Monday, April 22, 2013

Sunday, April 21, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog: Vocation, Psalms 100:1-5, Acts 13:43-52, John 10:37-30 , Pope Francis Daily Homily - Be Merciful Pastors Not Functionaries, Saint Anselm of Canterbury, Kingdom of Burgundy, Canterbury Cathedral, Catholic Catechism Part Two: THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH - Article 3:5 The Sacramental Sacrifice Thanksgiving, Memorial, Presence

Sunday,  April 21, 2013 - Litany Lane Blog:

Vocation, Psalms 100:1-5, Acts 13:43-52, John 10:37-30 , Pope Francis Daily Homily - Be Merciful Pastors Not Functionaries, Saint Anselm of Canterbury, Kingdom of Burgundy, Canterbury Cathedral, Catholic Catechism Part Two: THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH - Article 3:5  The Sacramental Sacrifice Thanksgiving, Memorial, Presence

Year of Faith - October 11, 2012 - November 24, 2013

P.U.S.H. (Pray Until Serenity Happens). It has a remarkable way of producing solace, peace, patience and tranquility and of course resolution...God's always available 24/7.

The world begins and ends everyday for someone.  We are all human. We all experience birth, life and death. We all have flaws but we also all have the gift of knowledge and free will, make the most of these gifts. Life on earth is a stepping stone to our eternal home in Heaven. The Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit: wisdom, understanding, wonder and awe (fear of the Lord) , counsel, knowledge, fortitude, and piety (reverence) and shun the seven Deadly sins: wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony...Its your choice whether to embrace the Gifts of the Holy Spirit rising towards eternal light or succumb to the Seven deadly sins and lost to eternal darkness. Material items, though needed for sustenance and survival on earth are of earthly value only. The only thing that passes from this earth to the Darkness, Purgatory or Heaven is our's God's perpetual gift to us...Embrace it, treasure it, nurture it, protect it...~ Zarya Parx 2013

"Raise not a hand to another unless it is to offer in peace and goodwill." ~ Zarya Parx 2012


Prayers for Today: Sunday in Easter


 Papam Franciscus
(Pope Francis)

Pope Francis April 21 Homily :

Be merciful pastors, not functionaries

(2013-04-21 Vatican Radio)
(Vatican Radio) On the 50th World Day of Prayer for Vocations, Pope Francis ordained ten men to the priesthood for the diocese of Rome at Sunday Mass in St Peter’s basilica, mandating them to ‘build the house of God, which is the Church, in word and example’.The ten men ranging in age from 26 to 44, were drawn from the Diocesann major seminary, the Neocatechumenal Way seminary for the diocese, Redemptoris Mater and the Oblates of Divino Amore seminary.

Ahead of the beginning of the liturgy, the Holy Father surprised the then still candidates to the priesthood by joining them in the basilica sacristy. Continuing on a tradition he had begun as Archbishop of Buenos Aires he spent a moment in prayer with each of them before commending them and their ministry to the Blessed Virgin.

The homily delivered by the Holy Father ahead of the rite of consecration was based on the one that appears in the Pontificale Romanum for the ordination of priests, with one or two personal additions. In fact, reflecting on the sacraments that these men would soon administer upon the people of God as ministers of the Supreme Priest, Christ, he asked the ten men to “always be merciful pastors” to their people and not just ‘functionaries’.
The theme of vocations also dominated Pope Francis’ address before praying the midday Regina Caeli prayer with the estimated 70 thousand people who crowded St Peter’s Square and surrounding streets again this Sunday.

Looking out over the multitude, many from abroad carrying national flags, the Pope noticed the many young people present and addresses an appeal directly to them to ‘listen for the voice of Jesus and bravely ask Him what he wants of you’.

Pope Francis noted that "sometimes Jesus calls us, invites us to follow him, but it may happen that we do not realize” that it is Him speaking to us. He went on to ask the young people to listen carefully for Christ’s voice the midst of their restlessness, observing that youth should be spent in the pursuit of high ideals and inviting the young people to have the courage to listen to the Lord.

