Sunday, April 14, 2013

Sunday, April 14, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog: Purge, Psalms 30:2-12, Revelation 5:11-14, John 21:1-19, Pope Francis's Daily Homily: Regina Cœli, St Lydwine, Schiedam Netherlands, County of Holland, Meaning of Regina Cœli, Catholic Catechism Part Two: THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH - Article 3 - The Sacrament of the Eucharist

Sunday,  April 14, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog:

Purge, Psalms 30:2-12, Revelation 5:11-14, John 21:1-19, Pope Francis's Daily Homily: Regina Cœli, St Lidwina, Schiedam Netherlands, County of Holland, Meaning of Regina Cœli, Catholic Catechism Part Two: THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH - Article 3 - The Sacrament of the Eucharist

Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. Its your choice whether to rise towards eternal light or lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to Purgatory and/or Heaven is our Soul, our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


Prayers for Today: Sunday in Easter


 Papam Franciscus
(Pope Francis)

Pope Francis April 14 Homily :

Regina Cœli (Queen of Heaven)

(2013-04-14 Vatican Radio)
Pope Francis prayed the Regina Cœli with more than 80 thousand people gathered in St Peter's Square this Third Sunday of Easter. Below, please find Vatican Radio's tranlsation of his remarks before the traditional Eastertide prayer of Marian devotion:

Dear brothers and sisters, a good day to you!

I would like to touch briefly on the passage from the Acts of the Apostles, which we read in the liturgy of this Third Sunday of Easter. This text says that the first preaching of the Apostles in Jerusalem filled the cities with the news that Jesus had truly risen, according to the Scriptures, and he was the Messiah foretold by the Prophets. The chief priests and the rulers of the city tried to nip the community of Christian believers in the bud. They imprisoned the Apostles, ordering them not to teach in his name. Peter and the other eleven answered, however, “We must obey God rather than men. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus … exalted him at his right hand as Leader and Savior … And we are witnesses to these things and so is the Holy Spirit[.](Acts 5:29-32)” So they scourged the Apostles and commanded them not to speak again in the name of Jesus And they went, “rejoic[ing] that they were counted worthy to suffer dishonor for the name [of Jesus]. (Acts 5:41)”

And I ask myself: “Where were the first disciples the strength for this their testimony?” Not only: whence came to them the courage to preach and the joy of preaching, notwithstanding the obstacles and violence [they faced]? Do not forget that the Apostles were simple men. They were neither scribes, nor teachers of the law, nor of the priestly class. How could they, with [all] their limits, and opposed by the authorities, fill Jerusalem with their teaching (cf. Acts 5:28)? Only the presence of the Risen Lord with them, and the action of the Holy Spirit can explain this. It was the Lord, who was with them, and the Spirit, who moved them to preach: [this] explains this extraordinary episode. Their faith was based on so powerful and personal an experience of Christ crucified and risen, that they were not afraid of anything or anyone, and even saw their persecution as a badge of honor, that made them capable of following in the footsteps of Jesus and to be like Him, bearing witness [to Him] with their lives.

This history of the first Christian community tells us something very important, which applies to the Church in every age, and so to us: when a person truly knows Jesus Christ and believes in Him, one experiences His presence and the power of His Resurrection in one’s life, and one cannot help but communicate this experience. If it encounters misunderstanding or adversity, one behaves like Jesus in His Passion: one responds with love and with the power of truth.

As we pray the Regina Caeli together, let us ask the help of the Blessed Virgin Mary that the Church worldwide might proclaim the Resurrection of the Lord with frankness and courage, and bear effective witness through signs of brotherly love – for brotherly love is the most intimate witness we can bear to [the truth] that Jesus is alive and with us, that Jesus is Risen. Let us pray especially for Christians who suffer persecution – [and] in these times, there are many Christians who suffer persecution, a great many, in many countries: let us pray for them from our heart, with love, that they might feel the living and comforting presence of the Risen Lord


Liturgical Celebrations to be presided over by Pope: April–May

Vatican City, 3 April 2013 (VIS)
Following is the calendar of celebrations scheduled to be presided over by the Holy Father in the months of April and May, 2013:

7 April, Second Sunday of Easter, or Divine Mercy Sunday: 5:30pm,Mass in the Basilica of St. John Lateran for the Bishop of Rome to take possession of the Roman cathedra.

14 April, Sunday: 5:30pm, Mass in the Basilica of St. Paul Outside-the-Walls

21 April, Sunday: 9:30am, Mass and priestly ordinations in St. Peter's Basilica.

28 April, Sunday: 10:00am, Mass and confirmations in St. Peter's Square.

4 May, Saturday: 6:00pm, Recitation of the Rosary in the Basilica of St. Mary Major.

5 May, Sunday: 10:00am, Mass for Confraternities in St. Peter's Square.

12 May, Sunday: 9:30am, Mass and canonizations of Blesseds Antonio Primaldo and Companions; Laura di Santa Caterina da Siena Montoya y Upegui; and Maria Guadalupe Garcia Zavala.

18 May, Saturday: 6:00pm, Pentecost Vigil in St. Peter's Square with the participation of ecclesial movements.

19 May, Pentecost Sunday: 10:00am, Mass in St. Peter's Square with the participation of ecclesial movements.


  • Vatican News. From the Pope. © Copyright 2013 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Accessed 04/11/2013.


April 2, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World:"Dear children, I am calling you to be one with my Son in spirit. I am calling you, through prayer, and the Holy Mass when my Son unites Himself with you in a special way, to try to be like Him; that, like Him, you may always be ready to carry out God's will and not seek the fulfillment of your own. Because, my children, it is according to God's will that you are and that you exist, and without God's will you are nothing. As a mother I am asking you to speak about the glory of God with your life because, in that way, you will also glorify yourself in accordance to His will. Show humility and love for your neighbour to everyone. Through such humility and love, my Son saved you and opened the way for you to the Heavenly Father. I implore you to keep opening the way to the Heavenly Father for all those who have not come to know Him and have not opened their hearts to His love. By your life, open the way to all those who still wander in search of the truth. My children, be my apostles who have not lived in vain. Do not forget that you will come before the Heavenly Father and tell Him about yourself. Be ready! Again I am warning you, pray for those whom my Son called, whose hands He blessed and whom He gave as a gift to you. Pray, pray, pray for your shepherds. Thank you." 

