Monday, May 6, 2013

Friday, May 3, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog: Didactic, Psalms 19, First Corinthians 15:1-8, John 14:6-14, Pope Francis Daily Homily - Lukewarm Christians Hurt the Church, St James The Lesser, St Philip The Apostle, Catholic Catechism Part Two: THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH - Chapter 2 Sacraments of Healing Penance and Reconciliation Article 4:9 The Effects of the Sacrament

Friday,  May 3, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog:

Didactic, Psalms 19, First Corinthians 15:1-8, John 14:6-14, Pope Francis Daily Homily - Lukewarm Christians Hurt the Church, St James The Lesser, St Philip The Apostle, Catholic Catechism Part Two: THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH - Chapter 2 Sacraments of Healing Penance and Reconciliation Article 4:9  The Effects of the Sacrament

Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. The Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit: wisdom, understanding, wonder and awe (fear of the Lord) , counsel, knowledge, fortitude, and piety (reverence) and shun the seven Deadly sins: wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony...Its your choice whether to embrace the Gifts of the Holy Spirit rising towards eternal light or succumb to the Seven deadly sins and lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to the Darkness, Purgatory or Heaven is our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...~ Zarya Parx 2013

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


Prayers for Today: Friday in Easter


 Papam Franciscus
(Pope Francis)

Pope Francis May 3 General Audience Address :

A lukewarm faith hurts the Church, because it creates divisions

(2013-05-03 Vatican Radio)
All Christians have a duty to pass on the faith with courage, lukewarm Christians, a lukewarm faith hurts the Church, because it creates divisions. The courage to be Christian in today’s society was the focus of Pope Francis homily Friday morning in Casa Santa Marta.

Pope Francis concelebrated with Archbishop Claudio Maria Celli, president of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications and mass was attended by the Pontifical Swiss Guard with their commander Daniel Rudolf Anrig. On Sunday May 6th, the guard will hold their annual celebration, commemorating the last stand of 1527 with Mass and the swearing in of new recruits.

At the end of the celebration, Pope Francis addressed a special greeting them, describing their service as "is a beautiful testimony of fidelity to the Church" and "love for the Pope."

In his homily which focused on the readings of the day, Pope Francis said all Christians who have received the gift of faith must pass this gift on by proclaiming it with our lives, with our word. But, the Pope questioned, “what is this fundamental faith? It is faith in the Risen Jesus, in Jesus who has forgiven our sins through His death and reconciled us with the Father":

"Transmitting this requires us to be courageous: the courage of transmitting the faith. A sometimes simple courage. I remember - excuse me - a personal story: as a child every Good Friday my grandmother took us to the Procession of Candles and at the end of the procession came the recumbent Christ and my grandmother made us kneel down and told us children, 'Look he is dead, but tomorrow he will be Risen! '. That is how the faith entered: faith in Christ Crucified and Risen. In the history of the Church there have been many, many people who have wanted to blur this strong certainty and speak of a spiritual resurrection. No, Christ is alive”.

Pope Francis continued saying that “Christ is alive and is also alive among us”, reiterating that Christians must have the courage to proclaim His Resurrection, the Good News. But, he added there is also another courage that Jesus asks of us:

"Jesus - to put it in stronger terms - challenges us to prayer and says this:' Whatever you ask in my name, I will do so that the Father may be glorified in the Son '. If you ask anything in my name, I will do it ... But this is really powerful! We must have the courage to go to Jesus and ask him: 'But you said this, do it! Make the faith grow, make evangelization move forward, help me to solve this problem... Do we have this courage in prayer? Or do we pray a little, when we can, spending a bit' of time in prayer? But that courage, that parresia even in prayer ... ".

The Pope recalled how we read in the Bible that Abraham and Moses have the courage to "negotiate with the Lord." A courage "in favor of others, in favor of the Church" which we also need today:

"When the Church loses courage, the Church enters into a ‘lukewarm’ atmosphere. The lukewarm, lukewarm Christians, without courage ... That hurts the Church so much, because this tepid atmosphere draws you inside, and problems arise among us; we no longer have the horizon, or courage to pray towards heaven, or the courage to proclaim the Gospel. We are lukewarm ... We have the courage to get involved in our small things in our jealousies, our envy, our careerism, in selfishly going forward ... In all these things, but this is not good for the Church: the Church must be courageous! We all have to be courageous in prayer, in challenging Jesus!".