He also noted that “behind and before every vocation to the priesthood or consecrated life, is always the strong and intense prayer of someone: a grandmother, a grandfather, a mother, a father, a community”, asking believers everywhere to redouble their prayers today for more “laborers for the Lord’s harvest”.

After the Marian prayer Pope Francis launched a series of appeals for the populations of Venezula and China. The first hit by post-electoral turmoil the second by a devastating earthquake.

The Holy Father invited prayers for China "for the victims and for those who are suffering because of the violent earthquake" in Sichuan province. He also called on “the beloved Venezuelan people, especially institutional authorities and politicians to firmly reject any type of violence, and to establish a dialogue based on truth, in mutual recognition, in the search for the common good and love for the nation".And finally entrusting all of his intentions to Mary Queen of the Heavens Pope Francis took his leave of the thousands below wishing all a blessed Sunday and a good lunch.

Below we publish the homily as per the Pontificale Romanum for the ordination of priests:
Beloved brothers and sisters: because these our sons, who are your relatives and friends, are now to be advanced to the Order of priests, consider carefully the nature of the rank in the Church to which they are about to be raised.

It is true that God has made his entire holy people a royal priesthood in Christ. Nevertheless, our great Priest himself, Jesus Christ, chose certain disciples to carry out publicly in his name, and on behalf of mankind, a priestly office in the Church. For Christ was sent by the Father and he in turn sent the Apostles into the world, so that through them and their successors, the Bishops, he might continue to exercise his office of Teacher, Priest, and Shepherd. Indeed, priests are established co-workers of the Order of Bishops, with whom they are joined in the priestly office and with whom they are called to the service of the people of God.

After mature deliberation and prayer, these, our brothers, are now to be ordained to the priesthood in the Order of the presbyterate so as to serve Christ the Teacher, Priest, and Shepherd, by whose ministry his body, that is, the Church, is built and grows into the people of God, a holy temple.

In being configured to Christ the eternal High Priest and joined to the priesthood of the Bishops, they will be consecrated as true priests of the New Testament, to preach the Gospel, to shepherd God’s people, and to celebrate the sacred Liturgy, especially the Lord’s sacrifice.

Now, my dear brothers and sons, you are to be raised to the Order of the Priesthood. For your part you will exercise the sacred duty of teaching in the name of Christ the Teacher. Impart to everyone the word of God which you have received with joy. Remember your mothers, your grandmothers, your catechists, who gave you the word of God, the faith ... the gift of faith! They transmitted to you this gift of faith. Meditating on the law of the Lord, see that you believe what you read, that you teach what you believe, and that you practise what you teach. Remember too that the word of God is not your property: it is the word of God. And the Church is the custodian of the word of God.

In this way, let what you teach be nourishment for the people of God. Let the holiness of your lives be a delightful fragrance to Christ’s faithful, so that by word and example you may build up the house which is God’s Church.

Likewise you will exercise in Christ the office of sanctifying. For by your ministry the spiritual sacrifice of the faithful will be made perfect, being united to the sacrifice of Christ, which will be offered through your hands in an unbloody way on the altar, in union with the faithful, in the celebration of the sacraments. Understand, therefore, what you do and imitate what you celebrate. As celebrants of the mystery of the Lord’s death and resurrection, strive to put to death whatever in your members is sinful and to walk in newness of life.

You will gather others into the people of God through Baptism, and you will forgive sins in the name of Christ and the Church in the sacrament of Penance. Today I ask you in the name of Christ and the Church, never tire of being merciful. You will comfort the sick and the elderly with holy oil: do not hesitate to show tenderness towards the elderly. When you celebrate the sacred rites, when you offer prayers of praise and thanks to God throughout the hours of the day, not only for the people of God but for the world—remember then that you are taken from among men and appointed on their behalf for those things that pertain to God. Therefore, carry out the ministry of Christ the Priest with constant joy and genuine love, attending not to your own concerns but to those of Jesus Christ. You are pastors, not functionaries. Be mediators, not intermediaries.

