Friday, April 26, 2013

Thursday, April 25, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog: Compassion, Psalms 89:2-17, First Peter 5:5-14 , Mark 16:15-20 , Pope Francis Daily Homily - The courage to do great things, the humility to appreciate little things, St Mark, Seventy Disciples, Catholic Catechism Part Two: THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH - Chapter 2 Sacraments of Healing Article 4:1 Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation

Thursday,  April 25, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog:

Compassion, Psalms 89:2-17, First Peter 5:5-14 , Mark 16:15-20 , Pope Francis Daily Homily - The courage to do great things, the humility to appreciate little things, St Mark, Seventy Disciples, Catholic Catechism Part Two: THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH - Chapter 2 Sacraments of Healing Article 4:1 Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation 

Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. The Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit: wisdom, understanding, wonder and awe (fear of the Lord) , counsel, knowledge, fortitude, and piety (reverence) and shun the seven Deadly sins: wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony...Its your choice whether to embrace the Gifts of the Holy Spirit rising towards eternal light or succumb to the Seven deadly sins and lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to the Darkness, Purgatory or Heaven is our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...~ Zarya Parx 2013

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


Prayers for Today: Thursday in Easter


 Papam Franciscus
(Pope Francis)

Pope Francis April 25 General Audience Address :

The courage to do great things, the humility to appreciate little things

(2013-04-25 Vatican Radio)
(Vatican Radio) In his homily for Mass Thursday morning at the Casa Santa Marta, Pope Francis focused on how Christians should proclaim the Good News as mandated by Jesus and recounted in the Gospel of Mark read during the Liturgy of the Word.

Celebrating the Feast of St. Mark the Evangelist, the Pope said in sharing the Gospel, Christians should have courage to do great things, but at the same time, the humility to appreciate the little things.

Present for the liturgy Thursday morning were members of the Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, accompanied by the Secretary General Archbishop Nikola Eterovic, and a group of police from the Vatican Gendarmerie.

Pope Francis' homily focused on the passage from the Gospel of St. Mark which describes the Ascension of the Lord Jesus. Before ascending into heaven He sends the apostles to preach the Gospel "to the end of the world", not only in Jerusalem or in Galilee.

Go “all over the world. The horizon ... great horizon... And as you can see, this is the mission of the Church. The Church continues to preach this to everyone, all over the world. But she does not go forth alone: she goes forth with Jesus. So they went forth and preached everywhere, while the Lord acted with them'. The Lord works with all those who preach the Gospel. This is the magnanimity that Christians should have. A pusillanimous Christian is incomprehensible: this magnanimity is part of the Christian vocation: always more and more, more and more, more and more, always onwards!"

"The First Letter of St. Peter - the Pope said - defines the style of Christian preaching as one of humility:
"The style of evangelical preaching should have this attitude: humility, service, charity, brotherly love. 'But ... Lord, we must conquer the world!'. That word, conquer, doesn’t work. We must preach in the world. The Christian must not be like soldiers who when they win the battle make a clean sweep of everything”.

The Christian - continued the Pope - "proclaims the Gospel with his witness, rather than with words." And with a dual disposition, as St. Thomas Aquinas says: a great soul that is not afraid of great things, that moves forward towards infinite horizons, and the humility to take into account the small things. "This is divine – observed the Pope – it is like a tension between the great and the small" and "Christian missionary activity" proceeds "along this path."

The Gospel of St. Mark - said the Pope - ends with "a beautiful phrase" where it says that Jesus was working with the disciples, confirming "the word with accompanying signs”.

"When we go forth with this magnanimity and humility, when we are not scared by the great things, by the horizon, but also take on board the little things - humility, daily charity - the Lord confirms the Word. And we move forward. The triumph of the Church is the Resurrection of Jesus. But there is first the Cross. Today we ask the Lord to become missionaries in the Church, apostles in the Church but in this spirit: a great magnanimity and also a great humility. So be it”.


Liturgical Celebrations to be presided over by Pope: April–May

Vatican City, 3 April 2013 (VIS)
Following is the calendar of celebrations scheduled to be presided over by the Holy Father in the months of April and May, 2013:


28 April, Sunday: 10:00am, Mass and confirmations in St. Peter's Square.

4 May, Saturday: 6:00pm, Recitation of the Rosary in the Basilica of St. Mary Major.

5 May, Sunday: 10:00am, Mass for Confraternities in St. Peter's Square.

12 May, Sunday: 9:30am, Mass and canonizations of Blesseds Antonio Primaldo and Companions; Laura di Santa Caterina da Siena Montoya y Upegui; and Maria Guadalupe Garcia Zavala.

18 May, Saturday: 6:00pm, Pentecost Vigil in St. Peter's Square with the participation of ecclesial movements.

19 May, Pentecost Sunday: 10:00am, Mass in St. Peter's Square with the participation of ecclesial movements.


  • Vatican News. From the Pope. © Copyright 2013 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Accessed 04/24/2013.


April 25, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World:: "Dear children! Pray, pray, keep praying until your heart opens in faith as a flower opens to the warm rays of the sun. This is a time of grace which God gives you through my presence but you are far from my heart, therefore, I call you to personal conversion and to family prayer. May Sacred Scripture always be an incentive for you. I bless you all with my motherly blessing. Thank you for having responded to my call."

