Monday, May 6, 2013

Monday, May 6, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog: Unction, Psalms 149, Acts 16:11-15, John 15:25-16:4, Pope Francis Daily Homily - The Holy Spirit opens our hearts to the Lord, Blessed Francis de Leval, Quebec City Canada, New France,, Catholic Catechism Part Two: THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH - Chapter 2 Sacraments of Healing Penance and Reconciliation Article 5:1 The Anointing of the Sick

Monday,  May 6, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog:

Unction, Psalms 149, Acts 16:11-15, John 15:25-16:4, Pope Francis Daily Homily - The Holy Spirit opens our hearts to the Lord, Blessed Francis de Leval,  Quebec City Canada, New France,, Catholic Catechism Part Two: THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH - Chapter 2 Sacraments of Healing Penance and Reconciliation Article 5:1  The Anointing of the Sick

Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. The Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit: wisdom, understanding, wonder and awe (fear of the Lord) , counsel, knowledge, fortitude, and piety (reverence) and shun the seven Deadly sins: wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony...Its your choice whether to embrace the Gifts of the Holy Spirit rising towards eternal light or succumb to the Seven deadly sins and lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to the Darkness, Purgatory or Heaven is our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...~ Zarya Parx 2013

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


Prayers for Today: Monday in Easter

Rosary - Joyful Mysteries


 Papam Franciscus
(Pope Francis)

Pope Francis May 6 General Audience Address :

The Holy Spirit opens our hearts to the Lord

(2013-05-06 Vatican Radio)
(Vatican Radio) The Holy Spirit was the subject of Pope Francis’ Homily during morning Mass at the Casa Santa Martha Monday. The Holy Father also stressed that it was important for Christians to examine their conscience on a daily basis.

Present at the Casa Santa Martha was the Archpriest of St Peter’s Basilica, Cardinal Angelo Comastri who concelebrated Mass with Pope Francis. Also present were employees from the complex of St Peter’s Basilica who listened as the Pope focused his Homily on the Holy Spirit.Pope Francis said that the Holy Spirit whom Jesus called the “Paraclete” was the Person of God who is always there to protect us and support us.

The Holy Father underlined the importance of the Holy Spirit in our lives by saying that without this presence, our Christian lives cannot be understood.Pope Francis went on to describe the sort of life one would have without the Holy Spirit. It would be a religious life, he said, a compassionate life of someone who believes in God but without the vitality that Jesus wants for his disciples.

The Spirit the Pope continued, “bears witness” to Jesus , so that we can give it to others.Turning his attention to the first reading, the Holy Father recalled the beautiful story of a woman called Lydia whose heart was opened so as to pay attention to the words of St Paul. The Pope explained that it is the Holy Spirit that opens our hearts to know Jesus. The Spirit prepares us for our encounter with Jesus, he leads us down the path of Jesus and works in us throughout the day and throughout our lives.

The Pope then invited people to examine their conscience at the end of the day because it is in this way, he added that we can see how Jesus worked in our hearts.

Concluding his Homily, Pope Francis “asked that people be granted the grace to become accustomed to the presence of the Holy Spirit, this witness of Jesus who tells us where Jesus is, how to find Jesus, what Jesus tells us.” The Pope continued by saying, we should get into the habit of asking ourselves, before the end of the day: 'What did Holy Spirit do in me? What witness did he give me?” Because, the Holy Father said, he is a divine presence that helps us moving forward in our lives as Christians.


Liturgical Celebrations to be presided over by Pope: April–May

Vatican City, 3 April 2013 (VIS)
Following is the calendar of celebrations scheduled to be presided over by the Holy Father in the month May, 2013:


12 May, Sunday: 9:30am, Mass and canonizations of Blesseds Antonio Primaldo and Companions; Laura di Santa Caterina da Siena Montoya y Upegui; and Maria Guadalupe Garcia Zavala.

18 May, Saturday: 6:00pm, Pentecost Vigil in St. Peter's Square with the participation of ecclesial movements.

19 May, Pentecost Sunday: 10:00am, Mass in St. Peter's Square with the participation of ecclesial movements.


  • Vatican News. From the Pope. © Copyright 2013 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Accessed 05/06/2013.


May 2, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World: "Dear children; Anew, I am calling you to love and not to judge. My Son, according to the will of the Heavenly Father, was among you to show you the way of salvation, to save you and not to judge you. If you desire to follow my Son, you will not judge but love like your Heavenly Father loves you. And when it is the most difficult for you, when you are falling under the weight of the cross do not despair, do not judge, instead remember that you are loved and praise the Heavenly Father because of His love. My children, do not deviate from the way on which I am leading you. Do not recklessly walk into perdition. May prayer and fasting strengthen you so that you can live as the Heavenly Father would desire; that you may be my apostles of faith and love; that your life may bless those whom you meet; that you may be one with the Heavenly Father and my Son. My children, that is the only truth, the truth that leads to your conversion, and then to the conversion of all those whom you meet - those who have not come to know my Son - all those who do not know what it means to love. My children, my Son gave you a gift of the shepherds. Take good care of them. Pray for them. Thank you."

April 25, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World:: "Dear children! Pray, pray, keep praying until your heart opens in faith as a flower opens to the warm rays of the sun. This is a time of grace which God gives you through my presence but you are far from my heart, therefore, I call you to personal conversion and to family prayer. May Sacred Scripture always be an incentive for you. I bless you all with my motherly blessing. Thank you for having responded to my call."

April 2, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World: "Dear children, I am calling you to be one with my Son in spirit. I am calling you, through prayer, and the Holy Mass when my Son unites Himself with you in a special way, to try to be like Him; that, like Him, you may always be ready to carry out God's will and not seek the fulfillment of your own. Because, my children, it is according to God's will that you are and that you exist, and without God's will you are nothing. As a mother I am asking you to speak about the glory of God with your life because, in that way, you will also glorify yourself in accordance to His will. Show humility and love for your neighbour to everyone. Through such humility and love, my Son saved you and opened the way for you to the Heavenly Father. I implore you to keep opening the way to the Heavenly Father for all those who have not come to know Him and have not opened their hearts to His love. By your life, open the way to all those who still wander in search of the truth. My children, be my apostles who have not lived in vain. Do not forget that you will come before the Heavenly Father and tell Him about yourself. Be ready! Again I am warning you, pray for those whom my Son called, whose hands He blessed and whom He gave as a gift to you. Pray, pray, pray for your shepherds. Thank you." 


Today's Word:  Unction  unc·tion  [uhngk-shuhn]  

Origin:  1350–1400; Middle English unctioun  < Latin ūnctiōn  (stem of ūnctiō ) anointing, besmearing, equivalent to ūnct ( us ) (past participle of ung ( u ) ere  to smear, anoint) + -iōn- -ion

1. an act of anointing, especially as a medical treatment or religious rite.
2. an unguent or ointment; salve.
3. something soothing or comforting.
4. an excessive, affected, sometimes cloying earnestness or fervor in manner, especially in speaking.
5. Religion .

a. the oil used in religious rites, as in anointing the sick or dying.
b. the shedding of a divine or spiritual influence upon a person.
c. the influence shed.
d. extreme unction.
6. the manifestation of spiritual or religious inspiration.


Today's Old Testament Reading - Psalms 149:1-6,9

1 Alleluia! Sing a new song to Yahweh: his praise in the assembly of the faithful!
2 Israel shall rejoice in its Maker, the children of Zion delight in their king;
3 they shall dance in praise of his name, play to him on tambourines and harp!
4 For Yahweh loves his people, he will crown the humble with salvation.
5 The faithful exult in glory, shout for joy as they worship him,
6 praising God to the heights with their voices, a two-edged sword in their hands,
9 to execute on them the judgement passed -- to the honour of all his faithful.


Today's Epistle - Acts 16:11-15

11 Sailing from Troas we made a straight run for Samothrace; the next day for Neapolis,
12 and from there for Philippi, a Roman colony and the principal city of that district of Macedonia.
13 After a few days in this city we went outside the gates beside a river as it was the Sabbath and this was a customary place for prayer. We sat down and preached to the women who had come to the meeting.
14 One of these women was called Lydia, a woman from the town of Thyatira who was in the purple-dye trade, and who revered God. She listened to us, and the Lord opened her heart to accept what Paul was saying.
15 After she and her household had been baptised she kept urging us, 'If you judge me a true believer in the Lord,' she said, 'come and stay with us.' And she would take no refusal.


Today's Gospel Reading - John 15:26-16:4a

Jesus said to his disciples: "When the Paraclete comes, whom I shall send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who issues from the Father, he will be my witness. And you too will be witnesses, because you have been with me from the beginning. I have told you all this so that you may not fall away. They will expel you from the synagogues, and indeed the time is coming when anyone who kills you will think he is doing a holy service to God. They will do these things because they have never known either the Father or me. But I have told you all this, so that when the time for it comes you may remember that I told you. I did not tell you this from the beginning, because I was with you.

• In chapters 15 to 17 of the Gospel of John, the horizon extends beyond the historical moment of the Supper. Jesus prays to the Father “I pray not only for these but also for those who through their teaching will come to believe in me” (Jn 17, 20). In these chapters, there is constant reference to the action of the Spirit in the life of the communities, after Easter.

• John 16, 26-27: The action of the Holy Spirit in the life of the community. The first thing that the Spirit does is to give witness of Jesus: “He will be my witness”. The Spirit is not a spiritual being without a definition. No! He is the Spirit of Truth who comes from the Father, will be sent by Jesus himself and introduces us into the complete truth (Jn 16, 13). The complete truth is Jesus himself: “I am the Way, the Truth and the Life!” (Jn 14, 6). At the end of the first century, there were some Christians who were so fascinated by the action of the Spirit that they no longer looked at Jesus. They affirmed that now, after the Resurrection, it was no longer necessary to look at Jesus of Nazareth, the one “who comes in the flesh”. They withdrew from Jesus and remained only with the Spirit. They said: “Jesus is anathema!” (1 Co 12, 3). The Gospel of John takes a stand and does not permit that the action of the Spirit be separated from the memory of Jesus of Nazareth. The Holy Spirit cannot be isolated with an independent greatness, separated from the mystery of the Incarnation. The Holy Spirit is inseparably united to the Father and to Jesus. He is the Spirit of Jesus that the Father sends to us that same Spirit that Jesus has gained with his death and Resurrection. And we, receiving this Spirit in Baptism, should be the prolongation of Jesus: “And you too will be witnesses!” We can never forget that precisely on the eve of his death Jesus promises the Spirit; in the moment when he gave himself for his brothers. Today, the Charismatic Movement insists on the action of the Spirit and does much good. It should always insist more, but it should also insist in affirming that it is a question of the Spirit of Jesus of Nazareth who, out of love for the poor and the marginalized, was persecuted, arrested and condemned to death and that, precisely because of this, he has promised us his Spirit in such a way that we, after his death, continue his action and be for humanity the revelation itself of the preferential love of the Father for the poor and the oppressed.

