Saturday, October 27, 2012

Sat, Oct 27, 2012 - Litany Lane Blog: Deity, Psalms 122:2-5, Luke 13:1-9, Saint Odhran of Iona, Iona Scotland, Waterford Ireland

Saturday, October 27, 2012 - Litany Lane Blog:
Deity, Psalms 122:2-5, Luke 13:1-9, Saint Odhran of Iona, Iona Scotland,  Waterford Ireland

Good Day Bloggers! 
Wishing everyone a Blessed Week!
Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift knowledge and free will as well, make the most of it. Life on earth is a stepping to our eternal home in Heaven. Its your choice whether to rise towards eternal light or lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to Purgatory and/or Heaven is our Soul, our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


October 25, 2012 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:

"Dear children! Today I call you to pray for my intentions. Renew fasting and prayer because Satan is cunning and attracts many hearts to sin and perdition. I call you, little children, to holiness and to live in grace. Adore my Son so that He may fill you with His peace and love for which you yearn. Thank you for having responded to my call." ~ Blessed Virgin Mary

October 02, 2012 Message From Our Lady of Medjugorje to World:

"Dear children; I am calling you and am coming among you because I need you. I need apostles with a pure heart. I am praying, and you should also pray, that the Holy Spirit may enable and lead you, that He may illuminate you and fill you with love and humility. Pray that He may fill you with grace and mercy. Only then will you understand me, my children. Only then will you understand my pain because of those who have not come to know the love of God. Then you will be able to help me. You will be my light-bearers of God’s love. You will illuminate the way for those who have been given eyes but do not want to see. I desire for all of my children to see my Son. I desire for all of my children to experience His Kingdom. Again I call you and implore you to pray for those whom my Son has called. Thank you."
~ Blessed Virgin Mary


Today's Word:  deity  de·i·ty  [dee-i-tee]

Origin: 1250–1300; Middle English deite  < Old French  < Late Latin deitāt-  (stem of deitās ), equivalent to Latin dei-  (combining form of deus  god) + -tāt- -ty,  formed after Latin dīvīnitās divinity

noun, plural de·i·ties.
1. a god or goddess.
2. divine character or nature, especially that of the Supreme Being; divinity.
3. the estate or rank of a god: The king attained deity after his death.
4. a person or thing revered as a god or goddess: a society in which money is the only deity.
5. the Deity, God; Supreme Being.


Today's Old Testament Reading - Psalms 122:1-5

1 [Song of Ascents Of David] I rejoiced that they said to me, 'Let us go to the house of Yahweh.'
2 At last our feet are standing at your gates, Jerusalem!
3 Jerusalem, built as a city, in one united whole,
4 there the tribes go up, the tribes of Yahweh, a sign for Israel to give thanks to the name of Yahweh.
5 For there are set the thrones of judgement, the thrones of the house of David.


Today's Gospel Reading - Luke 13:1-9

It was just about this time that some people arrived and told Jesus about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mingled with that of their sacrifices. At this he said to them, 'Do you suppose that these Galileans were worse sinners than any others, that this should have happened to them? They were not, I tell you. No; but unless you repent you will all perish as they did. Or those eighteen on whom the tower at Siloam fell, killing them all? Do you suppose that they were more guilty than all the other people living in Jerusalem?They were not, I tell you. No; but unless you repent you will all perish as they did.' 

He told this parable, 'A man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came looking for fruit on it but found none. He said to his vinedresser, "For three years now I have been coming to look for fruit on this fig tree and finding none. Cut it down: why should it be taking up the ground?" "Sir," the man replied, "leave it one more year and give me time to dig round it and manure it: it may bear fruit next year; if not, then you can cut it down."

• The Gospel today gives us information which is only found in Luke’s Gospel and there are no parallel passages in the other Gospels. We are meditating on the long journey from Galilee to Jerusalem and which takes almost half of Luke’s Gospel, from chapter 9 to chapter 19 (Lk 9, 51 to 19, 28). In this part Luke places most of the information which he obtains on the life and teaching of Jesus (Lk 1, 1-4).

• Luke 13, 1: The event which requires an explanation. “At that time some people arrived and told Jesus about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mingled with that of the their sacrifices”. When we read the newspaper or listen to the news on TV, we receive much information, but we do not always understand all its meaning. We listen to everything, but we really do not know what to do with so much information and news. There are terrible news such as the tsunami, terrorism, the wars, hunger, violence, crime, the attacks, etc. This is how the news of the horrible massacre which Pilate, the Roman Governor, had ordered with some Samaritan pilgrims reached Jesus. Such news upset us, throw us off. And one asks: “What can I do?” To calm down their conscience, many defend themselves and say: “It is their fault! They do not work! They are lazy people!” At the time of Jesus, people defended themselves saying: “

• Luke 13, 2-3: Jesus’ response. Jesus has a different opinion. “Do you suppose that those Galileans were worse sinners than any others that this should have happened to them? I tell you No, but unless you repent you will all perish as they did. Or those eighteen on whom the tower at Siloam fell, killing them all? Do you suppose that they were more guilty than all the other people living in Jerusalem? I tell you, No, but unless you repent you will perish as they did. He seeks to invite to conversion and to change.