April 2, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World: "Dear children, I am calling you to be one with my Son in spirit. I am calling you, through prayer, and the Holy Mass when my Son unites Himself with you in a special way, to try to be like Him; that, like Him, you may always be ready to carry out God's will and not seek the fulfillment of your own. Because, my children, it is according to God's will that you are and that you exist, and without God's will you are nothing. As a mother I am asking you to speak about the glory of God with your life because, in that way, you will also glorify yourself in accordance to His will. Show humility and love for your neighbour to everyone. Through such humility and love, my Son saved you and opened the way for you to the Heavenly Father. I implore you to keep opening the way to the Heavenly Father for all those who have not come to know Him and have not opened their hearts to His love. By your life, open the way to all those who still wander in search of the truth. My children, be my apostles who have not lived in vain. Do not forget that you will come before the Heavenly Father and tell Him about yourself. Be ready! Again I am warning you, pray for those whom my Son called, whose hands He blessed and whom He gave as a gift to you. Pray, pray, pray for your shepherds. Thank you." 

March 25, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World:
“Dear children! In this time of grace I call you to take the cross of my beloved Son Jesus in your hands and to meditate on His passion and death. May your suffering be united in His suffering and love will win, because He who is love gave Himself out of love to save each of you. Pray, pray, pray until love and peace begin to reign in your hearts. Thank you for having responded to my call.”


Today's Word:  Compassion  com·pas·sion  [kuhm-pash-uhn]  

Origin: 1300–50; Middle English  (< Anglo-French ) < Late Latin compassiōn-  (stem of compassiō ). See com-, passion

1. a feeling of deep sympathy and sorrow for another who is stricken by misfortune, accompanied by a strong desire to alleviate the suffering.
verb (used with object)
2.  Archaic. to compassionate.


Today's Old Testament Reading -   Psalms 89:2-3, 6-7, 16-17

2 for you have said: love is built to last for ever, you have fixed your constancy firm in the heavens.
3 'I have made a covenant with my Chosen One, sworn an oath to my servant David:
6 Who in the skies can compare with Yahweh? Who among the sons of god can rival him?
7 God, awesome in the assembly of holy ones, great and dreaded among all who surround him,
16 In your name they rejoice all day long, by your saving justice they are raised up.
17 You are the flower of their strength, by your favour our strength is triumphant;


Today's Epistle -  First Peter 5:5-14

5 In the same way, younger people, be subject to the elders. Humility towards one another must be the garment you all wear constantly, because God opposes the proud but accords his favour to the humble.
6 Bow down, then, before the power of God now, so that he may raise you up in due time;
7 unload all your burden on to him, since he is concerned about you.
8 Keep sober and alert, because your enemy the devil is on the prowl like a roaring lion, looking for someone to devour.
9 Stand up to him, strong in faith and in the knowledge that it is the same kind of suffering that the community of your brothers throughout the world is undergoing.
10 You will have to suffer only for a little while: the God of all grace who called you to eternal glory in Christ will restore you, he will confirm, strengthen and support you.
11 His power lasts for ever and ever. Amen.
12 I write these few words to you through Silvanus, who is a trustworthy brother, to encourage you and attest that this is the true grace of God. Stand firm in it!
13 Your sister in Babylon, who is with you among the chosen, sends you greetings; so does my son, Mark.
14 Greet one another with a kiss of love. Peace to you all who are in Christ.


Today's Gospel Reading - Mark 16:15-20

Jesus said to the Eleven, 'Go out to the whole world; proclaim the gospel to all creation. Whoever believes and is baptised will be saved; whoever does not believe will be condemned. These are the signs that will be associated with believers: in my name they will cast out devils; they will have the gift of tongues; they will pick up snakes in their hands and be unharmed should they drink deadly poison; they will lay their hands on the sick, who will recover.' And so the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven; there at the right hand of God he took his place, while they, going out, preached everywhere, the Lord working with them and confirming the word by the signs that accompanied it.
• Today’s Gospel forms part of the appendix of the Gospel of Mark (Mk 16, 9-20) which presents the list of some apparitions of Jesus: to Magdalene (Mk 16, 9-11), to the two disciples who were walking out in the country (Mk 16, 12-13) and to the twelve apostles (Mk 16, 14-18). This last apparition together with the description of the Ascension into Heaven (Mk 16, 19-20) forms the Gospel for today.

• Mark 16, 14: The signs which accompany the announcement of the Good News. Jesus appears to the eleven disciples and reproaches them for not believing the persons who had seen him resurrected. They did not believe Mary Magdalene (Mk 16, 11), neither the two disciples on the road out in the country (Mk 16, 13). Several times, Mark refers to the resistance of the disciples in believing the witness of those who experienced the Resurrection of Jesus. Why does Mark insist so much on the lack of faith of the disciples? Probably, to teach two things: First, that faith in Jesus goes through faith in persons who give witness. Second, that no one should be discouraged when there is incredulity in the heart. Even the eleven disciples doubted!

• Mark 16, 15-18: The mission to announce the Good News to the whole world. After having criticized the lack of faith of the disciples, Jesus confers the mission to them: “Go out to the whole world, proclaim the Gospel to all creation. Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved; whoever does not believe will be condemned”. To those who had the courage to believe in the Good News and who are baptized, Jesus promises the following signs: they will cast out devils, they will have the gift of tongues, they will pick up snakes in their hands and be unharmed if they drink deadly poison, they will lay their hands on the sick who will recover. This happens even today:

- to cast out devils: it is to fight against the force of evil which destroys life. The life of many persons improves because they entered into the community and have begun to live the Good News of the presence of God in their life.

- to speak new tongues: it means to begin to communicate with others in a new way. Sometimes we meet a person whom we have never seen before, but it seems to us that we have known her for some time. This happens because we speak the same language, the language of love.

- deadly poison will not harm them: there are many things that poison life together, community There is much gossiping which destroys the relationship between persons. The one who lives in the presence of God does not pay attention to these things and is able not to be disturbed by this terrible poison.

- they cure the sick. Wherever there is a clearer and livelier conscience of God’s presence, there is also a special care given to the excluded and marginalized persons, especially the sick. What can help the cure is that the person feels accepted and loved.