Finally, dear sons, exercising for your part the office of Christ, Head and Shepherd, while united with the Bishop and subject to him, strive to bring the faithful together into one family, so that you may lead them to God the Father through Christ in the Holy Spirit. Keep always before your eyes the example of the Good Shepherd who came not to be served but to serve, and who came to seek out and save what was.


Celebrations to be presided over by Pope: April–May

Vatican City, 3 April 2013 (VIS)
Following is the calendar of celebrations scheduled to be presided over by the Holy Father in the months of April and May, 2013:

7 April, Second Sunday of Easter, or Divine Mercy Sunday: 5:30pm,Mass in the Basilica of St. John Lateran for the Bishop of Rome to take possession of the Roman cathedra.

14 April, Sunday: 5:30pm, Mass in the Basilica of St. Paul Outside-the-Walls

21 April, Sunday: 9:30am, Mass and priestly ordinations in St. Peter's Basilica.

28 April, Sunday: 10:00am, Mass and confirmations in St. Peter's Square.

4 May, Saturday: 6:00pm, Recitation of the Rosary in the Basilica of St. Mary Major.

5 May, Sunday: 10:00am, Mass for Confraternities in St. Peter's Square.

12 May, Sunday: 9:30am, Mass and canonizations of Blesseds Antonio Primaldo and Companions; Laura di Santa Caterina da Siena Montoya y Upegui; and Maria Guadalupe Garcia Zavala.

18 May, Saturday: 6:00pm, Pentecost Vigil in St. Peter's Square with the participation of ecclesial movements.

19 May, Pentecost Sunday: 10:00am, Mass in St. Peter's Square with the participation of ecclesial movements.


  • Vatican News. From the Pope. © Copyright 2013 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Accessed 04/21/2013.


April 2, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World:"Dear children, I am calling you to be one with my Son in spirit. I am calling you, through prayer, and the Holy Mass when my Son unites Himself with you in a special way, to try to be like Him; that, like Him, you may always be ready to carry out God's will and not seek the fulfillment of your own. Because, my children, it is according to God's will that you are and that you exist, and without God's will you are nothing. As a mother I am asking you to speak about the glory of God with your life because, in that way, you will also glorify yourself in accordance to His will. Show humility and love for your neighbour to everyone. Through such humility and love, my Son saved you and opened the way for you to the Heavenly Father. I implore you to keep opening the way to the Heavenly Father for all those who have not come to know Him and have not opened their hearts to His love. By your life, open the way to all those who still wander in search of the truth. My children, be my apostles who have not lived in vain. Do not forget that you will come before the Heavenly Father and tell Him about yourself. Be ready! Again I am warning you, pray for those whom my Son called, whose hands He blessed and whom He gave as a gift to you. Pray, pray, pray for your shepherds. Thank you." 

March 25, 2013 Our Lady of Medjugorje Message to the World:
“Dear children! In this time of grace I call you to take the cross of my beloved Son Jesus in your hands and to meditate on His passion and death. May your suffering be united in His suffering and love will win, because He who is love gave Himself out of love to save each of you. Pray, pray, pray until love and peace begin to reign in your hearts. Thank you for having responded to my call.”

March 18, 2013 Message to the World via Annual Apparition to Mirjana:
"Dear children! I call you to, with complete trust and joy, bless the name of the Lord and, day by day, to give Him thanks from the heart for His great love. My Son, through that love which He showed by the Cross, gave you the possibility to be forgiven for everything; so that you do not have to be ashamed or to hide, and out of fear not to open the door of your heart to my Son. To the contrary, my children, reconcile with the Heavenly Father so that you may be able to come to love yourselves as my Son loves you. When you come to love yourselves, you will also love others; in them you will see my Son and recognize the greatness of His love. Live in faith! Through me, my Son is preparing you for the works which He desires to do through you – works through which He desires to be glorified. Give Him thanks. Especially thank Him for the shepherds - for your intercessors in the reconciliation with the Heavenly Father. I am thanking you, my children. Thank you."