• John 16, 1-2: Do not be afraid. The Gospel tells us that to be faithful to Jesus will lead us to have difficulties. The disciples will be excluded from the Synagogue. They will be condemned to death. The same thing that happened to Jesus will happen to them. This is why at the end of the first century, there were persons who, in order to avoid persecution, diluted or watered down the message of Jesus transforming it into a Gnostic message, vague, without any definition, which was not in contrast with the ideology of the Empire. To them is applied what Paul said: “They are afraid of the cross of Christ” (Ga 6, 12). And John himself, in his letter, will say concerning them: “There are many deceivers at large in the world, refusing to acknowledge Jesus Christ as coming in human nature (he became man). They are the Deceiver; they are the Antichrist!” (2 Jn 1, 7). The same concern appears also in Thomas’ demand: “Unless I can see the holes that the nails made in his hands and can put my finger into the holes they made, and unless I can put my hand into his side, I refuse to believe”. (Jn 20, 25). The Risen Christ who promises to give us the gift of the Spirit is Jesus of Nazareth who continues to have, even now, the signs of torture and of the cross in his risen Body.

• John 16, 3-4: They do not know what they do. They do all these things “because they have never known either the Father or me”. These persons do not have a correct image of God. They have a vague image of God, in the heart and in the head. Their God is not the Father of Jesus Christ who gathers us all together in unity and fraternity. In last instance, it is the same reason which impelled Jesus to say: “Father, forgive them, because they know not what they do (Lk 23, 34). Jesus was condemned by the religious authority because, according to their idea, he had a false image of God. In the words of Jesus there is no hatred or vengeance, but only compassion: they are ignorant brothers who know nothing of our Father.

Personal questions
• The mystery of the Trinity is present in the affirmation of Jesus, not as a theoretical truth, but as an expression of the Christian with the mission of Christ. How do I live this central mystery of our faith in my life?
• How do I live the action of the Spirit in my life?

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  Blessed Francis de Leval

Feast Day:  May 06

Patron Saint:  n/a
Attributes:  n/a

Blessed François de Laval
The Blessed Francis-Xavier de Montmorency-Laval, M.E.P., commonly referred to as François de Laval (30 April 1623 – 6 May 1708), was the first Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec, appointed when he was 36 years old by Pope Alexander VII. He was a member of the Montmorency family and was one of the most influential men of his day. He is currently a candidate for canonization by the Catholic Church.
    Laval was born on April 30th 1623 at Montigny-sur-Avre in the ancient Province of Perche (Perché), now the Department of Eure-et-Loir. His father, Hugues de Laval, a member of the House of Laval, was the Seigneur of Montigny, Montbaudry, Alaincourt and Revercourt.[2] His mother, Michelle de Péricard was from a family of hereditary officers of the Crown in Normandy.[3]
Despite his noble descent, his parents were not considered to be wealthy. Montigny was considered equivalent to a good-sized market-town.[4] Laval had five other brothers and two sisters, and like himself, two of this siblings would also pursue religious paths in life. His youngest brother, Henri, entered the Benedictine Order and his sister, Anne Charlotte, entered the Congregation of Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament.[5]

Throughout his life, Laval’s mother continuously served as an example of piety and encouraged him to be charitable to those who were less fortunate.[6] It is clear that Laval must have taken his mother’s encouragement to heart as his life works clearly illustrate the compassionate and charitable man he became. Often described as destined for an ecclesiastical lifestyle, Laval was quickly recognized as a clear-sighted and intelligent boy. As a result, he was admitted into the “privileged ranks of those who comprised the Congregation of the Holy Virgin.”[7] This was a society founded by the sons of Loyola who aimed to inspire young people to adopt religious lifestyles, and encouraged regulatory prayer and holy practices. At the age of eight, Laval received the tonsure and took minor holy orders which then allowed him to enter the congregation of the college of La Flèche in 1631.[8] This institution was attended by the sons of the elite families in France; hence, Laval was guaranteed a good education. Moreover, it was during this period that Laval came into contact with reports of the Jesuit missions amongst the Huron in Canada, which influenced his desire to become a missionary, like his patron saint, Francois Xavier.[9] In 1637, Laval was appointed the canon of the cathedral of Évreux by the Bishop of Évreux.[10]

This position proved to be of key importance after the death of his father in September 1636, which left his family in a precarious financial situation.[11] Luckily, it allowed him to receive revenue from the prebend, without which he would have been unable to continue his education.[12] Once he completed his classical education at the age of nineteen, Laval left La Flèche to further pursue his education in philosophy and theology at the college de Clermont in Paris.[13]

Unfortunately, Laval’s plans were put on hold due to the death of his two eldest brothers; one having fallen at Freiburg and the other at Nordlingen, which effectively made him the head of the family.[14] At this point, Laval was faced with the decision of abandoning his ecclesiastical career to take over his father’s estate: “bringing him […] together with a great name, a brilliant future.”[15] In fact, his mother, the Bishop of Evreux, and his cousin all attempted to convince him to leave Paris and return home.[16] Nonetheless, Laval would not succumb to his family’s pressure. As a man who had always fantasized of travelling to preach the divine word of God, agreeing to his mother’s wishes would have meant submitting himself to her dreams rather than pursuing his own. As a result, Laval helped his mother set the family’s affairs in order and arranged for a full renunciation of his rights of primogeniture, which would then be transferred to his brother Jean-Louis.[17]

Once this was complete, Laval returned to Paris where he delved into his studies and began the process of preparing himself to receive his holy orders. His hard work paid off and on May 1, 1647, at the age of twenty four, Laval was finally ordained a priest.[18] Soon after this, the Bishop of Evreux began to feel remorse for his previous attempt to convince Laval to abandon his ecclesial path; hence, he decided to appoint him as the archdeacon of his cathedral in December of 1647.[19] This post required Laval to oversee the affairs of 155 parishes and four chapels. Laval was said to approach this onerous task with fervor and enthusiasm.[20] In the following years, he devoted himself to establishing order in the parishes, providing relief for the poor, caring for the sick and engaging in different kinds of charitable activities. His service to the church demonstrated that, though he was not bishop yet, he had the capability and dedication to take on such a position. Furthermore, this same behavior would be seen later on in his life, on a completely different continent.

As was mentioned previously, Laval had dreamt of becoming a missionary to travel and preach the divine word of God. As a result, when he was presented with the possibility of serving as a missionary in Asia, he resigned from his post as archdeacon in 1654.[21] Indeed, Father Alexander of Rhodes was looking for the Pope’s permission to appoint candidates as vicars apostolic in Tonkin and Indochina.[22] As a result, he was sent to Rome where he remained for fifteen months.[23] Unfortunately, the opposition by the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, which oversaw the missionary work of the Catholic Church, and the Portuguese court jeopardized the mission which led to the project being discarded in 1654.[24]

Laval was now freed from all responsibility, and thus made the decision to prepare himself “by prayer, for the designs which God might have for him.”[25] As a result, he travelled to Caen to stay at M. de Bernières’ religious retreat in the small sheltered town of Hermitage.[26] He remained here for three years where he devoted himself to prayer and charitable organizations. It is also during this time that he took on the responsibility of reforming a monastery whose morals were thought to be too lax, as well as becoming the administrator of two communities of nuns.[27] His dedication to these projects earned him commendation from Bishop François de Servien, who described him “as a priest “of great piety, prudent and of unusually great competence in business matters, [who had set] fine examples of virtue.”[28] Laval was now well known in the religious community and ready to take the next step in his life.

Father of the Canadian Church

Laval’s Appointment in New France 

Laval’s nomination as Bishop of New France was the result of increasing tensions regarding the ecclesiastical state of the colony. New France had been left without a bishop for the first 50 years of its settlement. During this time, spiritual matters were often left up to the colony religious officials to regulate, with authority moving from the Recollects, and the Jesuits. Only in 1646, due to pressures from Rome, did the archbishop of Rouen become officially recognized as holding authority over the Church of New France.[29] Even with this recognition, the archbishop’s authority continued to extend only so far as granting faculties to clergy travelling to the colony.[30] By this time it had already become clear that New France was in need of a more direct ecclesiastical presence.[31]

Appointing a bishop proved difficult; it was a contentious issue, particularly between the Jesuits and the newly arrived Sulpicians.[32] The Jesuits, who by this time were quite accustomed to working independently, feared being controlled by a Sulpician bishop.[33] Their uneasiness stemmed from beliefs that a Sulpician bishop would undermine their control, and eventually lead to the subordination of the church to the state.[34] While the Sulpicians were busy proposing Gabriel de Thubières de Levy de Queylus as bishop, the Jesuits turned their support onto Laval. With the assistance of the queen mother, Anne of Austria, obtaining royal approval provided little challenges.[35]

What remained an obstacle for the Jesuits and Laval was procuring a papal confirmation.[36] The Holy See remained reserved regarding Laval’s nomination. Much of Rome’s delay in coming to a decision involved the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith.[37] They agreed with the Jesuits that a Bishop was needed, however, they feared that Laval as bishop would enable the Jesuits to once again hold a monopoly over the colony. In a compromise between the Jesuits and the Catholic Church, Laval would be appointed the apostolic vicar of New France.[38] Making New France into an apostolic vicariate, rather than a diocese, guaranteed that the head, in this case Laval, answered to the pope rather than the leaders of the Church of France, giving the pope some jurisdiction in the colony.[39] Along with being made apostolic vicar, Laval would be ordained a bishop in partibus, giving him the power he needed to build the church in Canada.[40]