• Mark 16, 19-20: Through the community Jesus continues his mission. Jesus himself who lives in Palestine, and accepts the poor of his time, revealing the love of the Father to them, and this same Jesus continues to be alive in our midst, in our community. Through us, he wants to continue his mission to reveal the Good News of God’s love to the poor. Even up to this time the resurrection takes place. And it impels us to sing: “Who will separate us from the love of Christ, who will separate us?” No power of this world is capable to neutralize the force that comes from faith in the Resurrection (Rm 8, 35-39). A community which wants to be a witness of the Resurrection should be a sign of life, should struggle against the forces of death, in such a way that the world may be a favourable place for life, where to believe that another world is possible. Above all, in Latin America, where the life of people is in danger because of the system of death which has been imposed, the communities should be a living proof of the hope which overcomes the world, without fear of being happy!
Personal questions
• How do theses signs of God’s presence take place in my life?
• Today, which are the signs of the presence of Jesus in our midst that convince persons the most?

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  Saint Mark

Feast DayApril  25

Patron Saint:  Barristers, Venice, Egypt, Mainar
Attributes:  man holding a book with "pax tibi Marce" written on it; man holding a palm and book; man with a book or scroll accompanied by a winged lion; man with a halter around his neck; man writing or holding his gospel;

St Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist (Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Μαρκοϲ; Hebrew: מרקוס‎) is the traditional author of the Gospel of Mark. He is one of the Seventy Disciples, and the founder of the Church of Alexandria, one of the original four main episcopal sees of Christianity.

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist with John Mark,[3] and John Mark as the cousin of Barnabas.[4] An exception is found in Hippolytus of Rome, who in his work On the Seventy Apostles, distinguishes Mark the Evangelist (2 Tim 4:11), John Mark (Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas (Col 4:10; Phlm 24).[5] According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus to saturate Judea with the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.). However, when Jesus explained that his flesh was "real food" and his blood was "real drink", many disciples left him (John 6:44-6:66), presumably including Mark. He was later restored to faith by the apostle Peter; he then became Peter’s interpreter, wrote the Gospel of Mark, founded the church of Africa, and became the bishop of Alexandria.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea (Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1-4), Herod Agrippa I in his first year of reign over the whole Judea (AD 41) killed James, son of Zebedee and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1-19). Peter went to Antioch, then through Asia Minor (visiting the churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, as mentioned in 1 Pet 1:1), and arrived in Rome in the second year of Emperor Claudius (AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter picked up Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15-16), before he left for Alexandria in the third year of Claudius (43).[6]

In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark traveled to Alexandria [cf. c. 49 [cf. Acts 15:36-41] and founded the Church of Alexandria, which today is part of the Coptic Orthodox Church.[7] Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself. He became the first bishop of Alexandria and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa.[8]

According to Eusebius (Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus as the bishop of Alexandria in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68.[1][2][9][10][11] It is believed that on the night when Jesus was arrested in the garden of Gethsemane Mark had followed him there and the Temple guards saw him, he ran away and dropped his loincloth.

His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the Winged lion.[12]

Biblical and traditional information

Illumination of St. Mark in the 11th century Trebizond Gospel (Russian State Museum, Saint Petersburg).
Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel that bears his name originates with Papias.[13][14] According to D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris, it is "almost certain" that Papias is referring to John Mark.[15] However, some have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist with John Mark and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas from truly a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles.[16]

The identification of Mark the Evangelist with John Mark led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper took place (Mark 14:13).;[17] or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus was arrested (Mark 14:51-52).[18]

The martyrdom of Saint Mark. Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly).
The Coptic Church holds the tradition of identifying Mark the Evangelist with John Mark, and holds that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ (Luke 10:1), as is confirmed by the list of Hippolytus.[19] It also believes that Mark the Evangelist is the one who hosted the disciples in his house after the death of Jesus, into whose house the resurrected Jesus Christ came (John 20), and into whose house the Holy Spirit descended on the disciples at Pentecost.[19]

Mark is also believed to be one of the servants at the Marriage at Cana who poured out the water that Jesus turned to wine (John 2:1-11),[19] These traditions have no solid proof either from the New Testament or from Church history.

According to the Coptic church, Saint Mark was born in Cyrene, a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa (now Libya). This tradition adds that he returned to Pentapolis later in life, after being sent by Saint Paul to Colossae (Colossians 4:10; Philemon 24; these actually refer to Mark the Cousin of Barnabas), and serving with him in Rome (2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[20][21] When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods.] In AD 68 they placed a rope around his neck and dragged him through the streets until he was dead.[22]  The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates his feast day on April 25.

Relics of St. Mark

St. Mark by Donatello (Orsanmichele, Florence).
In 828, relics believed to be the body of St. Mark were stolen from Alexandria by Venetian merchants and taken to Venice,[23]. A mosaic in St Mark's Basilica, depicts sailors covering the relics with a layer of pork and cabbage leaves. Since Muslims are not permitted to touch pork, this was done to prevent the guards from inspecting the ship's cargo too closely.[24] “History records no more shameless example of body snatching,...” as John Julius Norwich put it. The possession of a truly important relic could have serious political consequences. When the body of St Mark came to Venice, the previous patron saint of the city, St Theodore, was demoted. The Doge of the day began to build a splendid church to contain the relics next to his palace, the original San Marco. With an evangelist on its territory, Venice acquired a status almost equal to that of Rome itself.[25]

In 1063, during the construction of a new basilica in Venice, St. Mark's relics could not be found. However, according to tradition, in 1094 the saint himself revealed the location of his remains by extending an arm from a pillar.[26] The newfound remains were placed in a sarcophagus in the basilica.[23]

Copts believe that the head of St. Mark remains in a church named after him in Alexandria, and parts of his relics are in St. Mark's Cairo's Cathedral. The rest of his relics are in the San Marco Cathedral in Venice, Italy.[1] Every year, on the 30th day of the month of Paopi, the Coptic Orthodox Church celebrates the commemoration of the consecration of the church of St. Mark, and the appearance of the head of the saint in the city of Alexandria. This takes place inside St. Mark Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Alexandria, where the saint's head is preserved.