Today's Word:  Vocation vo·ca·tion  [fil-uh-steen]  

Origin: 1400–50; late Middle English vocacio ( u ) n  < Latin vocātiōn-  (stem of vocātiō ) a call, summons, equivalent to vocāt ( us ) past participle of vocāre  to call (see -ate1 ) + -iōn- -ion

1. a particular occupation, business, or profession; calling.
2. a strong impulse or inclination to follow a particular activity or career.
3. a divine call to God's service or to the Christian life.
4. a function or station in life to which one is called by God: the religious vocation; the vocation of marriage.


Today's Old Testament Reading -   Psalms 100:1-2, 3, 5

1 [Psalm For thanksgiving] Acclaim Yahweh, all the earth,
2 serve Yahweh with gladness, come into his presence with songs of joy!
3 Be sure that Yahweh is God, he made us, we belong to him, his people, the flock of his sheepfold.
5 For Yahweh is good, his faithful love is everlasting, his constancy from age to age.


Today's Epistle -  Acts 13:14, 43-52

14 The others carried on from Perga till they reached Antioch in Pisidia. Here they went to synagogue on the Sabbath and took their seats.
43 When the meeting broke up many Jews and devout converts followed Paul and Barnabas, and in their talks with them Paul and Barnabas urged them to remain faithful to the grace God had given them.
44 The next Sabbath almost the whole town assembled to hear the word of God.
45 When they saw the crowds, the Jews, filled with jealousy, used blasphemies to contradict everything Paul said.
46 Then Paul and Barnabas spoke out fearlessly. 'We had to proclaim the word of God to you first, but since you have rejected it, since you do not think yourselves worthy of eternal life, here and now we turn to the gentiles.
47 For this is what the Lord commanded us to do when he said: I have made you a light to the nations, so that my salvation may reach the remotest parts of the earth.'
48 It made the gentiles very happy to hear this and they gave thanks to the Lord for his message; all who were destined for eternal life became believers.
49 Thus the word of the Lord spread through the whole countryside.
50 But the Jews worked on some of the devout women of the upper classes and the leading men of the city; they stirred up a persecution against Paul and Barnabas and expelled them from their territory.
51 So they shook the dust from their feet in protest against them and went off to Iconium; but the converts were filled with joy and the Holy Spirit.


Today's Gospel Reading - John 10:27-30

Jesus the Good Shepherd:
his sheep know him
John 10:27-30


a) Opening prayer:
Come, Holy Spirit, to our hearts and kindle in them the fire of your love, give us the grace to read and re-read this page of the Gospel, to actively, lovingly and operatively remember it in our life. We wish to get close to the mystery of the Person of Jesus contained in this image of the Shepherd. For this, we humbly ask you to open the eyes of our mind and heart in order to be able to know the power of your Resurrection. Enlighten our mind, oh Spirit of light, so that we may understand the words of Jesus, the Good Shepherd; warm up our heart so as to be aware that these words are not far from us, that they are the key of our present experience. Come, oh Holy Spirit, because without you the Gospel will be dead letter; with you the Gospel is the Spirit of Life. Give us, oh Father, the Holy Spirit; we ask this together with Mary, the Mother of Jesus and our Mother and with Elias, your prophet in the name of your Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen!

b) Reading of the text:
27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me; 28 and I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish, and no one shall snatch them out of my hand. 29 My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father's hand. 30 I and the Father are one."

c) Moments of prayerful silence:
Silence protects the fire of the word which has entered in us through the listening of the Word. It helps to preserve the interior fire of God. Stop for a few moments in the silence, listening to be able to participate in the creative and re-creative power of the divine Word.