March 25, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World:
“Dear children! In this time of grace I call you to take the cross of my beloved Son Jesus in your hands and to meditate on His passion and death. May your suffering be united in His suffering and love will win, because He who is love gave Himself out of love to save each of you. Pray, pray, pray until love and peace begin to reign in your hearts. Thank you for having responded to my call.”

March 18, 2013 Message to the World via Annual Apparition to Mirjana:
"Dear children! I call you to, with complete trust and joy, bless the name of the Lord and, day by day, to give Him thanks from the heart for His great love. My Son, through that love which He showed by the Cross, gave you the possibility to be forgiven for everything; so that you do not have to be ashamed or to hide, and out of fear not to open the door of your heart to my Son. To the contrary, my children, reconcile with the Heavenly Father so that you may be able to come to love yourselves as my Son loves you. When you come to love yourselves, you will also love others; in them you will see my Son and recognize the greatness of His love. Live in faith! Through me, my Son is preparing you for the works which He desires to do through you – works through which He desires to be glorified. Give Him thanks. Especially thank Him for the shepherds - for your intercessors in the reconciliation with the Heavenly Father. I am thanking you, my children. Thank you."


Today's Word:  Purge  purge  [purj]  

Origin: 1250–1300;  (v.) Middle English purgen  < Old French purg ( i ) er  < Latin pūrgāre  to cleanse; (noun) Middle English  < Old French,  derivative of the v.

verb (used with object)
1. to rid of whatever is impure or undesirable; cleanse; purify.
2. to rid, clear, or free (usually followed by of  or from  ): to purge a political party of disloyal members.
3. to clear of imputed guilt or ritual uncleanliness.
4. to clear away or wipe out legally (an offense, accusation, etc.) by atonement or other suitable action.
5. to remove by cleansing or purifying (often followed by away, off,  or out  ).


Today's Old Testament Reading -   Psalms 30:2-6, 11, 12

2 Yahweh, my God, I cried to you for help and you healed me.
4 Make music for Yahweh, all you who are faithful to him, praise his unforgettable holiness.
5 His anger lasts but a moment, his favour through life; In the evening come tears, but with dawn cries of joy.
6 Carefree, I used to think, 'Nothing can ever shake me!'
11 You have turned my mourning into dancing, you have stripped off my sackcloth and clothed me with joy.
12 So my heart will sing to you unceasingly, Yahweh, my God, I shall praise you for ever.


Today's Epistle -   Revelation 5:11-14

11 In my vision, I heard the sound of an immense number of angels gathered round the throne and the living creatures and the elders; there were ten thousand times ten thousand of them and thousands upon thousands,
12 loudly chanting: Worthy is the Lamb that was sacrificed to receive power, riches, wisdom, strength, honour, glory and blessing.
13 Then I heard all the living things in creation -- everything that lives in heaven, and on earth, and under the earth, and in the sea, crying: To the One seated on the throne and to the Lamb, be all praise, honour, glory and power, for ever and ever.
14 And the four living creatures said, 'Amen'; and the elders prostrated themselves to worship.


Today's Gospel Reading - John 21: 1-19

Love reveals the presence of the Lord
An invitation to the Eucharist of the Risen One

1. Opening prayer

Father, send your Holy Spirit that the fruitless night of our life may be transformed into the radiant dawn that enables us to know your Son Jesus present among us. Let your Spirit breathe on the waters of our sea, as he did at the moment of creation, to open our hearts to the invitation of the Lord’s love and that we may share in the banquet of his Body and his Word. May your Spirit burn within us, Father, that we may become witnesses of Jesus, like Peter and John and the other disciples, and that we too may go out every day to become fishermen and women for your kingdom. Amen.

2. The word of the Lord for today
a) A reading of the passage:
1 Later on, Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples. It was by the Sea of Tiberias, and it happened like this: 2 Simon Peter, Thomas called the Twin, Nathanael from Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zebedee and two more of his disciples were together. 3 Simon Peter said, 'I'm going fishing.' They replied, 'We'll come with you.' They went out and got into the boat but caught nothing that night.  4 When it was already light, there stood Jesus on the shore, though the disciples did not realise that it was Jesus. 5 Jesus called out, 'Haven't you caught anything, friends?' And when they answered, 'No,' 6 he said, 'Throw the net out to starboard and you'll find something.' So they threw the net out and could not haul it in because of the quantity of fish. 7 The disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, 'It is the Lord.' At these words, 'It is the Lord,' Simon Peter tied his outer garment round him (for he had nothing on) and jumped into the water. 8 The other disciples came on in the boat, towing the net with the fish; they were only about a hundred yards from land.  9 As soon as they came ashore they saw that there was some bread there and a charcoal fire with fish cooking on it. 10 Jesus said, 'Bring some of the fish you have just caught.' 11 Simon Peter went aboard and dragged the net ashore, full of big fish, one hundred and fifty-three of them; and in spite of there being so many the net was not broken. 12 Jesus said to them, 'Come and have breakfast.' None of the disciples was bold enough to ask, 'Who are you?'. They knew quite well it was the Lord. 13 Jesus then stepped forward, took the bread and gave it to them, and the same with the fish. 14 This was the third time that Jesus revealed himself to the disciples after rising from the dead. 15 When they had eaten, Jesus said to Simon Peter, 'Simon son of John, do you love me more than these others do?' He answered, 'Yes, Lord, you know I love you.' Jesus said to him, 'Feed my lambs.' 16 A second time he said to him, 'Simon son of John, do you love me?' He replied, 'Yes, Lord, you know I love you.' Jesus said to him, 'Look after my sheep.' 17 Then he said to him a third time, 'Simon son of John, do you love me?' Peter was hurt that he asked him a third time, 'Do you love me?' and said, 'Lord, you know everything; you know I love you.' Jesus said to him, 'Feed my sheep. 18 In all truth I tell you, when you were young you put on your own belt and walked where you liked; but when you grow old you will stretch out your hands, and somebody else will put a belt round you and take you where you would rather not go.' 19 In these words he indicated the kind of death by which Peter would give glory to God. After this he said, 'Follow me.'

b) The context of the passage:
After this first contact with the passage, I now feel the need to better understand its context. I pick up the Bible and do not allow superficial first impressions influence me. I try to search and listen. I open chapter 21 of John’s Gospel, practically at the end of the Gospel. The end of anything usually contains all that went before it, everything that was built up bit by bit. This catch on the lake of Tiberias reminds me strongly and clearly of the beginning of the Gospel where Jesus calls the first disciples, the same ones who are now present with him: Peter, James, John and Nathanael. The meal with Jesus, bread and fish, reminds me of chapter 6 where the great multiplication of the loaves took place, the revelation of the Bread of Life. The intimate and personal conversation between Jesus and Peter, his triple question: “Do you love me?” reminds again of the Easter vigil when Peter had denied the Lord three times.