In June 1968, Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria sent an official delegation to Rome to receive a relic of St. Mark from Pope Paul VI. The delegation consisted of ten metropolitans and bishops, seven of whom were Coptic and three Ethiopian, and three prominent Coptic lay leaders.

The relic was said to be a small piece of bone that had been given to the Roman pope by Giovanni Cardinal Urbani, Patriarch of Venice. Pope Paul, in an address to the delegation, said that the rest of the relics of the saint remained in Venice.

The delegation received the relic on June 22, 1968. The next day, the delegation celebrated a pontifical liturgy in the Church of Saint Athanasius the Apostolic in Rome. The metropolitans, bishops, and priests of the delegation all served in the liturgy. Members of the Roman papal delegation, Copts who lived in Rome, newspaper and news agency reporters, and many foreign dignitaries attended the liturgy.


  1. ^ a b c "St. Mark The Apostle, Evangelist". Coptic Orthodox Church Network. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Mark". Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  3. ^ Lane, William L. (1974). "The Author of the Gospel". The Gospel According to Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. pp. 21–3. ISBN 978-0-8028-2502-5.
  4. ^ Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter p55 C. Clifton Black - 2001 -".. infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint (Num 36:11; Tob 7:2) to its presence in Josephus (JW 1.662; Ant 1.290, 15.250) and Philo (On the Embassy to Gaius 67), anepsios consistently carries the connotation of "cousin," though ..."
  5. ^ Hippolytus. "The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles". Ante-Nicene Fathers.
  6. ^ Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4.
  7. ^ "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 2011-12-14. See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire"
  8. ^ Bunson, Matthew; Bunson, Margaret; Bunson, Stephen (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division. p. 401. ISBN 0-87973-588-0.
  9. ^ Acts of the Apostles 15:36-40
  10. ^ 2 Timothy 4:11
  11. ^ Philemon 24
  12. ^ Senior, Donald P. (1998), "Mark", in Ferguson, Everett, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity (2nd ed.), New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., p. 720, ISBN 0-8153-3319-6
  13. ^ Papias, Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord, VI.][1]
  14. ^ Harrington, Daniel J. (1990), "The Gospel According to Mark", in Brown, Raymond E.; Fitzmyer, Joseph A.; Murphy, Roland E., The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 596, ISBN 0-13-614934-0
  15. ^ D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament (Apollos, 1992), 93.
  16. ^ University of Navarre (1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint Mark's Gospel (2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 55–56, ISBN 1-85182-092-2
  17. ^ University of Navarre (1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint Mark’s Gospel (2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 172, ISBN 1-85182-092-2
  18. ^ University of Navarre (1992), The Navarre Bible: Saint Mark’s Gospel (2nd ed.), Dublin: Four Court’s Press, p. 179, ISBN 1-85182-092-2
  19. ^ a b c H.H. Pope Shenouda III, The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint and Martyr, Chapter One.
  20. ^ "About the Diocese". Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States.
  21. ^ "Saint Mark". Retrieved 2009-05-14.
  22. ^ H.H. Pope Shenouda III. The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint and Martyr, Chapter Seven.
  23. ^ a b "Section dedicated to the recovery of St. Mark's body". Retrieved 2010-02-17.
  24. ^ "St. Marks Basilica". Avventure Bellissime – Italy Tours. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  25. ^ Gayford, Martin, "Treasures of Heaven, Saints, Relics and Devotion in Medieval Europe, British Museum",The Telegraph, June 11, 2011
  26. ^ Okey, Thomas (1904), Venice and Its Story, London: J. M. Dent & Co.

        Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane


        Today's Snippet I:  Seventy Disciples

        Icon of the Seventy Apostles.
        The seventy disciples or seventy-two disciples (known in the Eastern Christian tradition as the Seventy Apostles) were early students of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke 10:1–24.

        According to Luke, the only gospel in which they appear, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text. In Western Christianity, they are usually referred to as disciples,[1] whereas in Eastern Christianity they are usually referred to as Apostles.[2]

        Using the original Greek words, both titles are descriptive, as an apostle is one sent on a mission (the Greek uses the verb form: apesteilen) whereas a disciple is a student, but the two traditions differ on the scope of the words apostle and disciple.