• Luke 13, 4-5: Jesus comments another fact. Or those eighteen on whom the tower of Siloam fell, killing them all; do you believe they were more guilty than all the other people in Jerusalem? It must have been a disaster which was greatly commented in the city. A thunderstorm knocked down the tower of Siloam killing eighteen persons who were protecting themselves under it. The normal comment was “Punishment from God!” Jesus repeats: “I tell you No, but unless you repent you will perish as they did". They were not converted, they did not change, and forty years later Jerusalem was destroyed and many people died, being killed in the Temple like the Samaritans and many people died under the debri or ruble of the walls of the city. Jesus tried to warn them, but the request for peace was not accepted: “Jerusalem, Jerusalem!” (Lk 13, 34). Jesus teaches to discover the calls of the events of life of every day.

• Luke 13, 6-9: A parable in such a way as to make people think and discover God’s project. “A man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came looking for fruit on it but found none. He said to his vinedresser, for three years now I have been coming to look for fruit on this fig tree and finding none. Then he said to the vinedresser: Cut it down; why should it be taking up the ground? Sir, the man replied, leave it one more year and give me time to dig round it and manure it, it may bear fruit next year; if not, then you can cut it down”. Many times the vine is used to indicate God’s affection for his people, or to indicate the lack of correspondence of the people to God’s love (Is 5, 1-7; 27, 2-5; Jr 2, 21; 8, 13; Ex 19, 10-14; Ho 10, 1-8; Mi 7, 1; Jn 15, 1-6). In the parable, the landlord of the vine is God, the Father. The vinedresser who intercedes in behalf of the vine is Jesus. He insists with the Father to extend the space, the time of conversion.

Personal questions
• God’s People, God’s vineyard. I am part of this vineyard. I apply this parable to myself. What conclusion do I draw?
• What do I do with the news that I receive? Do I seek to have a critical opinion, or do I continue to have the opinion of the majority and of mass media, of means of communication?

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  St. Odran of Iona

Feast Day:  October 27
Patron Saint:  the arts, literature

Book of Kells
Odran or Odhran (earlier: Otteran), a descendant of Conall Gulban, is usually identified with Odhron (also called Odhrán or Oran), who preceded Saint Columba in Iona. His death is recorded in 548 and his grave was greatly revered in Iona.

According to Irish tradition Odran served as abbot of Meath and founded Lattreagh. He is described variously as companion, brother or son of Columba, and died soon after his arrival on Iona. Columba saw devils and angels fight over Odran's soul before it ascended into heaven.

Another legend tells that the chapel that Saint Columba wanted to build on Iona was destroyed every night. Finally he was told by a voice that it could never be finished until a living man was buried below. So Odran was buried alive willingly and the chapel could be finished. But one day he pushed his head through the wall and said that there was no hell as was supposed nor heaven that people talk about. Alarmed by this Columba let Odran's body be variously covered with earth more securely or removed with haste.

In a Hebridean version of this tale the sacrifice is promised that his soul will be safe in heaven. Some time after the burial Columba wants to see Odran once more and opens the pit under the chapel. When Odran sees the world he tries to come out again, but Columba has the pit covered with earth quickly to save Odran's soul from the world and its sin.  In the song "Oran" in the 1997 Steve McDonald album "Stone of Destiny", he has Oran's disinterred head speaking the haunting lines: "Heaven is not what it is said to be. Hell is not what it is said to be. The saved are not forever happy, the damned are not forever lost." McDonald's albums feature many historical and legendary events from Scottish history. These legends are one of the few instances of foundation sacrifice in Great Britain.

The oldest remaining church on Iona is dedicated to Saint Odhran and the surrounding cemetery is called Reilig Odhráin in his memory. He was chosen by the Vikings as patron of the city of Waterford in 1096 and later became patron of the diocese.

Odran's feast day is October 27.

Due to the similarity of the name some people have identified Odran with Saint Odran, the first Irish Christian martyr. There is a parallel in that each man voluntarily sacrificed himself to further the work of a better-known saint.


  • The Diocese of Waterford and Lismore
  • Farmer, David Hugh, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, 1987, 2nd Edition, ISBN 0-19-869149-1
  • MacLeod Banks, M. (1931). "A Hebridean Version of Colum Cille and St. Oran". Folklore 42 (1): 55–60. JSTOR 1256410.


    Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane


    Today's  Snippet I:  Iona, Scotland

    Iona Scotland
    Iona (Scottish Gaelic: Ì Chaluim Chille) is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the western coast of Scotland. It was a centre of Irish monasticism for four centuries and is today renowned for its tranquility and natural beauty. It is a popular tourist destination and a place for retreats. Its modern Gaelic name means "Iona of (Saint) Columba" (formerly anglicised "Icolmkill").


    The Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of several languages since the Iron Age, and as a result many of the names of these islands have more than one possible meaning. Nonetheless few, if any, can have accumulated so many different names over the centuries as the island now known in English as "Iona".