Liturgical Celebrations to be presided over by Pope: May

Vatican City, 3 April 2013 (VIS)
Following is the calendar of celebrations scheduled to be presided over by the Holy Father in the month May, 2013:

4 May, Saturday: 6:00pm, Recitation of the Rosary in the Basilica of St. Mary Major.

5 May, Sunday: 10:00am, Mass for Confraternities in St. Peter's Square.

12 May, Sunday: 9:30am, Mass and canonizations of Blesseds Antonio Primaldo and Companions; Laura di Santa Caterina da Siena Montoya y Upegui; and Maria Guadalupe Garcia Zavala.

18 May, Saturday: 6:00pm, Pentecost Vigil in St. Peter's Square with the participation of ecclesial movements.

19 May, Pentecost Sunday: 10:00am, Mass in St. Peter's Square with the participation of ecclesial movements.


  • Vatican News. From the Pope. © Copyright 2013 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Accessed 05/03/2013.


May 2, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World: "Dear children; Anew, I am calling you to love and not to judge. My Son, according to the will of the Heavenly Father, was among you to show you the way of salvation, to save you and not to judge you. If you desire to follow my Son, you will not judge but love like your Heavenly Father loves you. And when it is the most difficult for you, when you are falling under the weight of the cross do not despair, do not judge, instead remember that you are loved and praise the Heavenly Father because of His love. My children, do not deviate from the way on which I am leading you. Do not recklessly walk into perdition. May prayer and fasting strengthen you so that you can live as the Heavenly Father would desire; that you may be my apostles of faith and love; that your life may bless those whom you meet; that you may be one with the Heavenly Father and my Son. My children, that is the only truth, the truth that leads to your conversion, and then to the conversion of all those whom you meet - those who have not come to know my Son - all those who do not know what it means to love. My children, my Son gave you a gift of the shepherds. Take good care of them. Pray for them. Thank you."

April 25, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World:: "Dear children! Pray, pray, keep praying until your heart opens in faith as a flower opens to the warm rays of the sun. This is a time of grace which God gives you through my presence but you are far from my heart, therefore, I call you to personal conversion and to family prayer. May Sacred Scripture always be an incentive for you. I bless you all with my motherly blessing. Thank you for having responded to my call."

April 2, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World: "Dear children, I am calling you to be one with my Son in spirit. I am calling you, through prayer, and the Holy Mass when my Son unites Himself with you in a special way, to try to be like Him; that, like Him, you may always be ready to carry out God's will and not seek the fulfillment of your own. Because, my children, it is according to God's will that you are and that you exist, and without God's will you are nothing. As a mother I am asking you to speak about the glory of God with your life because, in that way, you will also glorify yourself in accordance to His will. Show humility and love for your neighbour to everyone. Through such humility and love, my Son saved you and opened the way for you to the Heavenly Father. I implore you to keep opening the way to the Heavenly Father for all those who have not come to know Him and have not opened their hearts to His love. By your life, open the way to all those who still wander in search of the truth. My children, be my apostles who have not lived in vain. Do not forget that you will come before the Heavenly Father and tell Him about yourself. Be ready! Again I am warning you, pray for those whom my Son called, whose hands He blessed and whom He gave as a gift to you. Pray, pray, pray for your shepherds. Thank you." 


Today's Word:  didactic  di·dac·tic  [dahy-dak-tik]  

Origin: 1635–45;  < Greek didaktikós  apt at teaching, instructive, equivalent to didakt ( ós ) that may be taught + -ikos -ic

1. intended for instruction; instructive: didactic poetry.
2. inclined to teach or lecture others too much: a boring, didactic speaker.
3. teaching or intending to teach a moral lesson.
4. didactics, ( used with a singular verb  ) the art or science of teaching.


Today's Old Testament Reading -   Psalms 19:2-5

2 day discourses of it to day, night to night hands on the knowledge.
3 No utterance at all, no speech, not a sound to be heard,
4 but from the entire earth the design stands out, this message reaches the whole world. High above, he pitched a tent for the sun,
5 who comes forth from his pavilion like a bridegroom, delights like a champion in the course to be run.