        The passage from Luke 10 reads:[3]
        1. And after these things, the Lord did appoint also other seventy, and sent them by twos before his face, to every city and place whither he himself was about to come,
        2. then said he unto them, `The harvest indeed [is] abundant, but the workmen few; beseech ye then the Lord of the harvest, that He may put forth workmen to His harvest.
        3. `Go away; lo, I send you forth as lambs in the midst of wolves;
        4. carry no bag, no scrip, nor sandals; and salute no one on the way;
        5. and into whatever house ye do enter, first say, Peace to this house;
        6. and if indeed there may be there the son of peace, rest on it shall your peace; and if not so, upon you it shall turn back.
        7. `And in that house remain, eating and drinking the things they have, for worthy [is] the workman of his hire; go not from house to house,
        8. and into whatever city ye enter, and they may receive you, eat the things set before you,
        9. and heal the ailing in it, and say to them, The reign of God hath come nigh to you.
        10. `And into whatever city ye do enter, and they may not receive you, having gone forth to its broad places, say,
        11. And the dust that hath cleaved to us, from your city, we do wipe off against you, but this know ye, that the reign of God hath come nigh to you;
        12. and I say to you, that for Sodom in that day it shall be more tolerable than for that city.
        13. `Wo to thee, Chorazin; wo to thee, Bethsaida; for if in Tyre and Sidon had been done the mighty works that were done in you, long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes, they had reformed;
        14. but for Tyre and Sidon it shall be more tolerable in the judgment than for you.
        15. `And thou, Capernaum, which unto the heaven wast exalted, unto hades thou shalt be brought down.
        16. `He who is hearing you, doth hear me; and he who is putting you away, doth put me away; and he who is putting me away, doth put away Him who sent me.'
        17. And the seventy turned back with joy, saying, `Sir, and the demons are being subjected to us in thy name;'
        18. and he said to them, `I was beholding the Adversary, as lightning from the heaven having fallen;
        19. lo, I give to you the authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and on all the power of the enemy, and nothing by any means shall hurt you;
        20. but, in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subjected to you, but rejoice rather that your names were written in the heavens.'



        This is the only mention of the group in the Bible. The number is seventy in manuscripts in the Alexandrian (such as Codex Sinaiticus) and Caesarean text traditions but seventy-two in most other Alexandrian and Western texts. It may derive from the 70 nations of Genesis or the many other 70 in the Bible, or the 72 translators of the Septuagint from the Letter of Aristeas.[4] In translating the Vulgate, Jerome selected the reading of seventy-two.

        The Gospel of Luke is not alone among the synoptic gospels in containing multiple episodes in which Jesus sends out his followers on missions. The first occasion (Luke 9:1–6) is closely based on the "limited commission" mission in Mark 6:6–13, which however recounts the sending out of the twelve apostles, rather than seventy, though with similar details. The parallels (also Matthew 9:35, 10:1, 10:5–42), suggest a common origin in the posited Q document. Luke also mentions the Great Commission to "all nations" (24:44–49) but in less detail than Matthew's account.

        What has been said to the seventy (two) in Luke 10:4 is referred in passing to the Twelve in Luke 22:35:
        "He said to them, "When I sent you forth without a money bag or a sack or sandals, were you in need of anything?" "No, nothing," they replied.


        Feast days

        The feast day commemorating the seventy is known as the "Synaxis of the Seventy Apostles" in Eastern Orthodoxy, and is celebrated on January 4. Each of the seventy apostles also has individual commemorations scattered throughout the liturgical year (see Eastern Orthodox Church calendar).


        The record by Hippolytus

        Hippolytus of Rome was a disciple of Irenaeus, a disciple of Polycarp, a disciple of Apostle John. Hippolytus's works were lost for a time until their discovery at a monastery on Mt. Athos in 1854.[5] While his major work The Refutation of All Heresies was readily accepted (once the false attribution to Origen was resolved), his two small works, On the Twelve Apostles of Christ, and On the Seventy Apostles of Christ, are still regarded as dubious, put in the appendix of his works in the voluminous collection of early church fathers.[6] Here is the complete text of Hippolytus' On the Seventy Apostles of Christ:
        1. James the Lord’s brother, bishop of Jerusalem 2. Cleopas, bishop of Jerusalem. 3. Matthias, who supplied the vacant place in the number of the twelve apostles. 4. Thaddeus, who conveyed the epistle to Augarus. 5. Ananias, who baptized Paul, and was bishop of Damascus. 6. Stephen, the first martyr. 7. Philip, who baptized the eunuch. 8. Prochorus, bishop of Nicomedia, who also was the first that departed, 11 believing together with his daughters. 9. Nicanor died when Stephen was martyred. 10. Timon, bishop of Bostra. 11. Parmenas, bishop of Soli. 12. Nicolaus, bishop of Samaria. 13. Barnabas, bishop of Milan. 14. Mark the evangelist, bishop of Alexandria. 15. Luke the evangelist. These two belonged to the seventy disciples who were scattered by the offence of the word which Christ spoke, “Except a man eat my flesh, and drink my blood, he is not worthy of me.” But the one being induced to return to the Lord by Peter’s instrumentality, and the other by Paul’s, they were honored to preach that Gospel on account of which they also suffered martyrdom, the one being burned, and the other being crucified on an olive tree. 16. Silas, bishop of Corinth. 17. Silvanus, bishop of Thessalonica. 18. Crisces (Crescens), bishop of Carchedon in Gaul. 19. Epænetus, bishop of Carthage. 20. Andronicus, bishop of Pannonia. 21. Amplias, bishop of Odyssus. 22. Urban, bishop of Macedonia. 23. Stachys, bishop of Byzantium. 24. Barnabas, bishop of Heraclea 25. Phygellus, bishop of Ephesus. He was of the party also of Simon. 26. Hermogenes. He, too, was of the same mind with the former. 27. Demas, who also became a priest of idols. 28. Apelles, bishop of Smyrna. 29. Aristobulus, bishop of Britain. 30. Narcissus, bishop of Athens. 31. Herodion, bishop of Tarsus. 32. Agabus the prophet. 33. Rufus, bishop of Thebes. 34. Asyncritus, bishop of Hyrcania. 35. Phlegon, bishop of Marathon. 36. Hermes, bishop of Dalmatia. 37. Patrobulus,1 bishop of Puteoli. 38. Hermas, bishop of Philippi. 39. Linus, bishop of Rome. 40. Caius, bishop of Ephesus. 41. Philologus, bishop of Sinope 42, 43. Olympus and Rhodion were martyred in Rome. 44. Lucius, bishop of Laodicea in Syria. 45. Jason, bishop of Tarsus. 46. Sosipater, bishop of Iconium 47. Tertius, bishop of Iconium. 48. Erastus, bishop of Panellas. 49. Quartus, bishop of Berytus. 50. Apollo, bishop of Cæsarea. 51. Cephas. 52. Sosthenes, bishop of Colophonia. 53. Tychicus, bishop of Colophonia. 54. Epaphroditus, bishop of Andriace. 55. Cæsar, bishop of Dyrrachium. 56. Mark, cousin to Barnabas, bishop of Apollonia. 57. Justus, bishop of Eleutheropolis. 58. Artemas, bishop of Lystra. 59. Clement, bishop of Sardinia. 60. Onesiphorus, bishop of Corone. 61. Tychicus, bishop of Chalcedon. 62. Carpus, bishop of Berytus in Thrace. 63. Evodus, bishop of Antioch. 64. Aristarchus, bishop of Apamea. 65. Mark, who is also John, bishop of Bibloupolis. 66. Zenas, bishop of Diospolis. 67. Philemon, bishop of Gaza. 68, 69. Aristarchus and Pudes. 70. Trophimus, who was martyred along with Paul.