    The earliest forms of the name enabled place-name scholar William J. Watson to show that the name originally meant something like "yew-place". The element Ivo-, denoting "yew", occurs in Ogham inscriptions (Iva-cattos [genitive], Iva-geni [genitive]) and in Gaulish names (Ivo-rix, Ivo-magus) and may form the basis of early Gaelic names like Eogan (ogham: Ivo-genos). It is possible that the name is related to the mythological figure, Fer hÍ mac Eogabail, foster-son of Manannan, the forename meaning "man of the yew".

    Mac an Tàilleir (2003) lists the more recent Gaelic names of Ì, Ì Chaluim Chille and Eilean Idhe noting that the first named is "generally lengthened to avoid confusion" to the second, which means "Calum's (i.e. in latinised form "Columba's") Iona" or "island of Calum's monastery". The possible confusion results from "ì", despite its original etymology, becoming a Gaelic noun (now obsolete) meaning simply "island". Eilean Idhe means "the isle of Iona", also known as Ì nam ban bòidheach ("the isle of beautiful women"). The modern English name comes from an 18th century misreading of yet another variant, Ioua, which was either just Adomnán's attempt to make the Gaelic name fit Latin grammar or else a genuine derivative from Ivova ("yew place"). Ioua's change to Iona results from a transcription mistake resulting from the similarity of "n" and "u" in Insular Minuscule.

    Despite the continuity of forms in Gaelic between the pre-Norse and post-Norse eras, Haswell-Smith (2004) speculates that the name may have a Norse connection, Hiōe meaning "island of the den of the brown bear", "island of the den of the fox", or just "island of the cave". The medieval English language version was "Icolmkill" (and variants thereof).


    Dál Riata

    In the early Historic Period Iona lay within the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata. The island was the site of a highly important monastery (see Iona Abbey) during the Early Middle Ages. According to tradition the monastery was founded in 563 by the monk Columba, also known as Colm Cille, who had been exiled from his native Ireland as a result of his involvement in the Battle of Cul Dreimhne. Columba and twelve companions went into exile on Iona, then part of the Irish kingdom of Dál Riata, and founded a monastery there. The monastery was hugely successful, and played a crucial role in the conversion to Christianity of the Picts of present-day Scotland in the late 6th century and of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria in 635. A large number of satellite institutions were founded, and Iona became the centre of one of the most important monastic systems in Great Britain and Ireland.

    Iona quickly became a renowned center of learning, and its scriptorium produced highly important documents, likely including the original texts of the Iona Chronicle, thought to be the source for the early Irish annals. The monastery is often associated with the distinctive practices and traditions known as Celtic Christianity. In particular, Iona was a major supporter of the "Celtic" system for calculating the date of Easter during the time of the Easter controversy, which pitted supporters of the Celtic system against those favoring the "Roman" system used elsewhere in Western Christianity. The controversy weakened Iona's ties to Northumbria, which adopted the Roman system at the Synod of Whitby in 664, and to Pictland, which followed suit in the early 8th century. Iona itself did not adopt the Roman system until 715, according to the Anglo-Saxon historian Bede. Iona's prominence was further diminished over the next centuries as a result of Viking raids and the rise of other powerful monasteries in the system, such as the Abbey of Kells.

    The Book of Kells may have been produced or begun on Iona towards the end of the 8th century. Around this time the island's exemplary high crosses were sculpted; these may be the first such crosses to contain the ring around the intersection that became characteristic of the "Celtic cross". However, the series of Viking raids on Iona began in 794 and, after its treasures had been plundered many times, Columba's relics were removed and divided two ways between Scotland and Ireland in 849 as the monastery was abandoned.

    Kingdom of the Isles

    As the Norse domination of the west coast of Scotland advanced Iona became part of the Kingdom of the Isles. The Norse Rex plurimarum insularum Amlaíb Cuarán, died in 980 or 981 whilst in "religious retirement" on Iona. Nonetheless the island was sacked twice by his successors, on Christmas night 986 and again in 987. Although Iona was never important again to Ireland, it rose to prominence once more in Scotland following the establishment of the Kingdom of Alba in the later 9th century. The ruling dynasty of Alba traced its origin to Iona, and the island thus became an important spiritual centre of the new kingdom, with many of its early kings buried there.
    A convent for the order of Benedictine nuns was established in about 1208, with Bethóc, daughter of Somerled, as first prioress. The present Benedictine abbey, Iona Abbey, was built in about 1203. The monastery itself flourished until the Reformation when buildings were demolished and all but three of the 360 carved crosses destroyed.

    Kingdom of Scotland

    Following the 1266 Treaty of Perth the Hebrides were restored to Scottish rule. An Augustine nunnery survives as a number of 13th century ruins, including a church and cloister. The nunnery continued to be active until the Reformation. By the 1760s little more of the nunnery remained standing than at present, though it is the most complete remnant of a medieval nunnery in Scotland. In the 19th century green-streaked marble was commercially mined in the south-east of Iona; the quarry and machinery survive.

    Iona Abbey

    Iona Abbey, now an ecumenical church, is of particular historical and religious interest to pilgrims and visitors alike. It is the most elaborate and best-preserved ecclesiastical building surviving from the Middle Ages in the Western Isles of Scotland. Though modest in scale in comparison to medieval abbeys elsewhere in Western Europe, it has a wealth of fine architectural detail, and monuments of many periods.