Today's Epistle -   First Corinthians 15:1-8

1 I want to make quite clear to you, brothers, what the message of the gospel that I preached to you is; you accepted it and took your stand on it,
2 and you are saved by it, if you keep to the message I preached to you; otherwise your coming to believe was in vain.
3 The tradition I handed on to you in the first place, a tradition which I had myself received, was that Christ died for our sins, in accordance with the scriptures,
4 and that he was buried; and that on the third day, he was raised to life, in accordance with the scriptures;
5 and that he appeared to Cephas; and later to the Twelve;
6 and next he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers at the same time, most of whom are still with us, though some have fallen asleep;
7 then he appeared to James, and then to all the apostles.
8 Last of all he appeared to me too, as though I was a child born abnormally.


Today's Gospel Reading - John 14:6-14

Jesus said: I am the Way; I am Truth and Life. No one can come to the Father except through me. If you know me, you will know my Father too. From this moment you know him and have seen him. Philip said, 'Lord, show us the Father and then we shall be satisfied.' Jesus said to him, 'Have I been with you all this time, Philip, and you still do not know me? 'Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father, so how can you say, "Show us the Father"? Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? What I say to you I do not speak of my own accord: it is the Father, living in me, who is doing his works. You must believe me when I say that I am in the Father and the Father is in me; or at least believe it on the evidence of these works. In all truth I tell you, whoever believes in me will perform the same works as I do myself, and will perform even greater works, because I am going to the Father. Whatever you ask in my name I will do, so that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If you ask me anything in my name, I will do it.

• Today’s Gospel, the Feast of the Apostles Philip and James, is the same one as we meditated on during the 4th week of Easter, and narrates the request of the Apostle Philip to Jesus: “Show us the Father, and that is enough for us”.

• John 14, 6: I am the way, I am Truth and Life: Thomas had addressed a question to Jesus: “Lord, we do not know where you are going. How can we know the way?” (Jn 14, 5). Jesus answers: “I am the way, I am Truth and Life. No one can come to the Father except through me”. Three important words. Without the way, we cannot walk. Without the truth one cannot make a good choice. Without life, there is only death! Jesus explains the sense. He is the way, because no one “comes to the Father except through me”. And he is the gate through which the sheep go in and out (Jn 10, 9). Jesus is the Truth because looking at him, we are seeing the image of the Father. “If you know me, you will know my Father too!” Jesus is Life, because walking like Jesus we will be united to the Father and will have life in us!

• John 14, 7: To know Jesus is to know the Father. Thomas had asked: “Lord, we do not know where you are going. How can we know the way?” Jesus answers: “I am the way, I am Truth and Life! No one comes to the Father except through me”. And he adds: “If you know me, you will know my Father too. From this moment you have known him and have seen him”. This is the first phrase of today’s Gospel. Jesus always speaks about the Father, because it was the life of the Father that appeared in everything that he said and did. This continuous reference to the Father causes Philip to ask the question.

• John 14, 8-11: Philip asks: “Show us the Father and then we will be satisfied!” It was the desire of the disciples, the desire of many persons of the communities of the Beloved Disciple and it is the desire of many people today. What do people do to see the Father of whom Jesus speaks so much? Jesus’ answer is very beautiful and it is valid even today: “Have I been with you all this time, Philip, and you still do not know me? Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father!” People should not think that God is far away from us, at a distance and unknown. Anyone who wants to know how and who is God the Father, it suffices for him to look at Jesus. He has revealed him in the words and gestures of his life! “The Father is in me and I am in the Father!” Through his obedience, Jesus has totally identified himself with the Father. At every moment he did what the Father told him to do (Jn 5, 30; 8, 28-29.38). This is why in Jesus, everything is the revelation of the Father! And the signs or works are the works of the Father! As people say: “The son is the face of the father!” This is why in Jesus and for Jesus, God is in our midst.

• John 14, 12-14: The Promise of Jesus. Jesus makes a promise to say that his intimacy with the Father is not a privilege only for him, but it is possible for all those who believe in him. We also, through Jesus, can be able to do beautiful things for others as Jesus did for the people of his time. He intercedes for us. Everything that people ask from him, he asks the Father and obtains it, always if it is to serve. Jesus is our defender. He leaves but he does not leave us without defence. He promises that he will ask the Father and the Father will send another defender and consoler, the Holy Spirit. Jesus even said that it is necessary that he leaves, because otherwise the Holy Spirit will not come (Jn 16, 7). And the Holy Spirit will fulfil the things of Jesus in us, if we act in the name of Jesus and observe the great commandment of the practice of love.