On June 1658 in Rome, the papal bulls appointing Laval as vicar apostolic were signed. Laval became the Bishop of Petraea in partibus infidelium.[41] On December 8 1658, in the church of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris, Laval was consecrated the Vicar Apostolic of Quebec by the papal nuncio, Cardinal Celio Piccolomini.[42] Laval took an oath of loyalty to the King and sailed from La Rochelle for New France on 13 April 1659.[43] On the 16th of June of that year he arrived at Quebec.[44] Immediately upon his arrival Laval began his work; on the same day his ship docked, he baptized a young Huron and gave a dying man his last sacraments. Laval was serious about his appointment in New France and had a vision for the colony. While its size was small, the colony still provided a number of challenges to Laval.[45] He found himself having to make concessions where he never thought to before to a population that, while scarce, was spread out, and was less inclined to continue under strict church discipline.[46]

In 1674, thirteen years after his arrival to New France, Laval asked for his position to be promoted. His request was granted, and he was given a diocese as Bishop of Quebec.[47]

Laval and State Relations

Laval struggled a great deal throughout his career to defend the church’s power against state intrusion. Upon his arrival, Laval was adamant in asserting his primacy over the governor.[48] He was immediately in opposition with Governor d’Argenson, particularly regarding ceremony and protocol.[49] Also, the issue of selling alcohol to the natives furthered fueled their feud. Laval believed that intoxicated natives were an embarrassment to the colony and endangered the lives of those around them.[50] He quickly imposed the threat of excommunication on those who continued to deal in this trade. Governor D’Argenson abhorred this action, deeming it an intrusion of church into state affairs.[51] D’Argenson soon resigned and was replaced by d’Avaugour, who, in order to avoid any conflict with Laval, decreed harsh penalties against anyone caught selling alcohol to the natives.[52] Again, Laval was unpleased, believing that excommunication was a far more humane consequence. When alcohol was again being sold freely to natives, in a moment of despair over the state of New France, Laval departed for France in August in 1662 to consult with Louis XIV on the matter.[53] Laval succeeded in bringing about d’Avaugour’s recall the following year.[54]

When Laval returned to New France he had increased powers. Louis XIV had assured Laval that he would have a future appointment as bishop, requested that he establish a Sovereign Council in Quebec, and even asked Laval to choose New France’s next governor.[55] For governor, Laval chose Chevalier de Mézy, a friend from his time at the Hermitage of Caen.[56] In the developing Sovereign Council, which held its first session September 18, 1663, Mézy represented the first figure of authority, followed by Laval, and Gaudais-Dupon, commissioner.[57] Laval appointed Mézy hoping to have an ally among high-ranking state official. In the trade of alcohol to the natives he did find in Mézy an ally; together the two forbade the trading of alcohol.[58] However, constituting the Sovereign Council revealed that the two represented conflicting interests in matters of church and state. Soon, another conflict between Laval and governor ensued, leading Laval to take to the streets with drums to tell his version of the feud.[59]

Upon Mézy’s death, the Sovereign council was reorganized. Intendant Jean Talon was added, and immediately assumed the functions previously exercised by Laval.[60] With this change in the council Laval began to attend the council’s meetings less frequently; from then on Laval retreated somewhat from state affairs and focused purely on ecclesiastical matters.[61]

The one issue Laval never relented with, however, was the trade of alcohol to the natives. Once he was appointed bishop, he revisited his original cause. In 1675, Laval, despite Governor Frontenac’s resistance on the matter, proceeded to excommunicate all who sold alcohol to the natives.[62] On May 24, 1679 Laval succeeded in obtaining a royal decree banning the trade.[63]

The Séminaire de Québec 

As bishop, Laval was arguably one of the ultimate sources of authority in New France. However, his dream was not only to expand the church of New France, but to train and teach those who were to follow the way of God as well.[64] On March 26th, 1663, the Grand Séminaire was opened in Quebec and thus the Séminaire de Quebec was born. Its main goal was to train missionary priests and it was affiliated with Laval’s own institution, the Séminaire des Missions-étrangères, in Paris.[65] A few years later, in October 1668, Laval also attached a petit séminaire to this institution. It was meant to train boys, amongst which would be chosen those with vocations to priesthood[66] and it appears that even Natives were welcome.[67] When it opened, only eight French students and six Huron were present, due to a lack of teachers. However, shortly after its opening, a considerable number of French missionaries arrived in the colony.[68] Laval wanted these teachers to spread the word that his institution was to establish a sense of charity and love for religion in the colony and not another source of law or authority.[69]

Laval’s view of the Grand Séminaire was greater than a mere teaching academy. He hoped that it would become a home for all parochial priests. Laval encouraged them to see it as their true home and as a place to which they may turn to in sickness or old age.[70] Furthermore, he wanted the seminary to become a paymaster for all priests and parishes, which meant that it had to be well funded. In order to accomplish this feat, Laval donated most of his own fortunes to the seminary since it had now become his home as well.[71] He also convinced the king, Louis XIV, to give him the income of three different abbeys in France. Moreover, since his institution was expected to pay off all priests, Laval thought it would be normal to receive the incomes levied by their parishes. This idea was however met with a lot of resistance from the population, which was not accustomed to contributing to the upkeep of religious institutions. His original goal of demanding a tax worth one-thirteenth of the produce of farms was met with violent resistance, which forced him to reduce it to one-twenty-sixth.[72]

After firmly establishing his seminary, Laval did share a large part of his administrative work with other religious figures, thus slowly developing the church. He placed Henri de Bernières, the cure of Quebec, at the head of the seminary, thus closely linking it with the Parish of Quebec. Furthermore, he also appointed five other directors who would form the bishop`s advisory body.[73] Laval also took interest in practical education for craftsmen and farmers, founding a school of arts and crafts at Saint-Joachim.[74]

Late years

Since his arrival in the colony of New France, Laval insisted on establishing and organizing a parochial system, on top of training priests in the colony itself. In 1678, he had obtained an edict from the king stating that permanent curacies will be set up in the colony. A few years later, in 1681, Laval drew up the boundaries of parishes in an attempt to permanently solidify the Church’s position. Often visiting each parish, Laval eventually realised that his health was declining and that he could no longer run his large diocese, which extended from Acadia to Lake Michigan. As a result, in 1688, he passed on his responsibilities as a bishop to Jean Baptiste de Saint-Vallier.[75]

He continued to collaborate with the colony’s high religious authorities, until his very last days. Laval helped the poor with his presence and his gifts of charity. He never missed a mass or a fasting day, despite his ever declining health. By 1707, he had developed an ulcer which eventually took his life on May 6th, 1708.[76] His body was placed in a coffin in the Cathedral; however his heart was kept in the chapel of the seminary to which he had dedicated most of his life and fortunes.[77]


The remains of Bishop Laval have been entombed in a shrine for public veneration in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Quebec, which he had founded. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1980. Laval University, founded 1852, was named in his honor. The city of Laval, Quebec, in the southern part of the province, is named for him.[78]


  1. ^ Émile Bégin, François de Laval. (Quebec: Presses Universitaires, 1959), 11.
  2. ^ Adrien, Leblond de Brumath, Bishop Laval. (Toronto: Morang &Co., Limited, 1906), 17.
  3. ^ Idem
  4. ^ The Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, “LAVAL, FRANÇOIS DE,” by André Vachon, accessed Feb 2, 2013,
  5. ^ Idem.
  6. ^ Leblond de Brumath, 17.
  7. ^ Ibid, 20.
  8. ^ The Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, “LAVAL, FRANÇOIS DE,” by André Vachon, accessed Feb 2, 2013,
  9. ^ Idem.
  10. ^ Leblond de Brumath, 20.
  11. ^ Bégin, 15.
  12. ^ Idem.
  13. ^ The Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, “LAVAL, FRANÇOIS DE,” by André Vachon.
  14. ^ Leblond de Brumath, 21.
  15. ^ Idem.
  16. ^ Idem.
  17. ^ Leblond de Brumath, 22.
  18. ^ Bégin, 19.
  19. ^ The Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, “LAVAL, FRANÇOIS DE,” by André Vachon.
  20. ^ Idem.
  21. ^ Leblond de Brumath, 23.
  22. ^ The Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, “LAVAL, FRANÇOIS DE,” by André Vachon.
  23. ^ Leblond de Brumath, 23.
  24. ^ The Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, “LAVAL, FRANÇOIS DE,” by André Vachon.
  25. ^ Leblond de Brumath, 23.
  26. ^ Ibid, 24.
  27. ^ The Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, “LAVAL, FRANÇOIS DE,” by André Vachon.
  28. ^ Idem.
  29. ^ Robert Choquette, “The Development of the Catholic Church,” Canada’s Religions (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2004), 105.
  30. ^ Idem.
  31. ^ Henry Horace Walsh, The Church in the French era from colonization to the British conquest (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1966), 102.
  32. ^ Idem.
  33. ^ Choquette, 106.
  34. ^ Walsh, 102.
  35. ^ Ibid., 104-5.
  36. ^ Walsh, 105.
  37. ^ The Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, “LAVAL, FRANÇOIS DE,” by André Vachon.
  38. ^ Robert 108; Leblond de Brumath, 26.
  39. ^ Choquette, 108.
  40. ^ Idem.
  41. ^ Walsh, 105.
  42. ^ Leblond de Brumath, 26.
  43. ^ The Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, “LAVAL, FRANÇOIS DE,” by André Vachon.
  44. ^ Idem.
  45. ^ Idem.
  46. ^ Walsh, 133.
  47. ^ Choquette, 109.
  48. ^ Idem.
  49. ^ Idem.
  50. ^ Walsh, 134.
  51. ^ Idem.
  52. ^ Idem.
  53. ^ Idem.
  54. ^ Walsh, 134-135.
  55. ^ Ibid., 135.
  56. ^ Idem.
  57. ^ Lucien Campeau, “Mgr de Laval et le Conseil souverain 1659-1684,” Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française 27, n° 3 (1973): p. 327.
  58. ^ Idem.
  59. ^ Walsh, 136.
  60. ^ Idem.
  61. ^ Idem.
  62. ^ Walsh, 150.
  63. ^ The Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, “LAVAL, FRANÇOIS DE,” by André Vachon.
  64. ^ Walsh, 137.
  65. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia, “Séminaire de Québec,” by Hélène Plouffe, accessed Feb 2, 2013,
  66. ^ Walsh,137.
  67. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia, “Séminaire de Québec,” by Hélène Plouffe.
  68. ^ Leblond de Brumath, 105.
  69. ^ Campeau, Lucien. “Le Séminaire de Québec dans le plan de Monseigneur de Laval.” Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique Française 17, no. 3 (1963): 323.
  70. ^ Walsh, 137.
  71. ^ Campeau, Lucien. “Le Séminaire de Québec dans le plan de Monseigneur de Laval.” Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique Française 17, no. 3 (1963): 319.
  72. ^ Walsh, 138.
  73. ^ Idem.
  74. ^ Idem.
  75. ^ Walsh, 151-152.
  76. ^ Leblond de Brumath, 261.
  77. ^ Ibid., 265.
  78. ^ Laval (city) at Britannica



Bégin, Émile. François de Laval. Quebec: Presses Universitaires, 1959.
Campeau, Lucien. “Mgr de Laval et le Conseil souverain 1659-1684.” Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française 27, n° 3 (1973): p. 323-359.
Choquette, Robert. “The Development of the Catholic Church.” Canada’s Religions. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2004.
Leblond de Brumath, Adrien. Bishop Laval. Toronto: Morang & Co., 1906.
The Canadian Encyclopedia, “Séminaire de Québec,” by Hélène Plouffe, accessed Feb 2, 2013,
The Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, “LAVAL, FRANÇOIS DE,” by André Vachon, accessed Feb 2, 2013,
Walsh, Henry Horace. The Church in the French era from colonization to the British conquest. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1966.

        Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane


        Today's Snippet I: Quebec, Canada

        Québec City , Canada

        Quebec also Québec, Quebec City or Québec City (French: Ville de Québec), is the capital of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of 2011, the city has a population of 516,622,[3] and the metropolitan area has a population of 765,706,[5] making it the second most populous city in Quebec after Montreal, which is about 233 km (145 mi) to the southwest.

        The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only remaining fortified city walls that still exist in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'.[7][8]

        According to the federal and provincial governments, Québec is the city's official name in both French and English,[9] although Quebec City (or its French equivalent, Ville de Québec) is commonly used, particularly to distinguish the city from the province. The city's most famous landmark is the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.

        Name of Quebec City

        The proper name of Quebec City is Québec (with an acute accent), in both official languages of Canada (English and French). This name is used by both the federal and provincial governments. The acute accent differentiates between the official English name of the city, Québec, and the constitutional English name of the province, Quebec.

        In unofficial English texts, it is not uncommon for the accent to be dropped and for Québec to be informally referred to as "Quebec City". In French, names of geographical regions such as provinces and countries are typically preceded by articles whereas city names are not (unless it is part of the name, such as "La Malbaie"). As a result, the province is called le Québec ("in Quebec" = au Québec, "from Quebec" or "of Quebec" = du Québec) while the city remains simply Québec ("in Québec City" = à Québec, "from / of Québec City" = de Québec). Where context requires further differentiation, words such as "la ville de Québec" and "la province du Québec" can be used (taking care not to capitalize the word "ville").

        The name of the municipal corporate body instituted to govern Québec is Ville de Québec, in both English and French.[1] This naming convention applies to all municipal corporations in the province (e.g. Ville de Montréal is the corporate body governing Montréal, etc.) Thus, where "Ville de ..." is capitalized, it means the corporate body and it is not part of the toponym (Montréal, Québec), but is the incorporated name of the city. In the English section of Ville de Québec's official website, the city is variously referred to as "Québec" and "Québec City" (with an accent) whereas the corporate body is referred to as "City of Québec".

        Residents of Québec are called, in French, Québécois (male) or Québécoise (female). To avoid confusion with Québécois/e meaning an inhabitant of the province, the term Québécois/e de Québec for residents of the city is sometimes used. In English, the terms Quebecer (or Quebecker) and Québécois/e are common.

        Also, Quebec City is sometimes referred to as "la capitale nationale" ("the national capital"). The government officially named it this way under the Union Nationale party. The provincial administrative region where the city is situated bears the name Capitale-Nationale (capitalized). The word national is the adjective for the noun nation used in its normal basic sense and refers to Quebec as a nation within the country of Canada, and has no indication of sovereignty.[2]


        Quebec City is located in the Saint Lawrence River valley, on the north bank of the Saint Lawrence River near its meeting with the St. Charles River. The region is low-lying and flat. The river valley has rich, arable soil, which makes this region the most fertile in the province. The Laurentian Mountains lie to the north of the city.

        Upper Town lies on the top of Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond) promontory. A high stone wall surrounds this portion of the city. The Plains of Abraham are located near the edge of the promontory. Lower Town is located at shore level, below Cap-Diamant.


        Quebec Settlement, 1608
        French explorer Jacques Cartier built a fort at the site in 1535, where he stayed for the winter before going back to France in spring 1536. He came back in 1541 with the goal of building a permanent settlement. This first settlement was abandoned less than one year after its foundation, in the summer 1542, due in large part to the hostility of the natives combined with the harsh living conditions during winter.

        Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer and diplomat on July 3, 1608,[11] and at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. Champlain, also called "The Father of New France", served as its administrator for the rest of his life.

        The name "Canada" refers to this settlement. Although called the cradle of the Francophone population in North America, the Acadian settlement at Port-Royal was established three years earlier. The place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony.

        In 1665, there were 550 people in 70 houses living in the city. One-quarter of the people were members of religious orders: secular priests, Jesuits, Ursulines nuns and the order running the local hospital, Hotel-Dieu.[12]

        Quebec city was the headquarters of many raids against New England during the four French and Indian Wars. In the last war, the French and Indian War (Seven Years War), Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759 and held until the end of the war in 1763. It was the site of three battles during Seven Years War - the Battle of Beauport, a French victory (July 31, 1759); the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, in which British troops under General James Wolfe defeated the French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm on September 13, 1759 and shortly thereafter took the city; and the final Battle of Sainte-Foy, a French victory (April 28, 1760). France ceded New France, including the city, to Britain in 1763.

        At the end of French rule in 1763, forests, villages, fields and pastures surrounded the town of 8,000 inhabitants. The town distinguished itself by its monumental architecture, fortifications, affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs St-Jean and St-Roch. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small colonial city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city markets.

        British rule

        During the American Revolution, revolutionary troops from the southern colonies assaulted the British garrison in an attempt to 'liberate' Quebec City, in a conflict now known as the Battle of Quebec. The defeat of the revolutionaries from the south put an end to the hopes that the peoples of Quebec would rise and join the American Revolution so that Canada would join the Continental Congress and become part of the original United States of America along with the other British colonies of continental North America. In effect, the outcome of the battle would be the effective split of British North America into two distinct political entities. The city itself was not attacked during the war of 1812, when the United States again attempted to annex Canadian lands. Fearing another American attack on Quebec City in the future, construction of the Citadelle of Quebec began in 1820. The Americans never did attack Canada after the War of 1812, but the Citadelle continued to house a large British garrison until 1871. The Citadelle is still in use by the military and is also a tourist attraction.

        In 1840, after the Province of Canada was formed, the role of capital was shared between Kingston, Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa and Quebec City (from 1852 to 1856 and from 1859 to 1866). In 1867, Ottawa (which was chosen to be the permanent capital of the Province of Canada) was chosen to be the capital of the Dominion of Canada. The Quebec Conference on Canadian Confederation was held here.

        20th and 21st centuries

        Port of Quebec City in the early 20th century
        Quebec City was struck by the 1925 Charlevoix-Kamouraska earthquake

        During World War II, two conferences were held in Quebec City. The First Quebec Conference was held in 1943 with Franklin Delano Roosevelt (the United States' president at the time), Winston Churchill (the United Kingdom's prime minister), William Lyon Mackenzie King (Canada's prime minister) and T.V. Soong (China's minister of foreign affairs). The Second Quebec Conference was held in 1944, and was attended by Churchill and Roosevelt. They took place in the buildings of the Citadelle and of nearby Château Frontenac. A large part of the D-Day landing plans were made during those meetings.


        Throughout its over four hundred years of existence, Quebec City has served as a capital. From 1608 to 1627 and 1632 to 1763, it was capital of French Canada and all of New France; from 1763 to 1791, it was the capital of the Province of Quebec; from 1791 to 1841, it was the capital of Lower Canada; from 1852 to 1856 and from 1859 to 1866, it was capital of the Province of Canada; and since 1867, it has been capital of the Province of Quebec. The administrative region in which Quebec City is situated is officially referred to as Capitale-Nationale,[13][14] and the term "national capital" is used to refer to Quebec City itself at provincial level.[15]


        Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Church, Basse-Ville (Lower Town)
        Much of the city's most notable architecture is located east of the fortification walls in Vieux-Québec (Old Quebec) and Place Royale. This area has a distinct European feel with its stone buildings and winding streets lined with shops and restaurants. Porte St-Louis and Porte St-Jean are the main gates through the walls from the modern section of downtown; the Kent Gate was a gift to the province from Queen Victoria and the foundation stone was laid by the Queen's daughter, Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne, on June 11, 1879.[26] West of the walls are the Parliament Hill district and the Plains of Abraham.

        The Upper Town is linked by the Escalier «casse-cou» (literally "neck-breaking" steps) and the Old Quebec Funicular to the Lower Town, which includes such sites as the ancient Notre-Dame-des-Victoires church, the historic Petit Champlain district, the port, and the Musée de la Civilisation (Museum of Civilization). The Lower Town is filled with original architecture and street designs, dating back to the city's beginnings. Murals and statues are also featured. The Lower Town is also noted for its wide variety of boutiques, many featuring hand-crafted goods.

        Quebec city's downtown is on the lower part of the town. Its epicentre is adjacent to the old town, spanning from the Saint-Roch district, throughout the Saint Sauveur, Saint-Sacrement and Limoilou quarters. Some interpretations consider Quebec's Down town to be the central southern portion of the town ranging from the old city and Saint Roch, all the way west to the Quebec city Bridge.

        Quebec City's skyline is dominated by the massive Château Frontenac Hotel, perched on top of Cap-Diamant. It was designed by architect Bruce Price, as one of a series of "château" style hotels built for the Canadian Pacific Railway company. The railway company sought to encourage luxury tourism and bring wealthy travelers to its trains. The hotel is beside the Terrasse Dufferin (Dufferin Terrace), a walkway along the edge of the cliff, offering beautiful views of the Saint Lawrence River.

        The Terrasse Dufferin leads toward the nearby Plains of Abraham, site of the battle in which the British took Quebec from France, and the Citadelle of Quebec, a Canadian Forces installation and the federal vice-regal secondary residence. The Parliament Building, the meeting place of the Parliament of Quebec, is also near the Citadelle.