    In front of the Abbey stands the 9th century St Martin's Cross, one of the best-preserved Celtic crosses in the British Isles, and a replica of the 8th century St John's Cross (original fragments in the Abbey museum).
    The ancient burial ground, called the Rèilig Odhrain (Eng: Oran's "burial place" or "cemetery"), contains the 12th century chapel of St Odhrán (said to be Columba's uncle), restored at the same time as the Abbey itself. It contains a number of medieval grave monuments. The abbey graveyard contains the graves of many early Scottish Kings, as well as kings from Ireland, Norway and France. Iona became the burial site for the kings of Dál Riata and their successors. Notable burials there include:

    • Cináed mac Ailpín, king of the Picts (also known today as "Kenneth I of Scotland")
    • Domnall mac Causantín, alternatively "king of the Picts" or "king of Alba" (i.e. Scotland; known as "Donald II")
    • Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, king of Scotland ("Malcolm I")
    • Donnchad mac Crínáin, king of Scotland ("Duncan I")
    • Mac Bethad mac Findlaích, king of Scotland ("Macbeth")
    • Domnall mac Donnchada, king of Scotland ("Domnall Bán" or "Donald III")
    • John Smith Labour Party Leader

    In 1549 an inventory of 48 Scottish, 8 Norwegian and 4 Irish kings was recorded. None of these graves are now identifiable (their inscriptions were reported to have worn away at the end of the 17th century). Saint Baithin and Saint Failbhe may also be buried on the island. The Abbey graveyard is also the final resting place of John Smith, the former Labour Party leader, who loved Iona. His grave is marked with an epitaph quoting Alexander Pope: "An honest man's the noblest work of God".

    Other early Christian and medieval monuments have been removed for preservation to the cloister arcade of the Abbey, and the Abbey museum (in the medieval infirmary). The ancient buildings of Iona Abbey are now cared for by Historic Scotland (entrance charge).

    Iona Community

    Baile Mòr viewed from the Sound of Iona
    In 1938 George MacLeod founded the Iona Community, an ecumenical Christian community of men and women from different walks of life and different traditions in the Christian church committed to seeking new ways of living the Gospel of Jesus in today's world. This community is a leading force in the present Celtic Christianity reviva  The Iona Community runs 3 residential centres on the Isle of Iona and on Mull. These are places of welcome and engagement giving a unique opportunity to live together in community with people of every background from all over the world. Weeks at the centres often follow a programme related to the concerns of the Iona Community.  The 8 tonne Fallen Christ sculpture by Ronald Rae was permanently situated outside the MacLeod Centre in 2008.

    Media and the arts

    • Samuel Johnson wrote "That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plains of Marathon, or whose piety would not grow warmer amid the ruins of Iona."
    • "Peace of Iona" is a song written by Mike Scott that appears on the studio album Universal Hall and on the live recording Karma to Burn by The Waterboys. Iona is the setting for the song "Oran" on the 1997 Steve McDonald album Stone of Destiny.
    • Kenneth C. Steven published an anthology of poetry entitled Iona: Poems in 2000 inspired by his association with the island and the surrounding area.
    • Iona is featured prominently in the first episode ("By the Skin of our Teeth") of the celebrated arts series Civilisation: A Personal View by Kenneth Clark (1969).
    • Iona is the setting of Jeanne M. Dams' Dorothy Martin mystery "Holy Terror of the Hebrides" (1998).
    • The Academy Award–nominated Irish animated film The Secret of Kells is about the creation about the Book of Kells. One of the characters, Brother Aiden, is a master illuminator from Iona Abbey who had helped to illustrate the Book, but had to escape the island with it during a Viking invasion.


    • The Diocese of Waterford and Lismore
    • Farmer, David Hugh, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, 1987, 2nd Edition, ISBN 0-19-869149-1
    • MacLeod Banks, M. (1931). "A Hebridean Version of Colum Cille and St. Oran". Folklore 42 (1): 55–60. JSTOR 1256410.


    Today's  Snippet II:  Waterford Ireland

    Waterford (from Old Norse: Veðrafjǫrðr meaning "ram fjord"; Irish: Port Láirge, meaning "Lárag's port") is a city in Ireland. It is located in the South-East Region and is also part of the province of Munster. It is the oldest city in the country. Waterford City Council is the local government authority for the city. It is the fifth most populous city in the state.

    Geography and local government

    With a population of 46732, Waterford is the fifth most populous city in the State and the 32nd most populous area of local government.

    Per the Local Government Act 2001, Waterford City Council is a tier 1 entity of local government with the same status in law as a County council. The Council has 15 representatives (councillors) who are elected from one of three electoral areas. Residents in these areas are restricted to voting for candidates located in their ward for local elections. The office of the Mayor of Waterford was established 1377. A mayor is then elected by the councillors every year, and there is no limit to the number of terms an individual may serve. Mary O'Halloran who was mayor during 2007–2008 was the first woman to hold the post. The current mayor is Jim D'Arcy.