Then, if I turn back just a little the pages of the Gospel, I find the wonderful passage concerning the resurrection: the haste by night of Mary Magdalene and the other women to the sepulchre, the discovery of the empty tomb, Peter and John’s race, their looking into the sepulchre, their contemplation, their faith; I still find the eleven behind locked doors in the cenacle and then the risen Jesus comes in, the gift of the Spirit, the absence and unbelief of Thomas, a belief regained with the second coming in of Jesus; I hear that wonderful proclamation of the beatitude, which is for all of us today, called to believe without having seen. Then I too go to the waters of that sea, on a night with no catch, empty handed. But it is here and now that I am visited, embraced by the manifestation, the revelation of the Lord Jesus. I too am here, then, to recognize him, to throw myself into the sea and go towards him to share in the banquet, to let him dig deep into my heart with his questions, his words, so that once more He may repeat to me: “Follow me!” and I, at last, may say to him “Here I am!”, fuller, truer and stronger and for ever.

c) A subdivision of the text:
v.1: With the verb ‘revealed’, John immediately draws our attention to a great event about to take place. The power of Jesus’ resurrection has not yet ceased to invade the lives of the disciples and thus of the Church. It is just a matter of being prepared to accept the light, the salvation offered by Christ. As he reveals himself in this text now, so also he will go on revealing himself in the lives of believers, also in our lives.

vv. 2- 3: Peter and the other six disciples go out from the locked cenacle and go to the sea to fish, but after a whole night of labour, they catch nothing. It is the dark, the solitude, the inability of human endeavours.

vv. 4-8: Finally the dawn comes, light returns and Jesus appears standing on the shore of the sea. But the disciples do not recognize him yet; they need to embark on a very deep interior journey. The initiative comes from the Lord who, by his words, helps them to see their need, their situation: they have nothing to eat. Then he invites them to cast the net again. Obedience to his Word works the miracle and the catch is abundant. John, the disciple of love, recognizes the Lord and shouts his faith to the other disciples. Peter believes and immediately throws himself into the sea to go as quickly as possible to the Lord and Master. The others, however, follow dragging the boat and the net.

vv. 9-14: The scene now changes on land, where Jesus had been waiting for the disciples. Here a banquet takes place: Jesus’ bread is joined to the disciples’ fish, his life and his gift become one with their life and gift. It is the power of the Word made flesh, made existence.

vv. 15-18: Now Jesus addresses Peter directly heart to heart; it is a very powerful moment of love from which I cannot separate myself, because those same words of the Lord are written and repeated also for me, today. It is a mutual declaration of love repeated three times, capable of overcoming all infidelities and weaknesses. From now on a new life begins for Peter and for me, if I so desire.

v. 19: This last verse of the text is rather unusual because it is a comment of the Evangelist followed immediately by Jesus’ very powerful and definitive word to Peter: “Follow me!”, to which there is no other reply than life itself.

3. A moment of prayerful silence
Here I pause a while and gather in my heart the words I have read and heard. I try to do what Mary did, who listened to the words of the Lord and examined them, weighed them and allowed them to speak for themselves without interpreting, changing, diminishing or adding anything to them. In silence I pause on this text and go over it in my heart.

4. Some questions
a)They went out and got into the boat” (v. 3). Am I also ready to embark on this journey of conversion? Will I let myself be reawakened by Jesus’ invitation? Or do I prefer to go on hiding behind my closed doors for fear like the disciples in the cenacle? Do I want to go out, to go out after Jesus, to allow him to lead me? There is a boat ready for me, there is a vocation of love given to me by the Lord; when will I make up my mind to truly respond?

b) “…But caught nothing that night” (ibid). Do I have the courage to hear the Lord say to me that there is emptiness in me, that it is night, that I am empty handed? Do I have the courage to admit that I need him, his presence? Do I want to open my heart to him, my innermost self, that which I constantly try to deny, to hide? He knows everything, he knows my innermost self; he sees that I have nothing to eat, but it is I who have to realize this about myself, that must eventually come to him empty handed, even weeping, with a heart full of sadness and anguish. If I do not take this step, the true light, the dawn of my day will never shine.

c)Throw the net out to starboard” (v. 6). The Lord speaks clearly to me too in moments when, thanks to a person or a prayer gathering or a Word spoken, I understand clearly what I have to do. The command is very clear; I only need to listen and obey. “Throw out to starboard”, the Lord says to me. Do I at last have the courage to trust him, or do I wish to go on my own way, in my own way? Do I wish to cast my net for him?

d)Simon Peter … jumped into the water” (v. 7). I am not sure that there is a more beautiful verse than this. Peter jumped in, like the widow at the temple who cast all she had, like the man possessed who was healed (Mk 5: 6), like Jairus, like the woman with the haemorrhage, like the leper, all of whom threw themselves at Jesus’ feet, surrendering their lives to him. Or like Jesus himself who threw himself on the ground and prayed to his Father (Mk 14: 35). Now is my time. Do I also want to throw myself into the sea of mercy, of the Father’s love, do I wish to surrender to him my whole life, my whole being, my sufferings, my hopes, my wishes, my sins, my desire to start again? His arms are ready to welcome me, rather, I am certain that it will be he who will throw his arms around my neck, as it is written … “While he was still a long way off, his father saw him and was moved with pity. He ran to the boy, clasped him in his arms and kissed him”.

