampian Television & The Aberdeen Press and Journal. These local loyalties, waning knowledge of the older literary tradition and relative distance from the Central Lowlands ensure that the Doric scene has a degree of semi-autonomy.

          Doric was used in a lot of so-called Kailyard literature, a genre that paints a sentimental, melodramatic picture of the old rural life, and is currently unfashionable. This negative association still plagues Doric literature to a degree, as well as Scottish literature in general.

          Poets who wrote in the Doric dialect include John M. Caie of Banffshire (1879-1949), Helen B. Cruickshank of Angus (1886-1975), Alexander Fenton (1929-2012), Flora Garry (1900-2000), Sir Alexander Gray (1882-1968), Violet Jacob of Angus (1863-1946), Charles Murray (1864-1941) and J. C. Milne (1897-1962).[11]

          George MacDonald from Huntly used Doric in his novels. A friend of Mark Twain, he is commonly considered one of the fathers of the fantasy genre and an influence on C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien.

          Lewis Grassic Gibbon's Scots Quair trilogy is set in the Mearns and has been the basis of a successful play and television series. It is very popular throughout Scotland and tells the story of Chrissie, an independent-minded woman, mainly in a form of English strongly influenced by the rhythms of local speech.

          A version of Aesop's Fables has been published in Doric, as well as some sections of the Bible.

          The North East has been claimed as the "real home of the ballad" and, according to Les Wheeler, "91 out of a grand total of (Child's) 305 ballads came from the North East - in fact from Aberdeenshire", which makes the usual name of "Border Ballad" a misnomer put about by Sir Walter Scott.

          Contemporary writers in Doric include Sheena Blackhall, a poet who writes in Doric and Scottish Gaelic, Mo Simpson, who writes in the Aberdeen Evening Express and peppers her humour column with "Doricisms" and Doric words. The Doric has also featured in stage, radio and television, notably in the sketches and songs of the Aberdeen-based comedy groups Scotland the What? and the Flying Pigs.

          Modern usage of dialect

          In 2006 an Aberdeen hotel decided to use a Doric voice for their lift. Phrases said by the lift include "Gyaun Up" ɡʲɑːn ʌp (Going up), "Gyaun Doun" ɡʲɑːn dun (Going down), "atween fleers een an fower" əˈtwin fliːrz in ən ˈfʌur (between floors one and four).

          Also in 2006, Maureen Watt of the SNP took her Scottish Parliamentary oath in Doric. She said "I want to advance the cause of Doric and show there's a strong and important culture in the North East." She was required to take an oath in English beforehand. There was some debate as to whether the oath was "gweed Doric" ɡwid ˈdoːrɪk or not, and notably it is, to a certain extent, written phonetically and contains certain anglicised forms such as "I" rather than "A", and "and" instead of "an":
          "I depone aat I wull be leal and bear ae full alleadgance tae her majesty Queen Elizabeth her airs an ony fa come aifter her anent the law. Sae help me God."
          In Disney/Pixar's Brave, the character Young MacGuffin speaks the Doric dialect. This was a choice by the voice actor, Kevin McKidd, a native of Elgin.

          Tourist attractions

          Strathisla Distillery
          Keith had one of the few tartan museums in Scotland, an indication of the town's history in the wool industry. The town is at the start of the Malt Whisky trail, and has three distilleries: Strathmill, Glenkeith and Strathisla Distillery, one of the oldest in the Highlands and since 1950 headquarters of Chivas Brothers, producers of Chivas Regal.[4] Within the town’s immediate environs there may also be found Auchroisk, Aultmore and Glentauchers. The Keith and Dufftown Railway is an 11-mile heritage railway running to Dufftown.

          The Keith Heritage Group have published a number of maps that lead visitors on walking tours through the town and surrounding countryside.

          Two annual events attract tourists to Keith. The first of these, the TMSA Keith Festival, falls on the second weekend of June and celebrates the traditional (and not so traditional) music of the area, providing entertainment in the form of concerts, ceilidhs, competitions and sessions.

          On the second weekend of August the town hosts the Keith Country Show. The show was founded in 1872 and every year promises days of prize-winning livestock and family fun.


          1. ^ Scotland's Census Results OnLine
          2. ^ Grant, John; Leslie, William (1798). [http://books.google.com/ books?id=ZRUFAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA301&dq=%22Earl+of+Findlater%22+keith+moray&hl=en&ei=38Z4TrORKcTqOb-97KgN&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22Earl%20of%20Findlater%22%20keith%20moray&f=false A survey of the province of Moray: historical, geographical, and political]. p. 301.
          3. ^ Scottish Parliament website - Placenames collected by Iain Mac an Tailleir
          4. ^ Keith Country Show website. http://www.keithshow.org.uk/
          •   Harper, Norman (2009) Spikkin Doric. Edinburgh. Birlinn.