        The first list and other lists

        Many of the names included among the seventy are recognizable for their other achievements. The names included in various lists differ slightly. In the lists, Luke is also one of these seventy himself. The following list gives a widely accepted canon. Their names are listed below, along with the areas of the Bible in which they can be viewed:
        1. Archaicus. Reference to in 1 Corinthians 16:17
        2. Agabus. Reference to in Acts 11:28; 21:10
        3. Amplias, appointed by St. Andrew as bishop of Lydda of Odyssopolis (Diospolis) in Judea. He died a martyr. Reference to in Romans 16:8.
        4. Ananias, who baptized St. Paul. He was the bishop of Damascus. He became a martyr by being stoned in Eleutheropolis. Reference to in Acts 9:10-17; 22:12
        5. Andronicus, bishop of Pannonia. Reference to in Romans 16:17
        6. Apelles, bishop of Heraclea (in Trachis). Reference to in Romans 16:10
        7. Apollos. He was a bishop of several places over time: Crete (though this is questioned), Corinth, Smyrna, and Caesarea. Reference to in Acts 18:24; 19:1; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 3:4-22; 4:6; 16:12, Titus 3:13
        8. Aquila. He was martyred. Reference to in Acts 18:2, 18, 26; Romans 16:3; 1 Corinthians 16:19; 2 Timothy 4:19
        9. Archippus. Reference to in Colossians 4:17; Philemon 2
        10. Aristarchus, bishop of Apamea in Syria. He was martyred under Nero. “Aristarchus, whom Paul mentions several times, calling him a ‘fellow laborer,’ became bishop of Apamea in Syria.” Orthodox Study Bible Reference to in Acts 19:29; 20:4; 27:2; Colossians 4:10; Philemon 24
        11. Aristobulus, bishop of Britain. “…the brother of the apostle Barnabas, preached the gospel in Great Britain and died peacefully there.” Orthodox Study Bible Reference to in Romans 16:14
        12. Artemas, bishop of Lystra in Lycia. Reference to in Titus 3:12
        13. Aristarchus, bishop of Hyracania in Asia. Reference to in Romans 16:14
        14. Barnabas. “A Jew of the Tribe of Levi, was born in Cyprus of wealthy parents. He is said to have studied under Gamaliel with Saul of Tarsus, who was to become Paul the apostle. Originally named Joseph, he was called Barnabas (Son of Consolation) by the apostles because he had a rare gift of comforting people’s hearts. He sought out Paul when everyone else was afraid of him, bringing him to the apostles. It was Barnabas whom the apostles first sent to Antioch with Paul. Their long association was broken only when Barnabas was determined to take his cousin Mark, whom Paul did not trust just then, on a missionary journey. The three were later reconciled. Many ancient accounts say Barnabas was the first to preach in Rome and in Milan, but he was martyred in Cyprus, then buried by Mark at the western gate of the city of Salamis.” Orthodox Study Bible Reference to in Acts 4:36; 9:27; 11-15; 1 Corinthians 9:6; Galatians 2:1,9,13; Colossians 4:10
        15. Caesar, bishop of Dyrrhachium (in the Peloponnese of Greece)
        16. Carpus, bishop of Berroia (Verria, in Macedonia. Reference to in 2 Timothy 4:13
        17. Clement, bishop in Sardis. Reference to in Philippians 4:3
        18. Cephas, bishop of Iconium, Pamphyllia.
        19. Cleopas, was with the Lord on the road to Emmaus. Reference to in Luke 24:18; John 19:25
        20. Crescens, later bishop of Galatia. He was martyred under the Emperor Trajan. Reference to in 2 Timothy 4:10
        21. Crispus, bishop of Aegina, Greece. Reference to in Acts 18:8; 1 Corinthians 1:14
        22. Epaphras. Reference to in Colossians 1:7; 4:12; Philemon 23
        23. Epaphroditus, bishop of the Thracian city of Adriaca. Reference to in Philippians 2:25; 4:18
        24. Epaenetus, bishop of Carthage. Reference to in Romans 16:5
        25. Erastus. He served as a deacon and steward to the Church of Jerusalem. Later he served in Palestine. Reference to in Acts 19:22; Romans 16:23; 2 Timothy 4:20
        26. Euodias(Evodius), first bishop of Antioch after St.Peter. He wrote several compositions. At the age of sixty-six, under the Emperor Nero, he was martyred. Reference to in Philippians 4:2
        27. Fortunatus. Reference to in 1 Corinthians 16:17
        28. Gaius, bishop of Ephesus. Reference to in Acts 19:29; 20:4; Romans 16:23; 1 Corinthians 1:14; 3 John 1
        29. Hermas, bishop in Philipopoulis. He wrote The Shepherd of Hermas. he died a martyr. Reference to in Romans 16:14
        30. Hermes, bishop of Dalmatia. Reference to in Romans 16:14
        31. Herodion, a relative of the Apostle Paul, bishop of Neoparthia. He was beheaded in Rome. Reference to in Romans 16:11
        32. James, brother of the Lord(also called "the Less" or "the Just"). He was a (step-)brother to Jesus, by Jesus' Father Joseph, through a previous marriage. James was the Patriarch of Jerusalem. Reference to in Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3; Acts 12:17; 15:13; Epistle of James
        33. Jason, bishop of Tarsus. Traveling with Sosipater to Corfu, the two were able, after an attempt made at their lives by the king of Corfu, to convert his majesty. Reference to in Acts 17:5-9
        34. Justus, brother to the Lord and bishop of Eleutheropolis. He was the half-brother of Christ(as was Sts. James, Jude, and Simon) through Joseph's previous marriage to Salome. He died a martyr. Reference to in Acts 1:23; 18:7; Colossians 4:11
        35. Linus, bishop of Rome. Reference to in 2 Timothy 4:21
        36. Lucius, bishop of Laodicea. Reference to in Acts 13:1; Romans 16:21
        37. Luke the Evangelist. He is the author of the Gospel of Luke, and the founder of Iconography(Orthodox Icon-writing). Reference to in Colossians 4:14; 2 Timothy 4:11; Philemon 24
        38. Mark the Evangelist (called John). He wrote the Gospel of Mark. He also founded the Church of Alexandria, serving as its first bishop. Reference to in Acts 12:12, 25; 15:37-39; Colossians 4:10; 2 Timothy 4:11; Philemon 24; 1 Peter 5:13