    For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the city is part of the Waterford constituency, which includes the county of Waterford except for those parts of the county that lie in Tipperary South (Dáil Éireann constituency) near Clonmel. The constituency returns four deputies to Dáil Éireann. There are no such ward restrictions for these elections and voters are entitled to vote for any candidate throughout the city and county.

    Viking raiders first established a settlement near Waterford in 853. It and all the other longphorts were vacated in 902, the Vikings having been driven out by the native Irish. The Vikings re-established themselves in Ireland at Waterford in 914, led at first by Ottir Iarla (Jarl Ottar) until 917, and after that by Ragnall ua Ímair and the Uí Ímair dynasty, and built what would be Ireland's first city. Among the most prominent kings of Waterford was Ivar of Waterford.

    In 1167, Diarmait Mac Murchada, the deposed King of Leinster, failed in an attempt to take Waterford. He returned in 1170 with Cambro-Norman mercenaries under Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (known as Strongbow); together they besieged and took the city after a desperate defence. In furtherance of the Norman invasion of Ireland, King Henry II of England landed at Waterford in 1171. Waterford and then Dublin were declared royal cities, with Dublin also declared capital of Ireland.

    Notable features

    The city is situated at the head of Waterford Harbour (Irish: Loch Dá Chaoch or Cuan Phort Láirge). The city motto Urbs Intacta Manet Waterfordia ("Waterford remains the untaken city") was granted by King Henry VII of England in 1497 after Waterford refused to recognise the claims of the pretenders Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck to the English throne. Waterford was subjected to two sieges in 1649 and 1650, during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. It withstood the first siege but surrendered during the second siege to Henry Ireton on 6 August 1650.

    Reginald's Tower is the oldest urban civic building in Ireland, and the oldest monument to retain its Viking name. To this day, it remains Waterford's most recognisable landmark. It is believed to be the first building in Ireland to use mortar. The River Suir, which flows through Waterford City, has provided a basis for the city's long maritime history. The place downriver from Waterford where the Nore and the Barrow join the River Suir is known in Irish as Cumar na dTrí Uisce ("The confluence of the three waters"). Waterford Port has been one of Ireland's major ports for over a millennium. In the 19th century shipbuilding was a major industry. The owners of the Neptune Shipyard, the Malcomson family, built and operated the largest fleet of iron steamers in the world between the mid-1850s and the late-1860s, including five trans-Atlantic passenger liners.

    Today, Waterford is known for Waterford Crystal, a legacy of the city's former glass making industry. Glass, or crystal, was manufactured in the city from 1783 until early 2009, when the factory there was shut down after the receivership of Waterford Wedgwood plc. The Waterford Crystal visitor centre in the Viking Quarter opened in June 2010 after the intervention of Waterford City Council and Waterford Chamber of Commerce.


    Public buildings

    A Large Church spire can be seen above and behind a theatre and a deciduous tree with leaves shed.
    Christ Church Cathedral
    Waterford Museum of Treasures, previously in the Granary on Merchant's Quay, is being split up to accommodate two new museums on the Mall area of the city. The first is housed in the 19th-century Bishop's Palace, on the Mall, which holds items from 1700-1970. This was opened in June 2011. The second museum will be located next to Bishop's Palace displaying the Medieval history of the city.

    Viking Triangle which combines a number of the city's tourist attractions in one place. By 2012, the Mall will contain the two new museums, Reginald's Tower, The House of Waterford Crystal, Christchurch Cathedral, the Theatre Royal, Waterford amongst various other historical landmarks.
    Reginald's Tower, the oldest urban civic building in the country, is situated on the Quays/The Mall, in Waterford. It has performed numerous functions over the years and today is a civic museum.
    A new museum at Mount Sion (Barrack Street) is dedicated to the story of Brother Edmund Ignatius Rice and the history of the Christian Brothers and Presentation Brothers. Along with the museum there is a café and a new chapel. The new museum was designed by Janvs Design

    Waterford Municipal Art Gallery has been housed in Greyfriars since 2001. It is the permanent home for the Municipal Art Collection, "A Gem Among Municipal Collections", over 200 paintings by Irish and International artists, including pieces from renowned artists such as Jack B Yeats, Paul Henry, Charles Lamb and Louis Le Brocquy. Garter Lane Arts Centre is located in two separate restored buildings on O'Connell Street. A new contemporary gallery called Soma opened in 2009 on the Mall.

    The Theatre Royal on The Mall, was built in 1876, as part of a remodelled section of City Hall. It is a U-shaped, Victorian theatre, seating about 600 people.

    Garter Lane Arts Centre is housed in two conserved 18th century buildings on O'Connell Street. Garter Lane Gallery, the 18th century townhouse of Samuel Barker contains the gallery and the Bausch & Lomb Dance Studio, and Garter Lane Theatre is based in the beautiful Quaker Meeting House, built in 1792. The theatre was renovated and restored in 2006 and now contains a 164 seat auditorium.

    St. John's College, Waterford was a Catholic seminary founded in 1807 for the diocese, in the 1830s the college established a mission to Newfoundland in Canada. It closed as a seminary in 1999 and in 2007 much of its building and lands were sold to the Respond Housing association.