          Catechism of the Catholic Church

          Part One: Profession of Faith, Sect 2 The Creeds, Ch 3:9:4


          Article 9

          Paragraph 5. THE COMMUNION OF SAINTS
          946 After confessing "the holy catholic Church," the Apostles' Creed adds "the communion of saints." In a certain sense this article is a further explanation of the preceding: "What is the Church if not the assembly of all the saints?"Nicetas, Expl. Symb., 10: PL 52:871B The communion of saints is the Church.

          947 "Since all the faithful form one body, the good of each is communicated to the others.... We must therefore believe that there exists a communion of goods in the Church. But the most important member is Christ, since he is the head.... Therefore, the riches of Christ are communicated to all the members, through the sacraments."St. Thomas Aquinas, Symb., 10 "As this Church is governed by one and the same Spirit, all the goods she has received necessarily become a common fund."Roman Catechism I, 10, 24

          948 The term "communion of saints" therefore has two closely linked meanings: communion in holy things (sancta)" and "among holy persons (sancti).
          "Sancta sancti's! ("God's holy gifts for God's holy people") is proclaimed by the celebrant in most Eastern liturgies during the elevation of the holy Gifts before the distribution of communion. the faithful (sancta) are fed by Christ's holy body and blood (sancta) to grow in the communion of the Holy Spirit (koinonia) and to communicate it to the world.

          949 In the primitive community of Jerusalem, the disciples "devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of the bread and the prayers."Acts 2:42  Communion in the faith. the faith of the faithful is the faith of the Church, received from the apostles. Faith is a treasure of life which is enriched by being shared.

          950 Communion of the sacraments. "The fruit of all the sacraments belongs to all the faithful. All the sacraments are sacred links uniting the faithful with one another and binding them to Jesus Christ, and above all Baptism, the gate by which we enter into the Church. the communion of saints must be understood as the communion of the sacraments.... the name 'communion' can be applied to all of them, for they unite us to God.... But this name is better suited to the Eucharist than to any other, because it is primarily the Eucharist that brings this communion about."Roman Catechism 1, 10, 24

          951 Communion of charisms. Within the communion of the Church, the Holy Spirit "distributes special graces among the faithful of every rank" for the building up of the Church.LG 12 # 2 Now, "to each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good."1 Cor 12:7

          952 "They had everything in common."Acts 4:32 "Everything the true Christian has is to be regarded as a good possessed in common with everyone else. All Christians should be ready and eager to come to the help of the needy . . . and of their neighbors in want."Roman Catechism 1, 10, 27 A Christian is a steward of the Lord's goods.Lk 16:1, 3

          953 Communion in charity. In the sanctorum communio, "None of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself."Rom 14:7 "If one member suffers, all suffer together; if one member is honored, all rejoice together. Now you are the body of Christ and individually members of it."Cor 12:26-27 "Charity does not insist on its own way."1 Cor 13:5; cf. 10:24 In this solidarity with all men, living or dead, which is founded on the communion of saints, the least of our acts done in charity redounds to the profit of all. Every sin harms this communion.

          954 The three states of the Church. "When the Lord comes in glory, and all his angels with him, death will be no more and all things will be subject to him. But at the present time some of his disciples are pilgrims on earth. Others have died and are being purified, while still others are in glory, contemplating 'in full light, God himself triune and one, exactly as he is"':LG 49; cf. Mt 25:31; 1 Cor 15:26-27; Council of Florence (1439): DS 1305  All of us, however, in varying degrees and in different ways share in the same charity towards God and our neighbours, and we all sing the one hymn of glory to our God. All, indeed, who are of Christ and who have his Spirit form one Church and in Christ cleave together.LG 49; cf. Eph 4:16
          955 "So it is that the union of the wayfarers with the brethren who sleep in the peace of Christ is in no way interrupted, but on the contrary, according to the constant faith of the Church, this union is reinforced by an exchange of spiritual goods."LG 49

          956 The intercession of the saints. "Being more closely united to Christ, those who dwell in heaven fix the whole Church more firmly in holiness.... They do not cease to intercede with the Father for us, as they proffer the merits which they acquired on earth through the one mediator between God and men, Christ Jesus.... So by their fraternal concern is our weakness greatly helped."LG 49; cf. 1 Tim 2:5
          Do not weep, for I shall be more useful to you after my death and I shall help you then more effectively than during my life.St. Dominic, dying, to his brothers I want to spend my heaven in doing good on earth.St. Therese of Lisieux, the Final Conversations, tr. John Clark
             (Washington: ICS, 1977), 102

          957 Communion with the saints. "It is not merely by the title of example that we cherish the memory of those in heaven; we seek, rather, that by this devotion to the exercise of fraternal charity the union of the whole Church in the Spirit may be strengthened. Exactly as Christian communion among our fellow pilgrims brings us closer to Christ, so our communion with the saints joins us to Christ, from whom as from its fountain and head issues all grace, and the life of the People of God itself"LG 50; cf. Eph 4:1-6:

          We worship Christ as God's Son; we love the martyrs as the Lord's disciples and imitators, and rightly so because of their matchless devotion towards their king and master. May we also be their companions and fellow disciples!Martyrium Polycarpi, 17: Apostolic Fathers II/3, 396

          958 Communion with the dead. "In full consciousness of this communion of the whole Mystical Body of Jesus Christ, the Church in its pilgrim members, from the very earliest days of the Christian religion, has honored with great respect the memory of the dead; and 'because it is a holy and a wholesome thought to pray for the dead that they may be loosed from their sins' she offers her suffrages for them."LG 50; cf. 2 Macc 12:45 Our prayer for them is capable not only of helping them, but also of making their intercession for us effective.