        39. Mark
        40. Narcissus, ordained by the Apostle Philip as bishop of Athens, Greece. Reference to in Romans 16:11
        41. Nicanor, one of the original seven deacons. He was martyred on the same day as the Promartyr Stephen. Reference to in Acts 6:5
        42. Olympas, beheaded with St. Peter under Nero. Reference to in Romans 16:15
        43. Onesimus. Onesimus preached the Gospel in many cities. He was made bishop of Ephesus, and later bishop of Byzantium (Constantinople). He was martyred under the Emperor Trajan. Reference to in Colossians 4:9; Philemon 10
        44. Onesiphorus, bishop of Colophon (Asia Minor), and later of Corinth. He died a martyr in Parium. Reference to in 2 Timothy 1:16; 4:19
        45. Parmenas, one of the original seven deacons. He preached throughout Asia Minor, and later settled in Macedonia. He was a bishop of Soli. He died a martyr in Macedonia. Reference to in Acts 6:5
        46. Patrobus, bishop of Neapolis (Naples). Reference to in Romans 16:14
        47. Philemon. He, with his wife Apphia, and the apostle Archippus, were martyred by pagans during a pagan feast. Reference to in Philemon 1
        48. Philip the Deacon (one of the original seven). He was born in Palestine, and later preached throughout its adjoining lands. In Acts, he converts a eunuch (an official) of Candace, queen of Ethiopia, to Christ. He was later made bishop by the apostles at Jerusalem, who also sent him to Asia Minor. Reference to in Acts 6; 8; 21:8
        49. Philologus, ordained bishop of Sinope (near the Black sea) by the Apostle Andrew. Reference to in Romans 16:15
        50. Phlegon, bishop of Marathon, in Thrace. Reference to in Romans 16:14
        51. Prochorus, one of the original seven deacons. He was made bishop of Nicomedia by St. Peter. He was later banished with the Apostle John (John the Theologian) to the Island of Patmos. In Antioch, he died a martyr. Reference to in Acts 6:5
        52. Pudens (Pastorum). He was an esteemed member of the Roman Senate, then received Sts. Peter and Paul into his home, and was converted to Christ by them. He was martyred under Nero. Reference to in Acts 6:5
        53. Quadratus, bishop of Athens. He was author of the Apologia. He was stoned, but survived. Soon-after, he died of starvation in prison.
        54. Quartus, bishop of Beirut. Reference to in Romans 16:23
        55. Rufus, bishop of Thebes, Greece. Reference to in Mark 15:21; Romans 16:13
        56. Silas (Silvanus), bishop of Corinth. Reference to in Acts 15:22-40; 16:19-40; 17:4-15; 18:5; 2 Corinthians 1:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1; 1 Peter 5:12
        57. Simeon, son of Cleopas. “Simeon, son of Cleopas (who was the brother of Joseph, the betrothed of the Virgin Mary), succeeded James as bishop of Jerusalem.” Orthodox Study Bible He was martyred through torture and crucifixion, at the age of one-hundred. Reference to in Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3
        58. Sosipater, ordained bishop of Iconium by the Apostle Paul, his relative. With St. Jason, he converted the king of Corfu. Reference to in Romans 16:21
        59. Sosthenes. “…became bishop of Caesarea.” Orthodox Study Bible Reference to in 1 Corinthians 1:1
        60. Stachys, ordained by St.Andrew to be bishop of Byzantium. Reference to in Romans 16:9
        61. Stephen the Promartyr and Archdeacon(one of the original seven deacons). Reference to in Acts 6:5-7:60; 8:2 (Acts 6:5-8:2); 11:19; 22:20
        62. Tertius, bishop of Iconium (after Sosipater). He wrote down St. Paul's letter to the Romans. He died a martyr. Reference to in Romans 16:22
        63. Thaddaeus. He was baptized by John the Baptist (John the Forerunner). He later preached, and founded a Church in Beirut. Reference to in Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18
        64. Timon,one of the original seven deacons, and later bishop of Bostra (in Arabia). He was thrown into a furnace, but emerged unharmed. Reference to in Acts 6:5
        65. Timothy. He accompanied St. Paul often, and both 1 and 2 Timothy are addressed to him. He was ordained bishop of Ephesus by St. Paul. He died a martyr. Reference to in Acts 16:1; 17:14, 15; 18:5; 19:22; 20:4; Romans 16:21; 1 and 2 Timothy
        66. Titus. “ Among the more prominent of the seventy was the apostle Titus, whom Paul called his brother and his son. Born in Crete, Titus was educated in Greek philosophy, but after reading the prophet Isaiah he began to doubt the value of all he had been taught. Hearing the news of the coming of Jesus Christ, he joined some others from Crete who were going to Jerusalem to see for themselves. After hearing Jesus speak and seeing His works, the young Titus joined those who followed Him. Baptized by the apostle Paul, he worked with and served the great apostle of the gentiles, traveling with him until Paul sent him to Crete, making him bishop of that city. It is said that Titus was in Rome at the time of the beheading of St. Paul and that he buried the body of his spiritual father before returning home. Back in Crete, he converted and baptized many people, governing the Church on that island until he entered into rest at the age of ninety-four.” Orthodox Study Bible Reference to in 2 Corinthians 2:13; 7:6-14; 8:6-23; 12:18; Galatians 2:1-3; Epistle to Titus
        67. Trophimus, disciple of St.Paul, and martyred under Nero. Reference to in Acts 20:4; 21:29; 2 Timothy 4:20
        68. Tychicus. “…succeeded him (Sosthenes, as bishop) in that city (of Caesarea).” Orthodox Study Bible He delivered St. Paul's letter to the Ephesians and Colossians. Reference to in Acts 20:4; Ephesians 6:21; Colossians 4:7; 2 Timothy 4:12; Titus 3:12
        69. Urbanus, ordained by the Apostle Andrew as bishop of Macedonia. He died a martyr. Reference to in Romans 16:9
        70. Zenas, (called 'the lawyer') bishop of Diospolis (Lydda), in Palestine Reference to in Titus 3:13