    Scotch Quay
    Theatre companies. There are three theatre companies, Red Kettle, Spraoi and Waterford Youth Arts. Red Kettle is a professional theatre company based in Waterford that regularly performs in Garter Lane Theatre. Spraoi is a street theatre company based in Waterford. It produces the Spraoi festival, and has participated regularly in the Waterford and Dublin St. Patrick's day parades, often winning best float. In January 2005 the company staged its biggest and most prestigious production to date, "Awakening", the Opening Show for Cork 2005 European Capital of Culture. Waterford Youth Arts (WYA), formerly known as Waterford Youth Drama, was established in August 1985. WYA has grown from the voluntary efforts of two individuals and 25 young people, to a fully structured youth arts organisation with a paid staff and 400 young people taking part each week. Notable playwrights include Jim Nolan, who co-founded Red Kettle Theatre Company.

    Libraries There are three public libraries in the city, all operated by Waterford City Council: Central Library, in Lady Lane; Ardkeen Library, in the Ardkeen shopping centre on the Dunmore Road; and Brown's Road Library, on Paddy Brown's Road. Central Library, or Waterford City Library, opened in 1905. It was the first of many Irish libraries funded by businessman Andrew Carnegie (Carnegie funded 2,509 libraries across the world). It was renovated in 2004 for its centenary.

    The Barrack Street Concert Band A band established in 1870 and is one of the only bands in Ireland to have unbroken service through a civil war and two World Wars. They have a long and rich history. In 1982 they changed their name to The Barrack Street Concert Band which is sononimous throughout Waterford and Ireland today. The new name reflected a change in instrumentation including flutes,saxophones,oboes and a full percussion section which led to more members joining and a wider variety of music being played. In 1994 the band won the All Ireland Senior Military Band Championships in Wesley collage Dublin under the Baton of Mr Niall O’Connor and 10 years later, in 2004, the band won the South of Ireland Senior Military band Championships in Clonakilty Co Cork under the Baton of the bands current musical director Mr Mark Fitzgerald.

    Waterford Film For All (WFFA) is a non-profit film society whose aim is to offer an alternative to the cineplex experience in Waterford. WFFA conducts much of its activities on the Waterford Institute of Technology (WIT) campus.

    Cinema - Odeon Cinema in the Railway Square complex.


    • Waterford Music Fest, launched in 2011, is an outdoor, one day music event which takes place in the heart of Waterford City during the summer. In 2011 Waterford Music Fest, organised by Music Events Ireland, was headined by 50 Cent, Flo Rida and G-Unit, with support from Faithless Sound System, The Original Rudeboys, Shayne Ward and many more. Over 10,000 people attended the 2011 event. Details of the 2012 Waterford Music Fest are due to be revealed in early summer 2012.
    • Spraoi festival, (pronounced 'Spree') organised by the Spraoi Theatre Company, is a professional festival and street arts organisation which takes over the city centre of Waterford on the August Bank Holiday Weekend. It attracts audiences in excess of 80,000 people to the city.
    • Waterford International Festival of Light Opera is an annual event that has been held in the Theatre Royal since 1959. It has recently been rebranded as the Waterford International Festival of Music and now takes place in November.
    • Tall Ships Festival, held in Waterford in 2005, marked the start of the Tall Ships race of that year. The Suir river provided a perfect berthing location for the numerous tall ships (up to 90) that lined the north and south quays, for almost a week. The festival attracted in the region of 450,000 people to the city in what was the biggest event ever held in Waterford or the south east. Waterford hosted the start of the Tall Ships race again in 2011, with an entirely free festival of music, culture, food and from the 30th June to the 3rd July 2011. Race 1 saw the fleet race to Greenock in Scotland, from Waterford, Ireland.
    • Waterford Harvest Food Festival takes place annually in September along the Quays and in 2010 saw the South Quay closed off to traffic two successive Sundays and a free concert on the Saturday night. The festival offers visitors demonstrations, workshops and tours of local producers, numerous markets, tastings and dinners. Local restaurants design special Festival Menus. A feast for the senses, for all the family.
    • St. Patrick's day Parade takes place annually on the 17th March.
    • There are two Arts Festivals of note in the city; The Imagine Arts Festival in October and The Fringe Arts Festival in September.

    Places of interest

    Reginald's Tower
    The City of Waterford consists of various cultural quarters, the oldest of which is known as 'the Viking Triangle'. This is the part of the city surrounded by the original 10th century fortifications, which is triangular in shape with its apex at Reginald's Tower. Though this was once the site of a thriving Viking city, the city centre has shifted to the west over the years, and it is now a quiet and tranquil area, dominated by narrow streets, medieval architecture, and civic spaces. Over the past decade, a number of restaurants have opened in High Street and Henrietta Street, taking advantage of the charming character of the area. Much of Waterford's impressive architecture is to be found in 'the Viking Triangle'.

    In the 15th century, the city was enlarged with the building of an outer wall on the west side. Today Waterford retains more of its city walls than any other city in Ireland with the exception of Derry, whose walls were built much later. Tours of Waterford's city walls are conducted daily.