e)Bring some of the fish you have just caught” (v. 10). The Lord asks me to join my food with his, my life with his. While the Evangelist is speaking of fish, it is as if he were speaking of people, those whom the Lord himself wishes to save through my efforts at fishing. That is why he sends me. At his table, at his feast, he expects me and expects all those brothers and sisters whom in his love he has placed in my life. I cannot go to Jesus alone. This Word, then, asks whether I am prepared to go to the Lord, to sit at his table, to celebrate Eucharist with him and whether I am ready to spend my life and my energies to bring to him with me many of my brothers and sisters. I must look within my heart sincerely and see my resistance, my closure to him and to others.

f)Do you love me?” (v. 15). How can I answer this question? How can I proclaim my love for God when all my infidelities and my denials come to the surface? What happened to Peter is also part of my story. But I do not want this fear to prevent me and make me retreat; no! I want to go to Jesus, I want to stay with him, I want to approach him and say that I love him. I borrow Peter’s words and make them mine, I write them on my heart, I repeat them, I give them breath and life in my life and then I gather courage and say to Jesus: “Lord, you know everything; you know I love you”. Just as I am, I love him. Thank you, Lord, that you ask me to love and that you expect me, you want me; thank you because you rejoice in my poor love.

g)Feed my sheep… Follow me” (vv. 15. 19). That is how the text ends. It is an open-ended ending and still goes on speaking to me. This is the Word that the Lord entrusts to me so that I may put it into practice in my life from this day on. I want to accept the mission that the Lord entrusts to me; I want to answer his call and to follow him wherever he may lead me, every day and in every small matter.

5. A key to the reading
Peter is the first to take the initiative and proclaim to his brothers his decision to go fishing. Peter goes out to the sea, that is, the world, he goes to his brothers and sisters because he knows that he is a fisher of people (Lk 5, 10); just like Jesus, who went out of the Father to come and pitch his tent in our midst. Peter is also the first to react to the words of John who recognizes Jesus on the shore. He ties his garment and throws himself into the sea. These seem to me to be strong allusions to baptism. It is as if Peter wishes to bury completely his past in those waters, just like a catechumen who enters the baptismal font. Peter commits himself to these purifying waters, he allows himself to be healed: he throws himself into the waters, taking with him his self conceits, his faults, the weight of his denial, his tears, so as to rise again a new man to meet his Lord. Before he throws himself, Peter ties his garment, just like Jesus did, before him, when he tied a garment to wash the feet of his disciples at the last supper. It is the garment of a servant, of one who gives him/herself to his/her brothers and sisters, and it is this garment that covers his nakedness. It is the garment of the Lord himself, who wraps him in his love and his forgiveness. Thanks to this love, Peter will be able to come up again from the sea and start all over again. It is also said of Jesus that he came up out of the water after his baptism; Master and disciple share the same verb, the same experience. Peter is now a new man! That is why he will be able to affirm three times that he loves the Lord. Even though his triple denial remains an open wound, it is not his last word. It is here that Peter experiences the forgiveness of the Lord and realizes the weakness that reveals itself to him as the place of a greater love. Peter receives love, a love that goes well beyond his treachery, his fall, a surfeit of love that enables him to serve his brothers and sisters, to lead them to the green pastures of the Lord Jesus. Not only this, but in this service of love, Peter will become the good Shepherd, like Jesus himself. Indeed, he too will give his life for his sheep, he will stretch his arms in crucifixion, as we know from history. He was crucified head down, he will be turned upside down, but in the mystery of love he will thus be truly straightened up and fulfil that baptism that began at the moment he threw himself into the sea with a garment tied around him. Peter then becomes the lamb who follows the Shepherd to martyrdom.

6. A time of prayer
Psalm 22
My soul thirsts for you, Lord.
Yahweh is my shepherd,
I lack nothing.
In grassy meadows he lets me lie.
By tranquil streams he leads me
to restore my spirit.
He guides me in paths of saving justice as befits his name.
Even were I to walk in a ravine as dark as death
I should fear no danger,
for you are at my side.
Your staff and your crook are there to soothe me.
You prepare a table for me under the eyes of my enemies;
you anoint my head with oil;
my cup brims over.
Kindness and faithful love pursue me every day of my life.
I make my home in the house of Yahweh for all time to come.

7. Final Prayer
Lord Jesus, we thank for the word that has enabled us to understand better the will of the Father. May your Spirit enlighten our actions and grant us the strength to practice that which your Word has revealed to us. May we, like Mary, your mother, not only listen to but also practice the Word. You who live and reign with the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit forever and ever. Amen.

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  Saint Lidwina

Feast DayApril  14

Patron Saint:  Chronically Ill, MS Patients and Ice Skaters
Attributes:  n/a

Lidwina (Lydwine, Lydwid, Lidwid, Liduina of Schiedam) was a Dutch mystic who is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church. At age 15, Lidwina was ice skating when she fell and broke a rib. She never recovered and became progressively disabled for the rest of her life. Her biographers state that she became paralyzed except for her left hand and that great pieces of her body fell off, and that blood poured from her mouth, ears, and nose. Today some posit that Saint Lidwina is one of the first known multiple sclerosis patients and attribute her disability to the effects of the disease and her fall.[1]

At age 15, Lidwina was ice skating when she fell and broke a rib. She never recovered and became progressively disabled for the rest of her life. Her biographers state that she became paralyzed except for her left hand and that great pieces of her body fell off, and that blood poured from her mouth, ears, and nose. Today some posit that Lidwina is one of the first known multiple sclerosis patients and attribute her disability to the effects of the disease and her fall.[2]

After her fall, Lidwina fasted continuously and acquired fame as a healer and holy woman (although she was also looked upon as being under the influence of an evil spirit).[3] The town officials of Schiedam, her hometown, promulgated a document (which has survived) that attests to her complete lack of food and sleep.[4] At first she ate a little piece of apple, then a bit of date and watered wine, then river water contaminated with salt from the tides. The authenticating document from Schiedam also attests that Lidwina shed skin, bones, parts of her intestines, which her parents kept in a vase and which gave off a sweet odor. These excited so much attention that Lidwina had her mother bury them.[5] Lidwina died at the age of 53.