        Near the Château Frontenac is Notre-Dame de Québec Cathedral, mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec. It is the first church in the New World to be raised to a basilica and is the primatial church of Canada.  There are 37 National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec City and its enclaves.[27]


        Ice castle during the carnival
        Quebec City is known for its Winter Carnival, its summer music festival and for its Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day celebrations.

        Tourist attractions located near Quebec City include Montmorency Falls, the Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, the Mont-Sainte-Anne ski resort, and the Ice Hotel.

        Jardin zoologique du Québec, reopened in 2002 after two years of restorations but closed in 2006 after a political decision. It featured 750 specimens of 300 different species of animals. The zoo specialized in winged fauna and garden themes, but also presented several species of mammals. While it emphasized the indigenous fauna of Quebec, one of its principal attractions was the Indo-Australian greenhouse, featuring fauna and flora from these areas.

        Parc Aquarium du Québec, reopened in 2002 on a site overlooking the Saint Lawrence River, presents more than 10,000 specimens of mammals, reptiles, fish and other aquatic fauna of North America and the Arctic. Polar bears and various species of seals of the Arctic sector and the "Large Ocean", a large basin offering visitors a view from underneath, form part of the principal attractions.

        There are a number of historic sites, art galleries and museums in Quebec City, such as Citadelle of Quebec, Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, Ursulines of Quebec, and Musée de la civilisation.


        1. ^ Reference number 51718 of the Commission de toponymie du Québec (French)
        2. ^ Geographic code 23027 in the official Répertoire des municipalités (French)
        3. "(Code 2423027) Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012.
        4. ^ "(Code 0685) Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012.
        5. "(Code 421) Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012.
        6. ^ Québec City - The Canadian Encyclopedia
        7. ^ "Historic District of Old Québec". World Heritage; UNESCO. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
        8. ^ "Old Quebec City, Seven Wonders of Canada". Retrieved February 12, 2008.
        9. ^ "Faut-il traduire les toponymes?" [Should place names be translated?] (in French). Commission de toponymie du Québec. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
        10. ^ CBC.CA - Seven Wonders of Canada - Your Nominations - Old Quebec City, Quebec
        11. ^ "View of Quebec, Capital of Canada". World Digital Library. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
        12. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (1972). The Oxford History of the American People. New York City: Mentor. p. 150. ISBN 0-451-62600-1.
        13. ^ Décret concernant la révision des limites des régions administratives du Québec, R.Q. c. D-11, r.2, made pursuant to the Territorial Division Act, R.S.Q. c. D-11
        14. ^ "Québec Portal > Portrait of Québec > Administrative Regions > Regions". Retrieved May 13, 2009.
        15. ^ "An Act respecting the National capital commission, R.S.Q. c. C-33.1". CanLII. May 4, 2009. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
        16. ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
        17. ^ Environment Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
        18. ^ Nouveau découpage des arrondissements (archive of broken link)
        19. ^ "Évolution démographique des 10 principales villes du Québec (sur la base de 2116) selon leur limites territoriales actuelles1, Recensements du Canada de 1871 à 2011". Retrieved 2012-01-02.
        20. ^ Morrin Centre. "Anglos in Québec". Literary and Historical Society of
        21. Quebec. Retrieved March 15, 2007.
        22. ^ "Voice of English-speaking Québec: A Portrait of the English-speaking Community in Quebec". Voice of English-speaking Québec. 2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2007.
        23. ^ "Canada's largest employers by city, 2007: Quebec City." London: University of Western Ontario. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
        24. ^ "Labour: Labour force characteristics, population 15 years and older, by census metropolitan area."Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
        25. ^ "Latest release from the Labour Force Survey." Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
        26. ^ "Québec City: Economy, transportation, and labour force." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historical Foundation of Canada, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
        27. ^ Hubbard, R.H. (1977). Rideau Hall. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-7735-0310-6.
        28. ^ The 37 sites in Quebec City are listed in the Directory of Federal Heritage Designations as being located in Québec and the following boroughs/enclaves: Beauport, Cap-Rouge, Notre-Dame-des-Anges, Sainte-Foy and Wendake.
        29. ^ "History of Major Special Olympics Canada (SOC) Events" (PDF). Special Olympics Canada. 2007-01-29. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
        30. ^ "Here comes the 4th Tour de Quebec!". Retrieved 2011-07-14.
        31. ^ Karine Gagnon, Qmi Agency (2011-03-01). "Quebecor joins arena plan, eyes NHL team | Hockey | Sports". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
        32. ^ "The Quebec gravy train chugs off without Ottawa on board for once | Full Comment | National Post". 2011-03-02. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
        33. ^ "Quebec City plans $400 million arena to attract NHL team, Winter Olympics — ESPN". 2009-10-16. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
        34. ^ Territorial Division Act. Revised Statutes of Quebec D-11.
        35. ^ "Port of Quebec". Retrieved June 24, 2009.
        36. ^ White, Marianne (2007-12-28). "Quebec City closing in on a year without murder". Retrieved 2011-07-14.
        37. ^ "Twinning the Cities". City of Beirut. Archived from the original on February 21, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2008.
        38. ^ Commissariat aux relations internationales (2011). "Partenariats de la Ville de Quebec" (in French). Ville de Québec. Retrieved July 14, 2011.



        Today's Snippet II:  New France


        A map of New France made by Samuel de Champlain in 1612.
        New France (French: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763. At its peak in 1712 (before the Treaty of Utrecht), the territory of New France, also sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New France, extended from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico

        The territory was then divided into five colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, Acadia, Hudson Bay, Newfoundland (Plaisance), and Louisiana. The Treaty of Utrecht resulted in the relinquishing of French claims to mainland Acadia, the Hudson Bay and Newfoundland, and the establishment of the colony of Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) as the successor to Acadia.

        France ceded the rest of New France, except the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, to Great Britain and Spain at the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War (the French and Indian War). Britain received the lands east of the Mississippi River, including Canada, Acadia, and parts of Louisiana, while Spain received the territory to the west – the larger portion of Louisiana. Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France in 1800 under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso, but French leader Napoleon Bonaparte sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, permanently ending French colonial efforts on the North American mainland.

        Early exploration (1523-1650s)

        Around 1523, the Florentine navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano convinced the king, Francis I, to commission an expedition to find a western route to Cathay (China).[4] Late that year, Verrazzano set sail in Dieppe, crossing the Atlantic on a small caravel with 50 men.[4] After exploring the coast of the present-day Carolinas early the following year, he headed north along the coast, eventually anchoring in the Narrows of New York Bay.[4]

        The first European to discover the site of present-day New York, he named it Nouvelle-Angoulême in honour of the king, the former count of Angoulême. Verrazzano’s voyage convinced the king to seek to establish a colony in the newly discovered land. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain (Mexico) and English Newfoundland.

        In 1534, Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King Francis I. It was the first province of New France. However, initial French attempts at settling the region met with failure.

        French fishing fleets continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, making alliances with First Nations that became important once France began to occupy the land. French merchants soon realized the St. Lawrence region was full of valuable fur-bearing animals, especially the beaver, which were becoming rare in Europe. Eventually, the French crown decided to colonize the territory to secure and expand its influence in America.

        Another early French attempt at settlement in North America was Fort Caroline, established in what is now Jacksonville, Florida, in 1564. Intended as a haven for Huguenots, Caroline was founded under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière and Jean Ribault. It was sacked by the Spanish led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés who then established the settlement of St. Augustine on September 20, 1565.

        Acadia and Canada (New France) were inhabited by indigenous nomadic Algonquian peoples and sedentary Iroquoian peoples. These lands were full of unexploited and valuable natural riches which attracted all of Europe. By the 1580s, French trading companies had been set up, and ships were contracted to bring back furs. Much of what transpired between the natives and their European visitors around that time is not known for lack of historical records.

        Early attempts at establishing permanent settlements were failures. In 1598, a trading post was established on Sable Island, off the coast of Acadia, but was unsuccessful. In 1600, a trading post was established at Tadoussac, but only five settlers survived the winter. In 1604, a settlement was founded at Île-Saint-Croix on Baie François (Bay of Fundy) which was moved to Port-Royal in 1605. It was abandoned in 1607, reestablished in 1610, and destroyed in 1613, after which settlers moved to other nearby locations, creating settlements that were collectively known as Acadia, and the settlers as Acadians.

        Quebec City founded (1608)

        A map of western New France, including the Illinois Country, by Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688.
        In 1608, sponsored by Henry IV, Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons and Samuel de Champlain founded the city of Quebec with 28 men, the second permanent French settlement in the colony of Canada. Colonization was slow and difficult. Many settlers died early, because of harsh weather and diseases. In 1630, there were only 103 colonists living in the settlement, but by 1640, the population had reached 355.

        Champlain allied himself as soon as possible with the Algonquin and Montagnais peoples in the area, who were at war with the Iroquois. In 1609, Champlain, along with two other French companions, accompanied by his Algonquin, Montagnais and Huron allies, travelled south from the St. Lawrence valley to Lake Champlain, where he participated decisively in a battle against the Iroquois, killing two Iroquois chiefs with the first shot of his Arquebus. This military engagement against the Iroquois solidified the position of Champlain with New France's Huron and Algonquin allies, bonds vital to New France in order to keep the fur trade alive.

        For the better part of a century the Iroquois and French clash in a series of attacks and reprisals. He also arranged to have young French men live with the natives, to learn their language and customs and help the French adapt to life in North America. These men, known as coureurs des bois (runners of the woods) (such as Étienne Brûlé), extended French influence south and west to the Great Lakes and among the Huron tribes who lived there.

        For the first few decades of the colony's existence, the French population numbered only a few hundred, while the English colonies to the south were much more populous and wealthy. Cardinal Richelieu, adviser to Louis XIII, wished to make New France as significant as the English colonies. In 1627, Richelieu founded the Company of One Hundred Associates to invest in New France, promising land parcels to hundreds of new settlers and to turn Canada into an important mercantile and farming colony.

        Champlain was named Governor of New France. Richelieu then forbade non-Roman Catholics from living there. Protestants were required to renounce their faith to establish themselves in New France; many therefore chose instead to move to the English colonies.

        The Roman Catholic Church, and missionaries such as the Recollets and the Jesuits, became firmly established in the territory. Richelieu also introduced the seigneurial system, a semi-feudal system of farming that remained a characteristic feature of the St. Lawrence valley until the 19th century. While Richelieu's efforts did little to increase the French presence in New France, they did pave the way for the success of later efforts.