    The Quay, once termed by historian Mark Girouard 'the noblest quay in Europe', is a mile long from Grattan Quay to Adelphi Quay, though Adelphi Quay is now a residential area. It is still a major focal point for Waterford, commercially and socially, and the face that Waterford presents to those traveling into the city from the north. Near Reginald's Tower is the William Vincent Wallace Plaza, a monument and amenity built around the time of the millennium that commemorates the Waterford born composer.

    John Roberts Square is a pedestrianised area that is one of the main focal points of Waterford's modern day commercial centre. It was named after the city's most celebrated architect, John Roberts, and was formed from the junction of Barronstrand Street, Broad Street and George's Street. It is often referred to locally as Red Square, due to the red paving that was used when the area was first pedestrianised. A short distance to the east of John Roberts Square is Arundel Square, another square with a fine commercial tradition, which the City Square shopping centre opens onto.

    Ballybricken, in the west, just outside the city walls, is thought to have been Waterford's Irishtown, a type of settlement that often formed outside Irish cities to house the Vikings and Irish that had been expelled during the Norman invasion of Ireland. Ballybricken is an inner city neighbourhood with a long tradition, centred around Ballybricken hill, which was a large, open market-square. Today it has been converted into a green, civic space, but the Bull Post, where livestock was once bought and sold, still stands as a remnant of the hill's past.

    The Mall is a fine Georgian thoroughfare, built by the Wide Streets Commission in order to extend the city southwards. It contains some of the city's finest Georgian architecture. The People's Park, Waterford's largest and finest park, is located nearby.

    Ferrybank in County Waterford is Waterford's only suburb north of the river. It contains a village centre of its own. Waterford City Council have granted permission for a number of major retail developments in Ferrybank. One has been completed and the second is currently under construction and due to be completed in January 2009.

    In April 2003 an important site combining a 5th century Iron Age and 9th century Viking settlement was discovered at Woodstown near the city, which appears to have been a Viking town that predates all such settlements in Ireland.

    Waterford Crystal is manufactured in Waterford but in early 2009 the company moved it operations to Europe after denying the workforce their entitlements, some workers lost many thousands in pension rights etc. A new Waterford Crystal visitor centre opened on June 22, 2010. Tours are conducted daily. It is the biggest Waterford Crystal store in the world. While on the tour you can see how the glass is manufactured. The centre is open seven days a week.

    Waterford's oldest public house (pub) can be found just outside the old 'Viking Triangle'. T & H Doolans, of 31/32 George's Street, has been officially active and open to the public for over three hundred years. The official record of licences dates back to the eighteenth century but the premises is believed to be closer to five hundred years in age. A main element of the structure includes one of the original city walls, almost 1,000 years old, which can be viewed in the lounge area of the building.


    Waterford is the main city of Ireland's South-East Region. Historically Waterford was an important trading port which brought much prosperity to the city throughout the city's eventful history. Waterford Port is Ireland’s closest deep-water port to mainland Europe, handling approximately 12% of Ireland’s external trade by value. Waterford's most famous export, Waterford Crystal is an internationally known and highly sought after product that was manufactured in the city from 1783 to 2009. Some of the places where Waterford Crystal can be seen include New York City where Waterford Crystal made the 2,668 crystals for the famous New Year's Eve Ball that is dropped each year in Times Square, in Westminster Abbey, Windsor Castle, and the Kennedy Center, Washington, D.C.. Throughout its history Waterford Crystal provided employment to thousands in the city and surrounding areas.

    Agriculture also played an important part in Waterford's economic history. Kilmeadan about 5km from the city was also home to a very successful co-operative. The farmers of the area benefited greatly from the sale of their produce (mostly butter and milk) to the co-op. In 1964, all of the co-ops in Waterford amalgamated, and was registered as Waterford Co-op. This led to the construction of a cheese factory on a green field site opposite the general store, and Kilmeadan cheese was to become one of the most recognised and successful cheddar brands in the world. This is evident as the brand won a gold and bronze medal in the World Cheese Awards in London in 2005.

    Today, Waterford is the site of a number of multinational companies including GlaxoSmithkline, Bausch & Lomb, Genzyme, Hasbro, Teva Pharmaceuticals and Honeywell International.

    The Irish economic recession from 2008 onwards has had a major negative impact on Waterford's economy. A number of multinational companies have closed from the recession, including Waterford Crystal and Talk Talk, which has led to a high rate of unemployment.

    Waterford Crystal

    Waterford Crystal is a world leader in the manufacture of crystal. It is named for the city of Waterford, Ireland. Waterford Crystal is owned by WWRD Holdings Ltd, a luxury goods group which also owns and operates the Wedgwood and Royal Doulton brands.   Waterford City has been the home of Waterford Crystal since 1783. In January 2009 its Waterford base was closed down due to the bankruptcy of the Wedgwood Group. After several difficulties and takeovers, it re-emerged later that year. In June 2010, Waterford Crystal relocated almost back to its original roots, on The Mall in Waterford City. This new location is now home to a manufacturing facility that melts over 750 tonnes of crystal a year. This new facility offers visitors the opportunity to take guided tours of the factory and also offers a retail store, showcasing the world's largest collection of Waterford Crystal.