Johannes Brugman's publication, printed in Schiedam in 1498.
Several hagiographical accounts of her life exist. One of these states that while the soldiers of Philip of Burgundy were occupying Schiedam, a guard was set around her to test her fasts, which were authenticated.[6] It is also reported that four soldiers abused her during this occupation, claiming that Lidwina's swollen body was due to her being impregnated by the local priest rather than from her sickness.[6]

The well-known German preacher and poet, Friar John Brugman, wrote two Lives of St. Lidwina, the first of which, printed at Cologne in 1433, was reprinted anonymously at Leuven in 1448, and later epitomised by Thomas à Kempis at Cologne in his Vita Lidewigis. The second life appeared at Schiedam in 1498; both have been embodied by the Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum under 2 April. More recently, in 1901, Joris-Karl Huysmans published a biography of Lidwina.


Lidwina's grave became a place of pilgrimage after her death and in 1434, a chapel was built over it. Thomas à Kempis's publication caused an increase in veneration. In 1615 her relics were taken to Brussels, but in 1871 they were returned to Schiedam. On 14 March 1890, Pope Leo XIII officially canonized Lidwina. She is the patron saint of ice skaters and the chronically ill, as well as of the town of Schiedam. Her feast day occurs on 18 March, 14 April, or 14 June, depending on region and tradition.

In 1859 the Church of Our Lady of Visitation (Onze Lieve Vrouw Visitatie) was opened on the Nieuwe Haven in Schiedam, commonly called Frankelandsekerk after the area it was located in (West-Frankeland). In 1931 this church was officially dedicated to St. Lidwina and called Church of Lidwina (Lidwinakerk). The church was demolished in 1969, and the veneration of Lidwina was moved to the Singelkerk, hence known as the Church of St. Lidwina and Our Lady of the Rosary. This church was elevated to become a minor basilica on 18 June 1990 by Pope John Paul II. The church is now commonly known as the Basilica of Lidwina.
After the closure of the Church of Lidwina in 1969, the statue of the saint and her relics were removed to the chapel dedicated to her in the rest-home West-Frankeland on the Sint Liduinastraat in town. Only after the demolition of the chapel in 1987 were all devotional objects removed to the Singelkerk.

Lidwina's name is attached to numerous institutions in Schiedam. Since 2002, the Foundation Intorno Ensemble produces a bi-annual musical theatrical performance about the town saint in one of the Schiedam churches. Outside Schiedam, there is a modern (1960s) church in the Dutch town of Best carrying her name (Lidwina Parochie Best).

Lidwina and multiple sclerosis

Historical texts reveal that she was afflicted with a debilitating disease, sharing many characteristics with multiple sclerosis, such as the age of onset, duration and course of disease. Lidwina’s disease began soon after her fall. From that time onwards, she developed walking difficulties, headaches and violent pains in her teeth. By the age of 19, both her legs were paralysed and her vision was disturbed.

Over the next 34 years, Lidwina's condition slowly deteriorated, although with apparent periods of remission, until her death at the age of 53. Together these factors suggest that a posthumous diagnosis of MS may be plausible, therefore dating MS back to the 14th century.[7]


    1. ^ Caroline Walker Bynum, Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 124.
    2. ^ Caroline Walker Bynum, Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 124.
    3. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Lidwina
    4. ^ Caroline Walker Bynum, Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 124.
    5. ^ Caroline Walker Bynum, Holy Feast and
    6. Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 125.
    7. ^ a b Caroline Walker Bynum, Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 124.
    8. ^ Medaer R (1979). "Does the history of multiple sclerosis go back as far as the 14th century?". Acta Neurol. Scand. 60 (3): 189–92. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1979.tb08970.x. PMID 390966.


      Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane



      Today's Snippet I:  Schiedam Nethererlands

      Nolet windmill at Ketel 1 factory Schiedam
      Schiedam ([sχiˈdɑm]) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. It is part of the Rotterdam metropolitan area. The city is located west of Rotterdam, east of Vlaardingen, and south of Delft. In the south it is connected with the village of Pernis by the Beneluxtunnel.

      The city is known for its historical center with canals, and for having the tallest windmills in the world. Schiedam is also famous for the distilleries and malthouses and production of jenever (gin) - such as the internationally-renowned Ketel One - so much so that in French and English the word schiedam (usually without a capital s-) refers to the town's Holland gin. 

      This was the town's main industry during the early Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th century, a dark period to which it owed its former nickname "Zwart Nazareth" or "Black Nazareth". Furthermore, the city is known for Saint Lidwina, one of the most famous Dutch saints (her relics are located in the Liduina Basilica in Schiedam).


      Schiedam was founded in roughly the same way as its big neighbour Rotterdam: around the year 1230 the river Schie was dammed by the Lord of Wassenaer and the Amtlord Dirk Bokel of the Amt Mathenesse, this to protect the existing polderland against the seawater from the North Sea. In 1247, Lady Adelaide of Holland married John I, Count of Hainaut. As dowry she received from him the eastern part of the dam together with the adjacent polder. The dam attracted many trade activities because goods for and from the hinterland (Delft, and further away Leiden and Haarlem) had to be transhipped. A small town developed swiftly around the dam and its activities. In the year 1275 Schiedam received city rights from Lady Adelaide, this in her capacity as sister of William II, the reigning Count of Holland and becoming King of the Romans. She ordered the building of a castle near the Schie, which is known till today as the "Huis te Riviere" or "Slot Mathenesse" (English: "Castle Mathenesse"). Remnants of a donjon, which were once part of the castle, are still visible today in the centre of Schiedam and near the city office.

      As a young settlement Schiedam soon got competition from surrounding towns and cities: in 1340, Rotterdam and Delft also were allowed to establish a connection between the Schie and the Meuse. From the 15th century on the city flourished as a place of pilgrimage on the devotion around Saint Lidwina, one of the most famous Dutch saints who lived her life in Schiedam. The city gained subsequently significance by fishing for herring. In 1428 a great city fire swept through Schiedam, thereby destroying large parts of the then wooden city .

      The 18th century was Schiedam's Golden Age, when the gin industry flourished. The standstill drink imports from France made the emergence of the Schiedamse distillery possible. From dozens of distilleries Schiedam jenever was exported throughout the world. The Gin industry gave the city its nickname 'Black Nazareth'. This industry is now largely gone.

       Five windmills in the town, called De Noord, Walvisch, Drie Koornbloemen, Nieuwe Palmboom and Vrijheid - the highest windmills in the world because they had to stick out above the high warehouses, and many storehouses are relicts of this past. In one of the former factories at the Lange Haven the National Jenever Museum is established.