        At the same time the English colonies to the south began to raid the St. Lawrence valley, and, in 1629, Quebec itself was captured and held by the English until 1632. Champlain returned to Canada that year, and requested that Sieur de Laviolette found another trading post at Trois-Rivières, which he did in 1634. Champlain died in 1635.

        Jesuit missions

        Le Grand Voyage du Pays des Hurons, Gabriel Sagard, 1632.
        The French Catholic Church, which after Champlain’s death was the most dominant force in New France, wanted to establish a utopian Christian community in the colony. In 1642, they sponsored a group of settlers, led by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, who founded Ville-Marie, precursor to present-day Montreal, farther up the St. Lawrence. Throughout the 1640s, Jesuit missionaries penetrated the Great Lakes region and converted many of the Huron natives. The missionaries came into conflict with the Iroquois, who frequently attacked Montreal.

        By 1649, both the Jesuit mission and the Huron society were almost completely destroyed by Iroquois invasions (see Canadian Martyrs). In 1653 a peace invitation was extended by the Onondaga Nation to New France and an expedition of Jesuits, led by Simon Le Moyne, established Sainte Marie de Ganentaa in 1656. The Jesuits were forced to abandon the mission by 1658 as hostilities with the Iroquois resumed.

        The transport infrastructure in New France was almost nonexistent, with few roads and canals.The canals would be up to 3 miles long at times and boats were thin and simple. Thus people used the waterways, especially the St. Lawrence River, as the main form of transportation, by canoes. In the winter, when the lakes froze, both the poor and the rich travelled by sleds pulled by dogs or horses. A land transportation system was not developed in the region until the 1830s, when stretches of road were built along the river, and the Rideau Canal project was not completed until 1840.

        Royal takeover and attempts to settle

        The Great Seal of King Louis XIV used in New France after the colony was reformed as a province of France in 1663.
        In the 1650s, Montreal still had only a few dozen settlers and a severely underpopulated New France almost fell completely to hostile Iroquois forces. In 1660, settler Adam Dollard des Ormeaux led a Canadian and Huron militia against a much larger Iroquois force; none of the Canadians survived, but they succeeded in turning back the Iroquois invasion. In 1663, New France finally became more secure when Louis XIV made it a royal province.

        In 1665, he sent a French garrison, the Carignan-Salières Regiment, to Quebec. The government of the colony was reformed along the lines of the government of France, with the Governor General and Intendant subordinate to the Minister of the Marine in France. In 1665, Jean Talon was sent by Minister of the Marine Jean-Baptiste Colbert to New France as the first Intendant. These reforms limited the power of the Bishop of Quebec, who had held the greatest amount of power after the death of Champlain.

        The 1666 census of New France was conducted by France's intendant, Jean Talon, in the winter of 1665–66. It showed a population of 3,215 habitants in New France, many more than there had been only a few decades earlier, but also a great difference in the number of men (2,034) and women (1,181). This was because most of the explorers, soldiers, fur traders and settlers who had come to New France were men.

        Talon tried to reform the seigneurial system, forcing the seigneurs to actually reside on their land, and limiting the size of the seigneuries, in an attempt to make more land available to new settlers. These schemes were ultimately unsuccessful. Very few settlers arrived, and the various industries established by Talon did not surpass the importance of the fur trade.

        Women and families

        One group of King's Daughters arrives at Quebec, 1667
        To strengthen the colony and make it the centre of France's colonial empire, Louis XIV decided to dispatch more than 700 single women, aged between 15 and 30 (known as les filles du roi) to New France. At the same time, marriages with the natives were encouraged and indentured servants, known as engagés, were also sent to New France. The King's Daughters quickly found husbands among the heavily male settlers, as well as a new life for themselves. They came mostly from poor families in the Paris area, Normandy and the central-western regions of France. A handful were ex-prostitutes, but only one is known to have practiced that trade in Canada. As farm wives with very good nutrition and high birth rates they played a major role in establishing family life and enabling rapid demographic growth. They had about 30% more children than comparable women who remained in France. Landry says, "Canadians had an exceptional diet for their time. This was due to the natural abundance of meat, fish, and pure water; the good food conservation conditions during the winter; and an adequate wheat supply in most years."

        Besides household duties, some women participated in the fur trade, the major source of cash in New France. They worked at home alongside their husbands or fathers as merchants, clerks and provisioners. Some were widows who took over their husband's roles. A handful were active entrepreneurs in their own right.

        Fur trade

        According to the staples thesis, the economic development of New France was marked by the emergence of successive economies based on staple commodities, each of which dictated the political and cultural settings of the time. During the 16th and early 17th centuries New France’s economy was heavily centered on its Atlantic fisheries. This would change in the later half of the 17th and 18th centuries as French settlement penetrated further into the continental interior. Here French economic interests would shift and concentrate itself on the development of the North American fur trade. It would soon become the new staple good that would strengthen and drive New France’s economy, in particular that of Montreal, for the next century.

        Map showing the approximate location of major tribes and settlements.
        The trading post of “Ville-Marie”, established on the current island of Montreal, quickly became the economic hub for the French fur trade. It achieved this in great part due to its particular location along the St. Lawrence River. From here a new economy emerged, one of size and density that provided increased economic opportunities for the inhabitants of New France. In December of 1627 the Company of New France was recognized and given commercial rights to the gathering and export of furs from French territories. By trading with native populations and securing the main markets its power grew steadily for the next decade. As a result it was able to set specific price points for furs and other valuable goods, often doing so to protect its economic hegemony over other trading partners and other areas of the economy.
        The fur trade itself was based on a commodity of small bulk but yet high value. Because of this it managed to attract increased attention and/or input capital that would otherwise be intended for other areas of the economy. The Montreal area witnessed a stagnant agricultural sector; it remained for the most part subsistence orientated with little or no trade purposes outside of the French colony. This was a prime example of the handicapping effect the fur trade had on its neighbouring areas of the economy.

        Nonetheless, by the beginning of the 1700s the economic prosperity the fur trade stimulated slowly transformed Montreal. Economically, it was no longer a town of small traders or of fur fairs but rather a city of merchants and of bright lights. The primary sector of the fur trade, the act of acquiring and the selling of the furs, quickly promoted the growth of complementary second and tertiary sectors of the economy. For instance a small number of tanneries was established in Montreal as well as a larger number of inns, taverns and markets that would support the growing number of inhabitants whose livelihood depended on the fur trade. Already by 1683 there were well over 140 families and there may have been as many as 900 people living in Montreal.

        The founding of the Compagnie des Indes in 1718 once again highlighted the economic importance of the fur trade. This merchant association, like its predecessor the Compagnie des Cent Associes, regulated the fur trade to the best of its abilities imposing price points, supporting government sale taxes and combating black market practices. However by the middle half of the 17th century the fur trade was in a slow decline.
        The natural overabundance of furs had passed and it could no longer meet market demand. This eventually resulted in the repeal of the 25 percent sales tax that had previously aimed at curbing the administrative costs New France had accumulated. In addition, dwindling supply increased black market trading. A greater number of natives and fur traders began circumnavigating Montreal and New France altogether; many began trading with either British or Dutch merchants to the south.

        By the end of French rule in New France in 1763, the fur trade had significantly lost its importance as the key stable good that supported much of New France’s economy for more than the last century. Even so, it did serve as the fundamental force behind the establishment and vast growth of Montreal and the French colony.

        Coureurs des bois

        The arrival of Radisson in an Indian camp in 1660.
        The coureurs des bois were responsible for starting the flow of trade from Montreal, carrying French goods into upper territories while the Indians were bringing down their furs. The coureurs travelled with intermediate trading tribes, and found that they were anxious to prevent French access to the more distant fur-hunting tribes. Still, the coureurs kept thrusting outwards using the Ottawa River as their initial step upon the journey and keeping Montreal as their starting point. The Ottawa River was significant because it offered a route that was practical for Europeans, by taking the traders northward out of the territory dominated by the Iroquois. It was for this reason that Montreal and the Ottawa River was a central location of Indian warfare and rivalry.

        Montreal faced difficulties by having too many coureurs out in the woods. The furs coming down were causing an oversupply on the markets of Europe. This challenged the coureurs trade because the coureur so easily evaded controls, monopolies, and taxation, and additionally because the coureurs trade was held to debauch both Frenchmen and Indians. The coureur debauched Frenchmen by accustoming them to fully live with Indians, and Indians by trading on their desire for alcohol.

        The issues caused a great rift in the colony, and in 1678 it was confirmed by a General Assembly that the trade was to be made in public so as to better assure the safety of Indians. It was also forbidden to take spirits inland to trade with the Indians. However these restrictions on the coureurs, for a variety of reasons, never worked. The fur trade remained dependent on spirits, and increasingly in the hands of the coureurs who journeyed north in search of furs.

        Indigenous Peoples

        The French were interested in exploiting the land through the fur trade as well as the timber trade later on. Despite having tools and guns, the French were dependent on Indigenous people to survive in the difficult climate in this part of North America. Many settlers did not know how to survive the winters; the Indigenous people were influential in showing them how to survive in the New World. Indigenous people showed them how to hunt for food and to use the furs for clothing that would protect them during the winter months.

        As the fur trade became the dominant economy in the New World, French voyageurs, trappers and hunters often married or formed relationships with Indigenous women. This allowed the French to develop relations with their wives' Indigenous nations, which in turn provided protection and access to their hunting and trapping grounds.

        The fur trade also benefited Indigenous people. They traded furs for metal tools and other European items that made their lives easier. Knives, pots and kettles allowed the women an easier time when preparing meals. Nets, firearms and hatchets made it easier and quicker to hunt and fish. There are both positives and negative aspects of the fur trade for Indigenous people. Their everyday lives were easier, but some traditional ways of doing things were abandoned or adapted. Indigenous people embraced many of these implements and tools, however, they also were exposed to less vital trade goods, such as alcohol and sugar.

        Military conflicts

        Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and areas occupied by European settlements. Britain (pink), France (blue), and Spain terrestrial claim (orange).
        Since Henry Hudson had claimed Hudson Bay, and the surrounding lands for England, English colonists had begun expanding their boundaries across what is now the Canadian north beyond the French-held territory of New France. In 1670, with the help of French coureurs des bois, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, the Hudson's Bay Company was established to control the fur trade in all the land that drained into Hudson Bay (known as Rupert's Land). This ended the French monopoly on the Canadian fur trade.