    A crystal business was originally founded in the city in 1783 by George and William Penrose; it produced extremely fine flint glass that became world-renowned. However, their company closed in 1851. In 1947, Czech immigrant Charles Bacik, grandfather of Irish senator Ivana Bacik, established a glass works in the city, due to the superb reputation of the original glassware. Aided by fellow countryman and designer Miroslav Havel, the company started operations in a depressed Ireland. By the early 1950s it had been taken over as a subsidiary of the Irish Glass Bottle company, owned by Joseph McGrath, Richard Duggan and Spencer Freeman of the Irish Hospitals' Sweepstake, heavy investors in Irish business at that time.

    Jasper Conran began designing his signature range of crystal for Waterford in 1999. The endeavour has evolved into four unique lines for Waterford and a complementary tableware collection in fine bone china for Wedgwood in 2001. In May 2005, Waterford Wedgwood announced the closure of its factory in Dungarvan in order to consolidate all operations into the main factory in Kilbarry, Waterford City, where 1,000 people were employed by the company. The move resulted in nearly 500 Dungarvan workers losing their jobs.

    Glass blower at Waterford glass factory
    Waterford Crystal Limited was, until March 2009, a subsidiary of Waterford Wedgwood plc, itself formed through the acquisition by the then Waterford Glass Group of the famous pottery manufacturer Josiah Wedgwood in 1986. The last chairman was Tony O'Reilly, and the CEO John Foley. The leading shareholders of the holding company were former billionaire O'Reilly and his family, joined in the last decade by O'Reilly's brother-in-law, Greek shipping heir Peter Goulandris. Waterford Wedgwood was forced into receivership in early 2009. On 5 January 2009, news of the receivership of Waterford Wedgwood Ltd. was announced in Ireland and the UK.

    On 30 January 2009 it was announced that the Waterford Crystal plant in Kilbarry was to shut down immediately, despite earlier promises to discuss any such move with the unions in advance. The Kilbarry operation featured a tourist centre offering guided tours of the factory, a gift shop, café, and gallery. Many of the employees performed an unofficial sit-in The sit-in made the BBC News, hoping to prevail upon receiver Deloitte to retain those jobs. On 4 February 2009, there were protests across the city at how the workers were being treated. On 27 February 2009, the receiver, David Carson of Deloitte, confirmed US equity firm KPS Capital were to purchase certain overseas assets and businesses of the Waterford Wedgwood Group. The sit in ended in March, 2009 after workers agreed to split a payment of €10m. The fight by the workers to keep the factory open is chronicled in a PBS online documentary.

    Under the receivership managed by Deloitte, ownership of most of Waterford Wedgwood plc's assets was transferred to KPS Capital Partners in March 2009. Waterford Crystal, along with Wedgwood, Royal Doulton, and other brands, were transferred to the new company WWRD Holdings Ltd. The sale did not include the factory or visitor centre in Kilbary, Ireland. The visitor centre shut its doors on 22 January 2010. A new visitor and manufacturing facility opened in June 2010.


    The old Waterford Crystal visitor centre 
    Most Waterford crystal is now produced outside the Republic of Ireland in countries such as Slovenia, Czech Republic and Germany. Waterford produces many patterns of lead crystal stemware, including lines such as Adare, Alana, Colleen, Kincora, Lismore, Maeve, Tramore, and many others.

    In 1966 Waterford's chandeliers were installed in Westminster Abbey for the 900th anniversary of the dedication of the abbey after Christoper Hildyard, a minor canon of the abbey for 45 years, convinced the Guinness family to pay for them. Chandeliers hang in other notable buildings, such as Windsor Castle, and the Kennedy Center, Washington, D.C. Waterford Crystal made the 2,668 crystals for the famous New Year's Eve Ball that is dropped each year in New York City's Times Square. The ball is a 11,875 pound geodesic orb, 12 foot in diameter and is lit by 32,256 Philips Luxeon Rebel LEDs.

    Sporting trophies are also crafted by Waterford, such as the Masters Series crystal shield trophies that are awarded to the winner of each of the nine men's professional tennis Masters Series tournaments, the AFCA National Championship Trophy that is awarded to the US college football team which finishes the season at the top of the Coaches Poll, and a representation of the Ashes urn that is presented to the winners of the Test cricket series between England and Australia.

    Also crafted by Waterford are the winning trophies for the French and German Grand Prix in Formula One, a bat and ball trophy presented at the final game at Yankee Stadium to Derek Jeter and a glass tennis racket for Boris Becker. They also design the trophies for the People's Choice Awards.


        • Discover Waterford, by Eamon McEneaney (2001). (ISBN 0-86278-656-8) 
        • Mokyr, Joel; O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850". The Economic History Review 37 (4): 473–488. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
        • A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign, by Philip McKeiver (2007). (ISBN 978-0-9554663-0-4)
        • Garavan, Thomas N.; O. Cinneide, Barra; Garavan, Mary (1996). Cases in Irish business strategy and policy. Cengage Learning EMEA. pp. 347. ISBN 1-86076-014-7.