      On 10 August 1856 the first major train accident in the Netherlands happened near the Schiedam railway station, causing 3 deaths. On 4 May 1976 the Schiedam train disaster took place near the station which caused 24 deaths.[1]

      At the end of the 19th and throughout the 20th century, the shipbuilding industry was booming in Schiedam, with the existence of large companies like Wilton-Fijenoord and others. In 1941, the ancient municipalities Kethel en Spaland were merged with Schiedam which made large expansions of the city possible with residential areas in the north. At the end of the 20th century the shipbuilding industry largely disappeared and nowadays Schiedam is mainly a commuter town being part of the Rotterdam metropolitan area.


      1. (Dutch) "Eerste treinramp met doden ook bij Schiedam". Dagblad van het Noorden. May 1, 2004. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
      2. / Arts & Weekend / Sport - Hail Holland, world cricket's unlikely lads
      3. Stedenbanden - City Twinning Netherlands
      4. "Eurotowns".


        Today's Snippet II:  County of Holland

        The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1482 till 1581 part of the Habsburg Netherlands in what is now the Netherlands.

        The oldest sources refer to the not clearly defined county as Frisia, west of the Vlie. Before 1101, sources talk about Frisian counts, but in this year Floris II, Count of Holland is mentioned as Florentius comes de Hollant (Floris, Count of Holland). The counts generally kept to this single title until 1291, when Floris V, Count of Holland decided to call himself Count of Holland and Zeeland, lord of Friesland

        This title was also used after Holland was united with Hainault, Bavaria-Straubing, and the Duchy of Burgundy. The titles eventually lost their importance, and the last count, Philip II of Spain, only mentioned them halfway through his long list of titles.

        The county covered an area roughly corresponding to the current Dutch provinces of North Holland and South Holland, as well as the northwestern part of the current province of North Brabant (roughly between the towns of Willemstad, Geertruidenberg and Werkendam), and the islands of Terschelling, Vlieland, Urk and Schokland, though it did not include the island of Goeree-Overflakkee.

        In the early Middle Ages, large parts of the area covered by the present day Netherlands were covered by peat bogs. These bogs limited the size of arable land in the Netherlands, but also proved to be a good source of fuel. Around 950, small scale reclamation was started on the enormous bogs in Holland and Utrecht, probably set in motion by the minor nobility. In the 11th century the 'Great Reclamation' started, under the control of the counts of Holland and the bishops of Utrecht. Until the 13th century, large amounts of land was reclaimed between the IJ bay in the north, the dunes in the west, the Lek and Waal rivers in the south and the Old Rhine in the east.

        Before the Great Reclamation, the borders between the county of Holland and the bishopric of Utrecht were unclear, and there existed a literal no-man's land. However, during the reclamation the counts of Holland managed to expand their influence at the cost of Utrecht.


        Around 800, under Charlemagne, the Frankish Empire covered a great deal of Europe. In much of this empire an important unit of regional administration, corresponding roughly to a shire or county in England, was the gau (Frankish), or pagus (Latin). A comes or Count ruled over one or more gaue. Because of the low trade, the negative trade balance with the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim states, and the disappearance of currency, the economy was more or less reduced to bartering. The king's vassals could only be rewarded by giving them land (beneficium, from the tenth century on feodum) and usufruct. From this the system of Feudalism developed. The vassals, who were generally appointed by the king, strove for a system of inheritance. This become more and more the rule, and in 877 it was legalised in the Capitulary of Quierzy.

        Upon the death of a king, the Frankish kingdom was frequently divided among his heirs. This partible inheritance often caused internal struggle which made centralized government problematic. The Viking Raids further undermined centralized government. At the end of the reign of Emperor Louis the Pious, the royal power had weakened because of the flood of 838, but also because of infighting between the king's sons. After Louis died in 840, his son Emperor Lothair I, King of Middle Francia, rewarded the Danish brothers Rorik and Harald with Frisia - current day Friesland and Holland - in an attempt to resist the attacks of the Vikings.


        Upon Lothair's death in 855, the northern part of Midle Francia was awarded to his second son Lothair II, and called Lotharingia after him. The Treaty of Ribemont in 880 added the Kingdom of Lotharingia - of which the Low Countries were part - to East Francia, which attempted to integrate it. However, there were no connections like there were between the four German Stem Duchies of east Francia: the Franconia, the Saxony, the Bavaria and the Swabia. Lotharingia took a separate position with a large amount of self-determination. This became clear when Louis the Child, the last Carolingian of East Francia, died in 911. While the Stem Duchies flocked to Duke Conrad I of Franconia, Lotharingia chose for the Carolingian Charles the Simple, king of West Francia.

        In Frisia, the Counts still saw their power reduced by the Danes. They started cooperating, but in 885 the Danish rule came to an end with the murder of Rorik's successor Godfrid by Henry of Franconia. One of the people involved in the murder was Gerolf, comes Fresonum (count of Frisia). As a reward he was given lands in full ownership on August 4, 889, from the East Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia. The lands in question included an area outside of Gerulf's county, in Teisterbant, including Tiel, Aalburg and Asch. It also involved an area inside the county. This last possession consisted of a forest and a field somewhere between the mouth of the Old Rhine and presumably Bennebroek, Suithardeshaga.

        In 922, King Charles the Simple granted the church of Egmond and all its possessions to Count Dirk I of Holland, as thanks for his support against a rebellion of his West Frankish vassals. Egmond was located just north of the possessions Dirk had received from Gerulf, and was thus a good match. Shortly after this he founded Egmond Abbey, the oldest monastery in Holland. Upon the deposition of Charles the Simple in 923, King Henry the Fowler of East Francia allied with Count Gilbert of Hainaut, son of Duke Reginar of Lorraine and and re-conquered Lotharingia lands. By 925 the Lotharingian nobles finally accepted his rule, whereafter Lotharingia with the Frisian lands were incorporated as a fifth German stem duchy. However, Henry's power was limited by his vassal Gilbert, the Duke of Lotharingia, whose power in turn was limited to his own counties.