        To compensate, the French extended their territory to the south, and to the west of the American colonies. In 1682, René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle explored the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, and claimed the entire territory for France as far south as the Gulf of Mexico. He named this territory Louisiana, in honor of Louis XIV. La Salle attempted to establish the first colony in the new territory in 1685, but inaccurate maps and navigational issues led him to instead establish his colony, Fort Saint Louis, in what is now Texas. The colony was exterminated by disease and Indian attack in 1688.

        Although little colonization took place in this part of New France, many strategic forts were built there, under the orders of Governor Louis de Buade de Frontenac. Forts were also built in the older portions of New France that had not yet been settled. Many of these forts were garrisoned by the Troupes de la Marine, the only regular soldiers in New France between 1682 and 1755.

        Iroquois attacks against Montreal

        Ville-Marie was a noteworthy site for it was the center of defense against the Iroquois, the point of departure for all western and northern journeys, and the meeting point to which the trading Indians brought their annual furs. This placed Ville-Marie, later known as Montreal, at the forefront against the Iroquois which resulted in its trade being easily and frequently interrupted. The Iroquois were in alliance with the Dutch and English, which allowed them to interrupt the French fur trade and send the furs down the Hudson River to the Dutch and English traders.

        Engraving depicting Adam Dollard with a keg of gunpowder above his head, during the Battle of Long Sault.
        This also put the Iroquois at warfare against the Hurons, the Algonquians, and any other tribes that were in alliance with the French. If the Iroquois could destroy New France and its Indian allies, they would be able to trade freely and profitably with the Dutch and English on the Hudson River. The Iroquois formally attacked the settlement in its foundation year of 1642, and in almost every subsequent year thereafter. It was a militant theocracy which maintained Montreal. In 1653 and 1654 reinforcements arrived at Montreal which allowed the Iroquois to be halted. In that year the Iroquois made peace with the French.

        Adam Dollard des Ormeaux, a colonist and soldier of New France, was a notable figure regarding the Iroquois attacks against Montreal. The Iroquois soon resumed their assaults against Montreal, and the few settlers of Montreal fell almost completely to hostile Iroquois forces. In the spring of 1660, Adam Dollard des Ormeaux led a small militia consisting of 16 men from Montreal against a much larger Iroquois force at the Battle of Long Sault on the Ottawa River. All of the young Canadians lost their lives, but they succeeded in turning back the Iroquois invasion and are responsible for saving Montreal from destruction. The encounter between Ormeaux and the Iroquois is of significance because it dissuaded the Iroquois from further attacks against Montreal.

        King William's War

        In 1688, King William's War began and the English and Iroquois launched a major assault on New France, after many years of small skirmishes throughout the English and French territories. New France and the Wabanaki Confederacy were able to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. King William's War ended in 1697, but a second war (Queen Anne's War) broke out in 1702. Quebec survived the English invasions of both these wars, and during the wars France seized many of the English Hudson's Bay Company fur trading centres on Hudson Bay including York Factory, which the French renamed Fort Bourbon.

        Queen Anne's War

        While Acadia survived the English invasion during King William's War, the colony fell during Queen Anne's War. The final Conquest of Acadia happened in 1710. In 1713, peace came to New France with the Treaty of Utrecht. Although the treaty turned Hudson Bay, Newfoundland and part of Acadia (peninsular Nova Scotia) over to Great Britain, France remained in control of Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) (which also administered Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island)). The northern part of Acadia, what is today New Brunswick and Maine remained contested territory. Construction of Fortress Louisbourg on Île Royale, a French military stronghold intended to protect the approaches to the St. Lawrence River settlements, began in 1719.

        After the Treaty of Utrecht, New France began to prosper. Industries, such as fishing and farming, that had failed under Talon began to flourish. A "King’s Highway" (Chemin du Roy) was built between Montreal and Quebec to encourage faster trade. The shipping industry also flourished as new ports were built and old ones were upgraded. The number of colonists greatly increased, and, by 1720, Canada had become a self-sufficient colony with a population of 24,594 people. The Church, although now less powerful than it had originally been, controlled education and social welfare. These years of peace are often referred to by French Canadians as New France's "Golden Age".

        Father Rale's War

        An 1850s depiction of the death of the French Jesuit priest Sébastien Rale during Father Rale's War
        In Acadia, however, war continued. Father Rale's War (1722–1725) was a series of battles between New England and the Wabanaki Confederacy, who were allied with New France. New France and the Wabanaki Confederacy defended against the expansion of New England settlements into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. After the New England Conquest of Acadia in 1710, mainland Nova Scotia was under the control of New England, but both present-day New Brunswick and virtually all of present-day Maine remained contested territory between New England and New France. To secure New France's claim to the region, it established Catholic missions among the three largest native villages in the region: one on the Kennebec River (Norridgewock); one further north on the Penobscot River (Penobscot) and one on the St. John River (Medoctec).

        The war began on two fronts: when New England pushed its way through Maine and when New England established itself at Canso, Nova Scotia. As a result of the war, Maine fell to the New Englanders with the defeat of Father Sébastien Rale at Norridgewock and the subsequent retreat of the native population from the Kennebec and Penobscot rivers to St. Francis and Becancour, Quebec.

        King George's War

        Peace lasted in Canada until 1744, when news of the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession (King George's War in North America) reached Fort Louisbourg. The French forces went on the attack first in a failed attempt to capture Annapolis Royal, the capital of the British Nova Scotia. In 1745 William Shirley, governor of Massachusetts, led a counterattack on Louisbourg. Both France and New France were unable to relieve the siege, and Louisbourg fell to the British. With the famed Duc d'Anville Expedition, France attempted to retake Acadia and the fortress in 1746 but failed. The fortress was returned to France under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, but the peace treaty, which restored all colonial borders to their pre-war status, did little to end the lingering enmity between France, Britain, and their respective colonies, nor did it resolve any territorial disputes.

        Father Le Loutre's War

        Within Acadia and Nova Scotia, Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755) began with the British founding of Halifax. During Father Le Loutre's War, New France established three forts along the border of present-day New Brunswick to protect it from a New England attack from Nova Scotia. The war continued until British victory at Fort Beausejour, which dislodged Father Le Loutre from the region, thereby ending his alliance with the Maliseet, Acadians and Mi'kmaq.

        French and Indian War

        Map of territorial claims by 1750 in North America, before the French and Indian War, that is part of the greater world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War (1756 to 1763). – possessions of Britain (pink), France (blue), and Spain (orange, California, Pacific Northwest, and Great Basin not indicated) –
        Fort Duquesne, located at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers at the site of present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, guarded the most important strategic location in the west at the time of the Seven Years' War. It was built to insure that the Ohio River valley remained under French control. A small colonial force from Virginia began a fort here but a French force under Claude-Pierre Pécaudy de Contrecœur drove them off in April 1754. New France claimed this as part of their colony and the French were anxious to keep the British from encroaching on it. The French built Fort Duquesne here to serve as a military stronghold and as a base for developing trade and strengthening military alliances with the Aboriginal peoples of the area.

        The fight for control over Ohio Country, led to the French and Indian War, begun as the North American phase of the Seven Years' War (which did not technically begin in Europe until 1756). It began with the defeat of a Virginia militia contingent led by Colonel George Washington by the French troupes de la marine in the Ohio valley. As a result of that defeat, the British decided to prepare the conquest of Quebec City, the capital of New France. The British defeated France in Acadia in the Battle of Fort Beausejour (1755) and then Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) (which also administered Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island) with the Siege of Louisbourg (1758). Throughout the war, the British removed the Acadians from the region, which the Mi'kmaq and Acadian militias resisted.

        But these successes did not go without defeat. In 1756 a large force of French, Canadiens, and their Native American allies led by Marquis de Montcalm launched an attack against the key British post at Fort Oswego on Lake Ontario from Fort Frontenac and forced the garrison to surrender. The following year Montcalm with a huge force of 7200 French and Canadiens and 2400 Native Americans laid siege to Fort William Henry on the southern shores of Lake George, and after three weeks of fighting the British commander Monroe surrendered. Montcalm gave him honorable terms to return to England and not to fight for 18 months. But many of the Native Americans were hungry for scalps and loot, so when the British force with civilians were 3 miles from the fort they massacred about 1100 of the 1500 strong force.

        Then the following year the British had one victory and one defeat. The victory was at the French fortress city of Louisbourg. The defeat was at the strip of land between Lake Champlain and Lake George at the French fortress of Fort Carillon. The British force sent to capture Fort Carillon (held by just 3400 French regulars and marines with almost no militia or Indian support) was the largest ever seen in America (at that time) 16,200 British, American, and Iroquois troops under the command of the dull political General James Abercrombie (called Mrs. Nabbycrombie by his troops and aunt aubbie by his officers). This battle cost the British 2200 troops, several artillery pieces, and most of the morale of that British army; meanwhile French losses were around 200 killed or wounded.

        In the meantime the French continued to explore westwards and expand their trade alliances with indigenous peoples. Fort de la Corne was built in 1753 by Louis de la Corne, Chevalier de la Corne just east of the Saskatchewan River Forks in what is today the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. This was the furthest westward outpost of the French Empire in North America to be established before its fall.


        Map showing British territorial gains following the Treaty of Paris in pink, and Spanish territorial gains after the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow.
        New France now had over 70,000 inhabitants, a massive increase from earlier in the century, but the British American colonies greatly outnumbered them, with over one million people (including a substantial number of French Huguenots). It was much easier for the British colonists to organize attacks on New France than it was for the French to attack the British.

        In 1755, General Edward Braddock led an expedition against the French Fort Duquesne, and although they were numerically superior to the French militia and their Indian allies, Braddock's army was routed and Braddock was killed. Later that same year the British got some good news. General William Johnson with a force of 1700 American and Iroquois troops defeated a French force 2800 French and Canadiens and 700 Native Americans led by Baron Dieskau (Military commander of New France) at the Battle of Lake George.

        While the British Conquest of Acadia happened in 1710, the French continued to remain a significant force in the region with Fort Beausejour and Fortress Louisbourg. The dominant population in the region remained Acadian. In 1755, the British were successful in the Battle of Beausejour and immediately after began the expulsion of the Acadians. The intent of the expulsion, in military terms, was to neutralize the supposed military threat posed by the Acadian people and stop the vital supply lines they maintained for Louisbourg.