For Personal confrontation
• Jesus is the way, the Truth and the Life. Without the way, without Truth and without life we cannot live. Try to make this enter your conscience.
• Two important questions: who is Jesus for me? Who am I for Jesus?

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  Saint James the Lesser

Feast Day:  May 03
Patron Saint:  apothecaries; druggists; dying people; Frascati, Italy; fullers; milliners; Monterotondo, Italy; pharmacists; Uruguay
Attributes:  carpenter's saw; fuller's club; book

Fresco of Saint James the Less in the Orthodox Church of Vladimir, Russia
James, son of Alphaeus (Ἰάκωβος, Iakōbos in Greek) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, appearing under this name in all three of the Synoptic Gospels' lists of the apostles.  He is often identified with James the Less (Greek Iacobos ho mikros, Ἰακώβος ο μικρος Mark 15:40) and commonly known by that name in church tradition. He is also labelled "the minor", "the little", "the lesser", or "the younger", according to translation. James, the son of Alphaeus, is rarely mentioned in the New Testament. He is distinguished from James the Lord's brother (Gal.1:19), an important leader in the New Testament church, and James, son of Zebedee, another one of the Twelve Apostles. James, son of Alphaeus, appears only four times in the New Testament, each time in a list of the twelve apostles.[2]

Possible identity with James the Less

James, son of Alphaeus is often identified with James the Less, who is only mentioned three times in the Bible, each time in connection with his mother. Mark 15:40 refers to "Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses", while Mark 16:1 and Matthew 27:56 refer to "Mary the mother of James". He is rarely identified with James, traditionally half-brother of Jesus.

Since there was already another James (James, son of Zebedee) among the twelve apostles, equating James son of Alphaeus with "James the Less" made sense. (James son of Zebedee was sometimes called "James the Greater").

Modern Biblical scholars are divided on whether this identification is correct. John Paul Meier finds it unlikely.[3] Amongst evangelicals, the New Bible Dictionary supports the traditional identification,[4] while Don Carson[5] and Darrell Bock[6] both regard the identification as possible, but not certain.

Jerome's identification with James, the "brother" of Jesus

As a consequence of the doctrine of perpetual virginity Jerome proposed that James, son of Alphaeus, was to be identified with "James, the brother of the Lord" (Gal.1:19) and that the term "brother" was to be understood as "cousin."[7][8] The view of Jerome, the "Hieronymian view," became widely accepted in the Roman Catholic Church,[9] while Eastern Catholics, Eastern Orthodox and Protestants tend to distinguish between the two. Geike (1884) states that Hausrath, Delitzsch, and Schenkel, think James the Just was the son of Clophas-Alphaeus.[10]

Possible brother of Matthew

Another Alphaeus is also the name of the father of the publican Levi mentioned in Mark 2:14. The publican appears as Matthew in Matthew 9:9, which has led some to conclude that James and Matthew might have been brothers.[11][12] The four times that James son of Alphaeus is mentioned directly in the Bible (each time in the list of the Apostles) the only family relationship stated is that his father is Alphaeus.[13] In two lists of the Apostles, James and John are listed as brothers and that their father is Zebedee.[14]

Gospel of Mark

Calling of James, Son of Alphaeus

Mark the Evangelist is the earliest known source in the bible to mention "James, son of Alphaeus" as one of the twelve Apostles if Markan priority is true. Mark the Evangelist only mentions a "James, son of Alphaeus" only once and this is in his list of the 12 ApostlesMark 3:16-19. At the beginning of Jesus' ministry he first calls Peter and his brother Andrew and asks them to follow him Mark 1:16-17. In the next verses it tells the story of how James the Greater and his brother John the Apostle came to follow Jesus Mark 1:19-20. After some healing by Jesus he meets Levi son of Alphaeus who was a tax collector and he then asks Levi to follow him Mark 2:14. Peter, Andrew, James the Greater and John the Apostle are listed as Apostles Mark 3:16-19. Levi, son of Alphaeus is not listed as an Apostle but James son of Alphaeus is Mark 3:16-19.