        Imperial State

        The rising status of the House of Holland was shown when in 938 Count Dirk II, probably the grandson of Count Dirk I, married at the age of 8 with Hildegard of Flanders, daughter of Count Arnulf I of Flanders. The count of Holland was in this period more of a military commander who had to resist Viking raids, and subject to the authority of the Bishopric of Utrecht.

        In 985, King Otto III, at the request of his mother Theophanu, granted the ownership (proprium) of a number lands to count Dirk II. These lands had already been given in loan (beneficium). This was the area between the rivers Loira (lier) and hisla (IJssel) - a Gau called Masaland -, villa Sunnimeri, the area between the rivers Medemelaka and Chinnelosara gemerchi - Kinheim - and Texla, another Gau.

        In 993, count Arnulf of Gent was killed in a battle near Winkel in an attempt to quell the rebellious Frisians. This is seen as the first sign of the libertas of the Frisians, but at that time the regions of West-Friesland and Kennemerland were still connected. Arnulf's son, count Dirk III of Holland was too young to rule, so his mother Lutgardis of Luxemburg acted as regent. In 1005 Dirk was old enough to take over the rulership himself, but he still made thankful use of the good connections that his mother had made. According to Thietmar of Merseburg a reconciliation with the Frisians was arranged with help from his uncle in-law, king Henry II, who travelled with an army from Utrecht to quell the frisian revolt.

        As a result of a promise he had made during the frisian rebellion, Dirk III went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. When he returned, the northern side of his county had become unsafe, so he travelled south and started loaning lands around present day Vlaardingen in order to cultivate it. He also built a castle at Silva Meriwido, the future Vlaardingen. From this castle he forced merchants that travelled per ship from Tiel to England to pay toll. The Merchants complained at the Reichstag of Nijmegen in 1018, where it was decided to act against Dirk III. An army led by Godfrey II Duke of Lower Lorraine, consisting of a fleet with soldiers from the Bishopric of Utrecht, Cologne and the Prince-Bishopric of Liège was surprisingly defeated by Dirk III in the Battle of Vlaardingen.

        So as not to weaken the protection the county of Holland offered against the Viking raids, king Henry II decided to let the matter rest, though he did strengthen the position of the Bishop of Utrecht, the nominal feudal lord of the counts of Holland. Nonetheless Dirk managed to expand his territory to the east at the cost of the Bishopric of Utrecht. After the death of Heny II in 1024, Dirk III supported the candidature of Conrad II in an attempt to reconcile with the imperial authorities, so as to keep the lands he had acquired, or expand them even further.

        Emperor Conrad II died during a stay in Utrecht in 1039 during the rule of bishop Bernold, after which his organs were interred in the Cathedral of Utrecht. His son and successor, Henry III, granted numerous favors to the bishopric of Utrecht. In this way, the Oversticht was assigned to the bishopric in 1040. Though the count of Holland had been reconciled with the emperor, Henry III still decided to punish the count. In 1046 the emperor forced Dirk IV to relinquish the lands he had conquered. However, the emperor was not able to maintain himself in the area and was forced to retreat, after which Dirk IV started to raid and plunder the bishoprics of Utrecht and Liege. Moreover, Dirk signed treaties with Godfrey the Bearded, duke of Lower Lorraine, as well as the counts of Flanders and Hainaut. The Emperor responded with a second punitive expedition in which Vlaardingen and the castle at Rijnsburg were taken from Dirk IV. The castle was completely destroyed. However, the emperor suffered heavy losses during his retreat, upon which Dirk's allies openly revolted against the emperor. In 1049 Dirk IV was lured into a trap and killed by the bishops of Metz, Liege and Utrecht. Dirk died young, unmarried and childless. He was succeeded by his brother Floris I.

        Floris I managed to expand his territory with a small area within the Rijnland Gau, an area called Holtland ("Woodland"), or Holland. It is most likely that this name soon became synonymous with Floris' whole territory. In 1061 a war broke out, in which it is not clear whether it was against Brabant, Utrecht or Liege. During this war Floris was ambushed and killed. His son Dirk V was still a minor, so his mother Gertrude of Saxony became regent. Gertrude remarried in 1063 with Robert I, who also acted as regent for Dirk V.

        In 1064, Emperor Henry IV donated lands belonging to the county of Holland, 'west of the Vlie and around the banks of the Rhine' (the Gau of Westflinge), to William, Bishop of Utrecht, on whose support the Emperor could count. Dirk V was only allowed to keep the Gau of Masaland. Through battles in 1071 and 1072, William of Utrecht, with support from Duke Godfrey IV of Lower Lorraine, managed to gain actual control over the lands in questions. After both William and Godfrey died in 1076, Robert I and his stepson Dirk V besieged IJsselmonde and managed to capture the new bishop Conrad of Swabia, who was forced to return the lands to Dirk V's control.

        The Netherlands

        During the Eighty years war, the county of Holland played an important part in the resistance against the Spaniards. After the Union of Utrecht, the county of Holland became the leading province of the new Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, being dominant over all other provinces. Nominally, Holland was still a county, but it had deposed its last count in the Act of Abjuration in 1581, and from then on essentially functioned as a province and not as a county. The County of Holland formally came to an end in 1795, when the Batavian Revolution ended the republic and reformed it as the Batavian Republic.


        • Block, Dick (1977-1983). Algemene Geschiedenis der Nederlanden. Haarlem: Fibula-Van Dishoeck. ISBN 90-228-3800-5.
        • Lamberts, J.C.H. (2006). Geschiedenis van de Nederlanden. Baarn: HBuitgevers. ISBN 90-5574-474-3.
        • Graaf, A.C.F. (1970). Oorlog om Holland 1000-1375. Hilversum. ISBN 90-6550-807-4.
        • Koch, A.C.F. (1970). Oorkondenboek van Holland en Zeeland tot 1299, Deel I - einde 7e eeuw tot 1222. Den Haag: Nijhoff. ISBN 90-247-0403-0.
        • Beukers, T. de (2002). Geschiedenis van Holland tot 1572. Hilversum. ISBN 90-6550-682-9.