        In 1758, British forces again captured Louisbourg, allowing them to blockade the entrance to the St. Lawrence River. This proved decisive in the war. In 1759, the British besieged Quebec by sea, and an army under General James Wolfe defeated the French under General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in September. The garrison in Quebec surrendered on September 18, and by the next year New France had been completely conquered by the British after the successful attack on Montreal, which had refused to acknowledge the fall of Canada. The last French governor-general of New France, Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, surrendered to British Major General Jeffrey Amherst on September 8, 1760. France formally ceded Canada to the British in the Treaty of Paris, signed on February 10, 1763.

        A chart showing the political organization of New France, circa. 1759.
        French culture and religion remained dominant in most of the former territory of New France, until the arrival of British settlers led to the later creation of Upper Canada (today Ontario) and New Brunswick. The Louisiana Territory, under Spanish control since the end of the Seven Year's War, remained off-limits to settlement from the thirteen American colonies.

        Twelve years after the British defeated the French, the American Revolution broke out in Britain's lower thirteen colonies. Many Québécois would take part in the war, including Major Clément Gosselin and Admiral Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil. After the British surrender at Yorktown in 1781, the Treaty of Versailles in 1783 gave all former British claims in New France below the Great Lakes into the possession of the nascent United States. A Franco-Spanish alliance treaty returned Louisiana to France in 1801, allowing Napoleon Bonaparte to sell it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. This represented the end of the French colonial empire in North America, except for the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, which are still controlled by France today.

        The portions of the former New France that remained under British rule were administered as Upper Canada and Lower Canada, from 1791–1841, and then those regions were merged as the Province of Canada from 1841–1867, when the passage of the British North America Act of 1867 instituted home rule for most of British North America and established French-speaking Quebec (the former Lower Canada) as one of the original provinces of the Dominion of Canada. The former French colony of Acadia was first designated the Colony of Nova Scotia but shortly thereafter the Colony of New Brunswick, which then included Prince Edward Island, was split off from it.

        The only remnant of the former colonial territory of New France that remains under French control to this day is the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (French: Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), consisting of a group of small islands 25 kilometres (13 nmi; 15 mi) off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada.


        • Chartrand, René (2008), The Forts of New France in Northeast America 1600–1763, Osprey Pub, ISBN 978-1-84603-255-4
        • Chartrand, René (2008), The forts of New France : the Great Lakes, the Plains and the Gulf Coast, 1600–1763, Osprey Pub, ISBN 978-1-84603-504-3
        • Charbonneau, H. et al. The First French Canadians: Pioneers in the St. Lawrence Valley (University of Delaware Press, 1993)
        • Choquette, Leslie. Frenchmen into peasants : modernity and tradition in the peopling of French Canada. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-674-32315-7.
        • Dale, Ronald J., The Fall of New France: How the French Lost a North American Empire, 1754–1763 2004, James Lorimer and Company, Ltd., Toronto.
        • Dechêne, Louise. Habitants and merchants in seventeenth-century Montreal. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1992. excerpt and text search
        • Eccles, W. J. Canadian Society during the French Regime (1968)
        • Eccles, W. J. The Canadian Frontier, 1534–1760 (Toronto: Holt Rinehart Winston, 1969)
        • Greer, Allan. The people of New France. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8020-7816-8.
        • Harris, Richard Colebrook. The Seigneurial System in Early Canada (Montreal: McGill-Queen's, 1966)
        • Landry, Yves. "Fertility in France and New France: The Distinguishing Characteristics of Canadian Behavior in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," Social Science History (1993) 17#4 pp. 577–592 in JSTOR
        • Moogk, Peter N. La Nouvelle-France : the making of French Canada : a cultural history. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-87013-528-7.
        • Trigger, Bruce. ( 1976) The Children of Aataentsic. A history of the Huron People to 1660. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.


        Catechism of the Catholic Church

        Part Two: The Celebration of the Christian Mystery, 

        Section Two: The Seven Sacraments of the Church 





        Article 5

        1499 "By the sacred anointing of the sick and the prayer of the priests the whole Church commends those who are ill to the suffering and glorified Lord, that he may raise them up and save them. and indeed she exhorts them to contribute to the good of the People of God by freely uniting themselves to the Passion and death of Christ."LG 11; cf. Jas 5:14-16; Rom 8:17; Col 1:24; 2 Tim 2:11-12; 1 Pet 4:13

        I. Its Foundations in the Economy of Salvation

        Illness in human life
        1500 Illness and suffering have always been among the gravest problems confronted in human life. In illness, man experiences his powerlessness, his limitations, and his finitude. Every illness can make us glimpse death.

        1501 Illness can lead to anguish, self-absorption, sometimes even despair and revolt against God. It can also make a person more mature, helping him discern in his life what is not essential so that he can turn toward that which is. Very often illness provokes a search for God and a return to him.

        The sick person before God
        1502 The man of the Old Testament lives his sickness in the presence of God. It is before God that he laments his illness, and it is of God, Master of life and death, that he implores healing.Pss 6:3; 38; Isa 38 Illness becomes a way to conversion; God's forgiveness initiates the healing.Pss 32:5; 38:5; 39:9, 12; 107:20; cf. Mk 2:5-12 It is the experience of Israel that illness is mysteriously linked to sin and evil, and that faithfulness to God according to his law restores life: "For I am the Lord, your healer."Ex 15:26 The prophet intuits that suffering can also have a redemptive meaning for the sins of others.Isa 53:11 Finally Isaiah announces that God will usher in a time for Zion when he will pardon every offense and heal every illness.Isa 33:24

        Christ the physician
        1503 Christ's compassion toward the sick and his many healings of every kind of infirmity are a resplendent sign that "God has visited his people"Lk 7:16; cf. Mt 4:24 and that the Kingdom of God is close at hand. Jesus has the power not only to heal, but also to forgive sins;Mk 2:5-12 he has come to heal the whole man, soul and body; he is the physician the sick have need of.Mk 2:17 His compassion toward all who suffer goes so far that he identifies himself with them: "I was sick and you visited me."Mt 25:36 His preferential love for the sick has not ceased through the centuries to draw the very special attention of Christians toward all those who suffer in body and soul. It is the source of tireless efforts to comfort them.

        1504 Often Jesus asks the sick to believe.Mk 5:34, 36; 9:23 He makes use of signs to heal: spittle and the laying on of hands,Mk 7:32-36; 8:22-25. mud and washing.Jn 9:6-7 The sick try to touch him, "for power came forth from him and healed them all." Lk 6:19; cf. Mk 1:41; 3:10; 6:56 and so in the sacraments Christ continues to "touch" us in order to heal us.

        1505 Moved by so much suffering Christ not only allows himself to be touched by the sick, but he makes their miseries his own: "He took our infirmities and bore our diseases."Mt 8:17; cf. Isa 53:4 But he did not heal all the sick. His healings were signs of the coming of the Kingdom of God. They announced a more radical healing: the victory over sin and death through his Passover. On the cross Christ took upon himself the whole weight of evil and took away the "sin of the world,"Jn 1:29; cf. Isa 53:4-6 of which illness is only a consequence. By his passion and death on the cross Christ has given a new meaning to suffering: it can henceforth configure us to him and unite us with his redemptive Passion.

        "Heal the sick . . ."
        1506 Christ invites his disciples to follow him by taking up their cross in their turn.Mt 10:38 By following him they acquire a new outlook on illness and the sick. Jesus associates them with his own life of poverty and service. He makes them share in his ministry of compassion and healing: "So they went out and preached that men should repent. and they cast out many demons, and anointed with oil many that were sick and healed them."Mk 6:12-13

        1507 The risen Lord renews this mission ("In my name . . . they will lay their hands on the sick, and they will recover."Mk 16:17-18) and confirms it through the signs that the Church performs by invoking his name.cts 9:34; 14:3 These signs demonstrate in a special way that Jesus is truly "God who saves."Mt 1:21; Acts 4:12

        1508 The Holy Spirit gives to some a special charism of healing1 Cor 12:9, 28, 30 so as to make manifest the power of the grace of the risen Lord. But even the most intense prayers do not always obtain the healing of all illnesses. Thus St. Paul must learn from the Lord that "my grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness," and that the sufferings to be endured can mean that "in my flesh I complete what is lacking in Christ's afflictions for the sake of his Body, that is, the Church."2 Cor 12:9; Col 1:24

        1509 "Heal the sick!"Mt 10:8 The Church has received this charge from the Lord and strives to carry it out by taking care of the sick as well as by accompanying them with her prayer of intercession. She believes in the life-giving presence of Christ, the physician of souls and bodies. This presence is particularly active through the sacraments, and in an altogether special way through the Eucharist, the bread that gives eternal life and that St. Paul suggests is connected with bodily health.Jn 6:54, 58; 1 Cor 11:30

        1510 However, the apostolic Church has its own rite for the sick, attested to by St. James: "Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders [presbyters] of the Church and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick man, and the Lord will raise him up; and if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven."Jas 5:14-15 Tradition has recognized in this rite one of the seven sacraments.Cf. Council of Constantinople II (553) DS 216; Council of Florence
           (1439) 1324- 1325; Council of Trent (1551) 1695-1696; 1716-1717

        A sacrament of the sick
        1511 The Church believes and confesses that among the seven sacraments there is one especially intended to strengthen those who are being tried by illness, the Anointing of the Sick:

        This sacred anointing of the sick was instituted by Christ our Lord as a true and proper sacrament of the New Testament. It is alluded to indeed by Mark, but is recommended to the faithful and promulgated by James the apostle and brother of the Lord.Council of Trent (1551): DS 1695; cf. Mk 6:13; Jas 5:14-15

        1512 From ancient times in the liturgical traditions of both East and West, we have testimonies to the practice of anointings of the sick with blessed oil. Over the centuries the Anointing of the Sick was conferred more and more exclusively on those at the point of death. Because of this it received the name "Extreme Unction." Notwithstanding this evolution the liturgy has never failed to beg the Lord that the sick person may recover his health if it would be conducive to his salvation.Cf. Council of Trent (1551) DS 1696

        1513 The Apostolic Constitution Sacram unctionem infirmorum,Paul VI, apostolic constitution, Sacram unctionem infirmorum, November 30, 1972 following upon the Second Vatican Council,SC 73 established that henceforth, in the Roman Rite, the following be observed:

        The sacrament of Anointing of the Sick is given to those who are seriously ill by anointing them on the forehead and hands with duly blessed oil - pressed from olives or from other plants - saying, only once: "Through this holy anointing may the Lord in his love and mercy help you with the grace of the Holy Spirit. May the Lord who frees you from sin save you and raise you up."CIC, Can. 847 # 1