Ambiguous James’

Overall Mark the Evangelist lists three different James’. "James, son of Alphaeus", James the Greater and James the brother of Jesus Mark 6:3. On three separate occasions he writes about a James without clarifying which James he is referring to. There is a James at the transfiguration Mark 9:2, at the Mount of Olives Mark 13:3 and the Garden of Gethsemane Mark 14:33. Although this James is listed alongside John the Apostle a clear distinction isn't made about which Apostle James is being referred to, even when both Apostles are meant to be in the similar location. All twelve Apostles attend the Last Supper Mark 14:33 which immediately precedes Garden of Gethsemane. There is a reference to Mary mother of James the Younger and Joseph Mark 15:40, however, Mark the Evangelist has already told us that James the brother of Jesus has a brother called Joseph Mark 6:3.

Gospel of Matthew

Calling of James, Son of Alphaeus

Peter, Andrew, James, son of Zebedee and his brother John were all called to follow Jesus Matthew 4:18-22. In a story that parallels the calling of Levi, son of Alphaeus,[15] Matthew is called to follow Jesus Matthew 9:9-13. Matthew is never referred directly to as being the Son of Alphaeus in the Gospel of Matthew or any other book in the Bible,[16] but like Levi, Son of Alphaeus in Mark he is regarded as a tax collector Matthew 9:9. In the Gospel of Matthew the tax collector (Matthew) called to follow Jesus is listed as one of the twelve Apostles. James, son of Alphaeus is also listed as one of the 12 Apostles Matthew 10:3.

Ambiguous James

Matthew doesn’t mention any James in his Gospel that isn’t identified without association to his family. There are 3 James that are mentioned by Matthew, James, Brother of Jesus, Joseph, Simon and Judas Matthew 13:55, James son of Zebedee and brother of John Matthew 10:2 and James, son of Alphaeus. At the Transfiguration it is specified that the James is brother of John Matthew 13:55 and at the Garden of Gethsemane it is specified that it is the sons of Zebedee Matthew 26:37. It is not specified by Matthew that there was a James at the Mount of Olives he mentions only disciples Matthew 24:3. Matthew also mentions a Mary the mother of James and Joseph who was at the crucifixion. This James is not given the epithet the younger Matthew 27:56.


Saint James was arrested along with an unspecified number of Christians and was subsequently beheaded by Herod in persecution of the church. Acts 12:1,2 However, the James in Acts 12:1,2 has a brother called John. James, son of Zebedee has a brother called John Matthew 4:21and we are never explicitly told that James son of Alphaeus has a brother. Robert Eisenman [17] and The New Advent online Catholic Encylopeida [18] both suggest that the death of James in Acts 12:1-2 is James, son of Zebedee and not James son of Alphaeus. In Christian art he is depicted holding a fuller's club (when identified with James the Less [19]). Tradition maintains he was crucified at Ostrakine in Lower Egypt, where he was preaching the Gospel.[20]


  1. ^ Catholic Forum Patron Saints Index: James the Lesser
  2. ^ Matthew 10:3, Mark 3:18, Luke 6:12-16 and Acts 1:13.
  3. ^ John Paul Meier, A Marginal Jew volume 3, p. 201. "There are no grounds for identifying James of Alphaeus - as church tradition has done - with James the Less."
  4. ^ New Bible Dictionary, 2nd Edition (IVP 1982), "James" entry (by P.H.Davids)
  5. ^ "The Expositor's Bible Commentary CDROM, commentary on Matthew (by Don Carson), commentary on Matthew 10:2-4
  6. ^ Luke, by Darrell Bock (Baker 1994), commentary on Luke 6:15
  7. ^ John Saward - Cradle of redeeming love: the theology of the Christmas mystery p18 2002 "St Jerome concludes that St James, son of Alphaeus, and St James, brother of the Lord, are one and the same person.169 But why is James, son of Alphaeus, called our Lord's 'brother'? St Jerome's answer is as follows. In Matthew 13:55 we hear of four 'brothers' of our Lord: James and Joseph, Simon and Jude. Later, in the Passion narrative, St Matthew mentions a Mary who is the mother of James and Joseph (cf Mt 27:56) "
  8. ^ The brother of Jesus: James the Just and his mission p17 Bruce Chilton, Jacob Neusner - 2001 "Given that James has been identified as the son of Alphaeus, Jerome indicates he cannot explain the connection of Mary the ... Chrysostom (347-407) was first to suggest that James the brother of the Lord is the son of Clopas though, ..."
  9. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Saint James the Less
  10. ^ John Cunningham Geikie The life and words of Christ Volume 1 1884 "Alphaeus, or Alpheus __, and Clopas are different ways of pronouncing in Greek the Hebrew name ___ (Chal'phai). ... Hausrath, Delitzsch, and Schenkel, think James the Just was the son of Clophas-Alphaeus."
  11. ^ John MacArthur, Jr., Daily Readings from The Life of Christ, page 50 (Moody Publishers, 2009). ISBN 978-0-8042-5601-4
  12. ^ Warren W. Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary: The Complete New Testament, page 848 (David C. Cook, 2007). ISBN 978-0-7814-4539-9
  13. ^ Matthew 10:2-3, Mark 3:16-19, Luke 6:11-16 and Acts 1:13.
  14. ^ Matthew 10:2-3, Mark 3:16-19
  15. ^ The Good News Bible Revised Edition 1994 indicate that Mark 2:13-17 and Matthew 9:9-13 are the same story
  16. ^ The Good News Bible Revised Edition 1994
  17. ^ "James brother of Jesus" Robert Eisenman
  18. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: James son of Zebedee
  19. ^ Hilarie Cornwell, James Cornwell, Saints, Signs, and Symbols, page 49 (Morehouse Publishing, 2009). ISBN 978-0-8192-2345-6
  20. ^ Philip Schaff, History of the Apostolic Church: with a General Introduction to Church History, page 389 (New York: Charles Scribner, 1853). Citing Nikephoros, Historia Ecclesiastica II:40

        Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane


        Today's Snippet I:  Saint Philip the Apostle

        James Tissot – Saint Philip (Saint Philippe) – Brooklyn Museum
        Philip the Apostle (Greek: Φίλιππος, Philippos) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Later Christian traditions describe Philip as the apostle who preached in Greece, Syria, and Phrygia.

        In the Roman Catholic Church, the feast day of Philip, along with that of James the Just, was traditionally observed on 1 May, the anniversary of the dedication of the church dedicated to them in Rome (now called the Church of the Twelve Apostles).  The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates Philip's feast day on 14 November. One of the Gnostic texts found in the Nag Hammadi library in 1945 has been given the modern title "Gospel of Philip", though this text makes no claim to have been written by Philip. It gets the name simply because Philip is the only apostle ever mentioned in the text (73:8).

        New Testament

        The Gospel of John describes Philip's calling as a disciple of Jesus.[Jn 1:43] Philip is described as a disciple from the city of Bethsaida, and connects him to Andrew and Peter, who were from the same town.[1:43–44] It further connects him to Nathanael (sometimes identified with Bartholomew) whom Philip first introduces to Jesus.[Jn 1:45–47] The authors of the Synoptic Gospels also describe Philip as a disciple of Jesus.[1][Mt 10:3][Mk 3:18][Lk 6:14] Philip was tested by Jesus about how to feed 5,000 people (John 6:4-7), and he was approached by Greeks who wanted to see Jesus (John 12:20-21).

        Of the four Gospels, Philip figures most prominently in the Gospel of John. His two most notable appearances in the narrative are as a link to the Greek community[Jn 12:20–36]. Philip bore a Greek name (see Philip II of Macedon) and we may infer from the context that Philip spoke Greek. Philip introduces members of this community to Jesus. During the Last Supper[Jn 14:8–11] when Philip asked Jesus to show them the Father, he provides Jesus the opportunity to teach his disciples about the unity of the Father and the Son. Philip is always listed fifth among the apostles.[Mt 10:3][Mk 3:18][Lk 6:14][Acts 1:13]

        Christian tradition

        Christian stories about St Philip's life and ministry can be found more often in the extra-canonical writings of later Christians than in the New Testament.

        Other legendary material about Philip can be misleading, as many hagiographers conflated Philip the Apostle with Philip the Evangelist. The most notable and influential example of this is the hagiography of Eusebius, in which Eusebius clearly assumes that both Philips are the same person.[2] As early as 1260, Jacobus de Voragine noted in his Golden Legend that the account of Philip's life given by Eusebius was not to be trusted.[3]