        Additional Names:
        1. Alphaeus, father of the apostle James and Matthew.
        2. Apphia, wife to the Apostle Philemon. The Church had gathered in her home for liturgy, while pagans who had been celebrating a pagan feast broke in and raided her home. They took Apphia, Philemon, and Archippus to be killed. She suffered martyrdom, and is commemorated by the Church on February 19.
        3. Junia, accompanied Andronicus in preaching all over Pannonia. She was a relative to the Apostle Paul, and a martyr.
        4. Silvan, bishop of Thessaloniki, Greece. Reference to in 1 Peter 5:12; 2 Corinthians 1:19
        5. Zacchaeus, appointed by St.Peter to be bishop of Caesarea. Reference to in Luke 19:1-10


        Early church building at Rihab, Jordan finding

        In June 2008 Abdul Qader al-Husan, head of Jordan's Rihab Centre for Archaeological Studies, announced the discovery at Rihab in northern Jordan of what he claimed was "...the first church in the world, dating from 33 AD to 70 AD," beneath the foundations of the church building dedicated to Saint George at Rihab. "We have evidence to believe this church sheltered the early Christians – the 70 disciples of Jesus Christ," who are described in a floor mosaic in the church above as "the 70 beloved by God and Divine".[9]

        Though this claim spread in June 2008, it has been rejected by some[10] since then. The mosaic floor Greek inscription had been inaccurately deciphered and says that the St. George oratory was built in A.D. 529, with no mention of "seventy beloved by God" at all. There is no evidence of the cave underneath being a first century Christian worship-place. In addition, the early Church likely did not yet meet in special buildings dedicated to Christian worship[11] as that came later, as Christianity was legalized— the very definition of the word "church" meaning simply "an assembly" according to the known Greek texts.[12]


        • ^ House of Hohenzollern website-The Castle accessed 15 November 2008
        • Dörr (1988). Schwäbische Alb: Bergen, Schlösser, Ruinen. Schwäbisch-Hall, Germany: E. Schwend GmbH & Co. pp. 78–80. ISBN 3-616-06727-8.
        • ^ Gustav Schilling: Geschichte des Hauses Hohenzollern, in genealogisch fortlaufenden Biographien aller seiner Regenten von den ältesten bis auf die neuesten Zeiten, nach Urkunden und andern authentischen Quellen, (German) F. Fleischer, 1843, S. 300 ff.
        • ^ German (German) accessed 22 January 2010
        • ^ House of Hohenzollern website-Schloss Sigmaringen



        Catechism of the Catholic Church

        Part Two: The Celebration of the Christian Mystery, 

        Section Two: The Seven Sacraments of the Church 





        Article 4

        I. What is This Sacrament Called?
        1423 It is called the sacrament of conversion because it makes sacramentally present Jesus' call to conversion, the first step in returning to the FatherMk 1:15; Lk 15:18 from whom one has strayed by sin.  It is called the sacrament of Penance, since it consecrates the Christian sinner's personal and ecclesial steps of conversion, penance, and satisfaction.

        1424 It is called the sacrament of confession, since the disclosure or confession of sins to a priest is an essential element of this sacrament. In a profound sense it is also a "confession" - acknowledgment and praise - of the holiness of God and of his mercy toward sinful man.  It is called the sacrament of forgiveness, since by the priest's sacramental absolution God grants the penitent "pardon and peace."OP 46 formula of absolution  It is called the sacrament of Reconciliation, because it imparts to the sinner the live of God who reconciles: "Be reconciled to God."2 Cor 5:20 He who lives by God's merciful love is ready to respond to the Lord's call: "Go; first be reconciled to your brother."Mt 5:24