        Today's Snippet III:  History of Regina Cœli

        The Regina Cæli or Regina Cœli ("Queen of Heaven", pronounced [reˈdʒiːna ˈtʃɛːli] in ecclesiastical Latin), is an ancient Latin Marian Hymn of the Christian Church. It is one of the four seasonal Marian antiphons of the Blessed Virgin Mary, prescribed to be sung or recited in the Liturgy of the Hours at the conclusion of the last of the hours to be prayed in common that day, typically night prayer (Compline or Vespers). The Regina Caeli is sung or recited in place of the Angelus during the Easter season, from Holy Saturday through Pentecost Sunday.


        As with many Roman Catholic prayers, it takes its name from its incipit or first word(s). The Latin word coelum, meaning "heaven" (whence the English word celestial), was a common medieval and early modern spelling of caelum, which was the only form in Classical Latin. In medieval Latin, ae and oe were both pronounced [eː]; the form was also influenced by an extremely dubious etymology from Greek koilos, "hollow".


        While the authorship of the Regina Caeli is unknown, the hymn has been traced back to the twelfth century. It was in Franciscan use, after Compline, in the first half of the following century. Legend has it that St Gregory the Great heard angels chanting the first three lines one Easter morning in Rome, while following barefoot in a great religious procession of the icon of the Virgin painted by Luke the Evangelist. He was thereupon inspired to add the fourth line: "Ora pro nobis Deum. Alleluia."  The authorship has also been ascribed to Gregory V, but without good reason. The beautiful plainsong melodies (a simple and an ornate form) are variously given in the Ratisbon antiphonary and in the Solesmes "Liber Usualis" of 1908, the ornate form in the latter work, with rhythmical signs added, being very attractive. The official or "typical" melody will be found (p. 126) in the Vatican Antiphonary (1911). Only one form of melody is given. The different syllabic lengths of the lines make the anthem difficult to translate with fidelity into English verse. The anthem has often been treated musically by both polyphonic and modern composers.

        Together with the other Marian anthems, it was incorporated in the Minorite-Roman Curia Office, which, by the activity of the Franciscans, was soon popularized everywhere, and which, by the order of Nicholas III (1277-80), replaced all the older Office-books in all the churches of Rome. Batiffol ("History of the Roman Breviary", tr., London, 1898, pp. 158-228) admits that "we owe a just debt of gratitude to those who gave us the antiphons of the Blessed Virgin" (p. 225), which he considers "four exquisite compositions, though in a style enfeebled by sentimentality" (p. 218). The anthems are indeed exquisite, although (as may appropriately be noted in the connection) they run through the gamut of medieval literary style, from the classical hexameters of the "Alma Redemptoris Mater" through the richly-rhymed accentual rhythm and regular strophes of the "Ave Regina Coelorum", the irregular syntonic strophe of the "Regina Coeli", down to the sonorous prose rhythms (with rhyming closes) of the Salve Regina. "In the 16th century, the antiphons of our Lady were employed to replace the little office at all the hours" (Baudot, "The Roman Breviary", London, 1909, p. 71). The "Regina Coeli" takes the place of the "Angelus" during the Paschal Time. 


        There are plainsong melodies (a simple and an ornate form) associated with Regina Caeli, the official or "typical" melody being found in the Vatican Antiphonary, 1911, p. 126. The antiphonal strophes of Regina Caeli were often set by polyphonic composers of the 16th century. Lully's motet “Regina coeli, laetare” was written in 1684. There are three settings by the young Mozart (K.108, K.127, and K.276), and one by Brahms (Op. 37 #3).

        The Marian anthems run the gamut of mediaeval literary styles, from the classical hexameters of the Alma Redemptoris Mater through the richly-rhymed accentual rhythm and regular strophes of the Ave Regina Caelorum, the irregular syntonic strophe of the Regina Caeli, to the sonorous prose rhythms with rhyming closes of the Salve Regina. "In the 16th century, the antiphons of our Lady were employed to replace the little office at all the hours" (Baudot, The Roman Breviary, 1909, p. 71).

        In the first two verses ("Regina" and "Quia") the accent falls on the second, fourth, and seventh syllables (the word quia being counted as a single syllable); in the second two verses ("Resurrexit", "Sicut dixit"), on the first and third syllables. The Alleluia serves as a refrain. 

        Latin text

        Regina cæli, lætare, alleluia:
        Quia quem meruisti portare, alleluia,
        Resurrexit, sicut dixit, alleluia,
        Ora pro nobis Deum, alleluia.
        In the Office of Paul VI the Regina caeli ends here, but the older usage continues with the following versicle and prayer:
        V. Gaude et lætare, Virgo Maria, alleluia.
        R. Quia surrexit Dominus vere, alleluia.
        Deus, qui per resurrectionem Filii tui, Domini nostri Iesu Christi,
        mundum lætificare dignatus es:
        præsta, quæsumus, ut per eius Genitricem Virginem Mariam,
        perpetuæ capiamus gaudia vitæ.
        Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

        English Literal translation:

        Queen of Heaven, rejoice, alleluia.
        For He whom thou didst merit to bear in your womb, alleluia.
        Has risen, as He promised, alleluia.
        Pray for us to God, alleluia.
        V. Rejoice and be glad, O Virgin Mary, alleluia.
        R. For the Lord has truly risen, alleluia.
        Let us pray.
        O God, who through the resurrection of your Son Jesus Christ
        gave rejoicing to the world,
        grant, we pray, that through his Mother, the Virgin Mary,
        we may obtain the joy of everlasting life.
        Through Christ our Lord. Amen.


        • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.


        Catechism of the Catholic Church

        Part Two: The Celebration of the Christian Mystery, 

        Section Two: The Seven Sacraments of the Church 

        Article 3  Sacrament of the Eucharist


        Article 3

        1322 The holy Eucharist completes Christian initiation. Those who have been raised to the dignity of the royal priesthood by Baptism and configured more deeply to Christ by Confirmation participate with the whole community in the Lord's own sacrifice by means of the Eucharist.

        1323 "At the Last Supper, on the night he was betrayed, our Savior instituted the Eucharistic sacrifice of his Body and Blood. This he did in order to perpetuate the sacrifice of the cross throughout the ages until he should come again, and so to entrust to his beloved Spouse, the Church, a memorial of his death and resurrection: a sacrament of love, a sign of unity, a bond of charity, a Paschal banquet 'in which Christ is consumed, the mind is filled with grace, and a pledge of future glory is given to us.'"SC 47