        Later stories about Saint Philip's life can be found in the anonymous Acts of Philip, probably written by a contemporary of Eusebius.[4] This non-canonical book recounts the preaching and miracles of Philip. Following the resurrection of Jesus, Philip was sent with his sister Mariamne and Bartholomew to preach in Greece, Phrygia, and Syria.[5] Included in the Acts of Philip is an appendix, entitled "Of the Journey of Philip the Apostle: From the Fifteenth Act Until the End, and Among Them the Martyrdom." This appendix gives an account of Philip's martyrdom in the city of Hierapolis.[6] According to this account, through a miraculous healing and his preaching Philip converted the wife of the proconsul of the city. This enraged the proconsul, and he had Philip, Bartholomew, and Mariamne all tortured. Philip and Bartholomew were then crucified upside-down, and Philip preached from his cross. As a result of Philip's preaching the crowd released Bartholomew from his cross, but Philip insisted that they not release him, and Philip died on the cross. Another legend is that he was martyred by beheading in the city of Hierapolis. Philip is commonly associated with the symbol of the Latin cross.[7] Other symbols assigned to Philip include: the cross with the two loaves (because of his answer to the Lord in John 6:7), a basket filled with bread, a spear with the patriarchal cross, and a cross with a carpenter's square.[8]

        Tomb discovered

        On Wednesday, 27 July 2011, the Turkish news agency Anadolu reported that archeologists had unearthed a tomb that the project lead claims to be the Tomb of Saint Philip during excavations in Hierapolis close to the Turkish city Denizli. The Italian professor Francesco D'Andria stated that scientists had discovered the tomb, within a newly revealed church. He stated that the design of the Tomb, and writings on its walls, definitively prove it belonged to the martyred Apostle of Jesus.


        1. ^ Note that, as in the Gospel of John, Philip is here paired with Bartholomew.
        2. ^ For an example of Eusebius identifying Philip the Apostle with the Philip mentioned in Acts, see Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History, 3.31.5, retrieved 14 March 2007.
        3. ^ Jacobus de Voragine, The Golden Legend, online version, retrieved 14 March 2007.
        4. ^ Craig A. Blaising, "Philip, Apostle" in The Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, ed. Everett Ferguson (New York: Garland Publishing, 1997).
        5. ^ Acts of Philip, especially book 8, retrieved 14 March 2007.
        6. ^ Available online (retrieved 14 March 2007).
        7. ^ The Apostles – Saints & Angels – Catholic Online. (11 June 2008). Retrieved on 28 July 2011.
        8. ^ Saints Symbols. Retrieved on 28 July 2011.
        9. ^ Tomb of St. Philip the Apostle Discovered in Turkey. Retrieved on 27 May 2011.
        10. ^ Tomb of Apostle Philip Found. Retrieved on 09 March 2013.



        Catechism of the Catholic Church

        Part Two: The Celebration of the Christian Mystery, 

        Section Two: The Seven Sacraments of the Church 





        Article 4

        IX. The Effects of This Sacrament
        1468 "The whole power of the sacrament of Penance consists in restoring us to God's grace and joining us with him in an intimate friendship."Roman Catechism, II, V, 18 Reconciliation with God is thus the purpose and effect of this sacrament. For those who receive the sacrament of Penance with contrite heart and religious disposition, reconciliation "is usually followed by peace and serenity of conscience with strong spiritual consolation."Council of Trent (1551): DS 1674 Indeed the sacrament of Reconciliation with God brings about a true "spiritual resurrection," restoration of the dignity and blessings of the life of the children of God, of which the most precious is friendship with God.Lk 15:32

        1469 This sacrament reconciles us with the Church. Sin damages or even breaks fraternal communion. the sacrament of Penance repairs or restores it. In this sense it does not simply heal the one restored to ecclesial communion, but has also a revitalizing effect on the life of the Church which suffered from the sin of one of her members.1 Cor 12:26 Re-established or strengthened in the communion of saints, the sinner is made stronger by the exchange of spiritual goods among all the living members of the Body of Christ, whether still on pilgrimage or already in the heavenly homeland:LG 48-50

        It must be recalled that . . . this reconciliation with God leads, as it were, to other reconciliations, which repair the other breaches caused by sin. the forgiven penitent is reconciled with himself in his inmost being, where he regains his innermost truth. He is reconciled with his brethren whom he has in some way offended and wounded. He is reconciled with the Church. He is reconciled with all creation.John Paul II, RP 31, 5

        1470 In this sacrament, the sinner, placing himself before the merciful judgment of God, anticipates in a certain way the judgment to which he will be subjected at the end of his earthly life. For it is now, in this life, that we are offered the choice between life and death, and it is only by the road of conversion that we can enter the Kingdom, from which one is excluded by grave sin.1 Cor 5:11 In converting to Christ through penance and faith, the sinner passes from death to life and "does not come into judgment."Jn 5:24