          959 In the one family of God. "For if we continue to love one another and to join in praising the Most Holy Trinity - all of us who are sons of God and form one family in Christ - we will be faithful to the deepest vocation of the Church."LG 51; d. Heb 3:6

          IN BRIEF
          960 The Church is a "communion of saints": this expression refers first to the "holy things" (sancta), above all the Eucharist, by which "the unity of believers, who form one body in Christ, is both represented and brought about" (LG 3).
          961 The term "communion of saints" refers also to the communion of "holy persons" (sancti) in Christ who "died for all," so that what each one does or suffers in and for Christ bears fruit for all.
          962 "We believe in the communion of all the faithful of Christ, those who are pilgrims on earth, the dead who are being purified, and the blessed in heaven, all together forming one Church; and we believe that in this communion, the merciful love of God and his saints is always [attentive] to our prayers" (Paul VI, CPG # 30).


          The Election of a Catholic Pontiff (Pope)

          Code of Canon Law


          CHAPTER IV.
          Can. 360 The Supreme Pontiff usually conducts the affairs of the universal Church through the Roman Curia which performs its function in his name and by his authority for the good and service of the churches. The Roman Curia consists of the Secretariat of State or the Papal Secretariat, the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, congregations, tribunals, and other institutes; the constitution and competence of all these are defined in special law.
          Can. 361 In this Code, the term Apostolic See or Holy See refers not only to the Roman Pontiff but also to the Secretariat of State, the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, and other institutes of the Roman Curia, unless it is otherwise apparent from the nature of the matter or the context of the words.

          CHAPTER V.
          Can. 362 The Roman Pontiff has the innate and independent right to appoint, send, transfer, and recall his own legates either to particular churches in various nations or regions or to states and public authorities. The norms of international law are to be observed in what pertains to the mission and recall of legates appointed to states.
          Can. 363 §1. To the legates of the Roman Pontiff is entrusted the office of representing the Roman Pontiff in a stable manner to particular churches or also to the states and public authorities to which they are sent.
          §2. Those who are designated as delegates or observers in a pontifical mission at international councils or at conferences and meetings also represent the Apostolic See.
          Can. 364 The principal function of a pontifical legate is daily to make stronger and more effective the bonds of unity which exist between the Apostolic See and particular churches. Therefore, it pertains to the pontifical legate for his own jurisdiction:
          1/ to send information to the Apostolic See concerning the conditions of particular churches and everything that touches the life of the Church and the good of souls;
          2/ to assist bishops by action and counsel while leaving intact the exercise of their legitimate power;
          3/ to foster close relations with the conference of bishops by offering it assistance in every way;
          4/ regarding the nomination of bishops, to transmit or propose to the Apostolic See the names of candidates and to instruct the informational process concerning those to be promoted, according to the norms given by the Apostolic See;
          5/ to strive to promote matters which pertain to the peace, progress, and cooperative effort of peoples;
          6/ to collaborate with bishops so that suitable relations are fostered between the Catholic Church and other Churches or ecclesial communities, and even non-Christian religions;
          7/ in associated action with bishops, to protect those things which pertain to the mission of the Church and the Apostolic See before the leaders of the state;
          8/ in addition, to exercise the faculties and to fulfill other mandates which the Apostolic See entrusts to him.
          Can. 365 §1. It is also the special function of a pontifical legate who at the same time acts as a legate to states according to the norms of international law:
          1/ to promote and foster relations between the Apostolic See and the authorities of the state;
          2/ to deal with questions which pertain to relations between Church and state and in a special way to deal with the drafting and implementation of concordats and other agreements of this type.
          §2. In conducting the affairs mentioned in §1, a pontifical legate, as circumstances suggest, is not to neglect to seek the opinion and counsel of the bishops of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction and is to inform them of the course of affairs.
          Can. 366 In view of the particular character of the function of a legate:
          1/ the seat of a pontifical legation is exempt from the power of governance of the local ordinary unless it is a question of celebrating marriages;
          2/ after he has notified in advance the local ordinaries insofar as possible, a pontifical legate is permitted to perform liturgical celebrations in all churches of his legation, even in pontificals.
          Can. 367 The function of a pontifical legate does not cease when the Apostolic See becomes vacant unless the pontifical letter establishes otherwise; it does cease, however, when the mandate has been fulfilled, when the legate has been notified of recall, or when the Roman Pontiff accepts the legate’s resignation.