a) Key to the reading:
The passage of the Liturgy of this Sunday is taken from chapter 10 of St. John, a discourse of Jesus during the Jewish Feast of the dedication of the Temple of Jerusalem which was celebrated at the end of December (during which the re-consecration of the Temple, which had been violated by the Syrian-Hellenists, was commemorated, the work of Judas Maccabee in 164 B.C.). The word of Jesus concerning the relation between the Shepherd (Christ) and the sheep (the Church) belongs to a true and proper debate between Jesus and the Jews. They ask Jesus a clear question and demand a response, just as concrete and public: “If you are the Christ, tell us the plain truth” (10,24). John, other times in the Gospel presents the Jews who intend to get a clear affirmation from Jesus concerning his identity (2,18; 5,16; 8,25). In the Synoptics a similar question is presented during the process before the Chief Priests (Mt 26,63; Mk 14,61; Lk 22,67). Jesus’ answer is presented in two stages (vv. 25-31 and 32-39). Let us consider briefly the context of the first stage where our liturgical text is inserted. The Jews have not understood the parable of the Shepherd (Jn 10,1-21) and now they ask Jesus a clearer revelation of his identity. In itself, the reason for their unbelief is not to be sought in the lack of clarity but in their refusal to belong to his flock, to his sheep. An analogous expression of Jesus may throw light on this as we read in Mk 4,11: “To you I have made known the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but the others who are on the outside, hear all things by means of parables”. The words of Jesus are light only for those who live within the community, for those who decide to remain outside these words are an enigma which disconcerts. To the unbelief of the Jews, Jesus opposes the behaviour of those who belong to him and whom the Father has given to him; and also the relationship with them.

Jesus’ language is not immediately evident for us; rather in comparing the believers to a flock leaves us perplexed. We are not, at all, strangers to the life of farmers and shepherds, and it is not easy to understand what the flock would represent for a people who are shepherds. The audience to whom Jesus addresses the parable, on the other hand, were precisely shepherds. It is evident that the parable is understood from the point of view of the man who shares almost everything with his flock. He knows his sheep: he sees the quality of each one and every defect; the sheep also experience his guidance: they respond to his voice and to his indications.

i) The sheep of Jesus listen to his voice: it is a question not only of an external listening (3,5; 5,37) but also of an attentive listening (5,28; 10,3) up to an obedient listening (10,16.27; 18,37; 5,25). In the discourse of the shepherd this listening expresses the trust and the union that the sheep have with the shepherd (10,4). The adjective “my, mine” does not only indicate the simple possession of the sheep, but makes evident that the sheep belong to him, and they belong in so far as he is the owner (10,12).

ii) Here, then, is established an intimate communication between Jesus and the sheep: “and I know them” (10,27). It is not a question of intellectual knowledge; in the Biblical sense “to know someone” means, above all, to have a personal relation with him, to live in some way in communion with him. A knowledge which does not exclude the human features of sympathy, love, communion of nature.

iii) In virtue of this knowledge of love the shepherd invites his own to follow him. The listening to the Shepherd involves also a discernment, because among the many different possible voices, the sheep choose that which corresponds to a concrete Person (Jesus). Following this discernment, the response is active, personal and becomes obedience. This results from the listening. Therefore, between the listening and following the Shepherd is the knowledge of Jesus.

The knowledge which the sheep have of Jesus opens an itinerary which leads to love: “I give them eternal life”. For the Evangelist, life is the gift of communion with God. While in the Synoptics ‘life’ or ‘eternal life’ is related to the future; in John’s Gospel it indicates an actual possession. This aspect is frequently repeated in John’s narration: “He who believes in the Son possesses eternal life” (3,36); “I am telling you the truth: whoever hears my words and believes in him who sent me has eternal life” (5,24; 6,47).

The relation of love of Jesus becomes concrete also by the experience of protection which man experiences: it is said that the sheep “will never be lost”. Perhaps, this is a reference to eternal damnation. And it is added that “no one will snatch them”. These expressions suggest the role of the hand of God and of Christ who prevent the hearts of persons to be snatched by other negative forces. In the Bible the hand, in some contexts, is a metaphor which indicates the force of God who protects (Deut 33,3: Ps 31,6). In others, the verb “to snatch” (harpázö) suggests the idea that the community of disciples will not be exempt from the attacks of evil and of temptations. But the expression “no one will snatch them” indicates that the presence of Christ assures the community of the certainty of an unflinching stability which allows them to overcome every temptation of fear.

b) Some questions:
To orientate the meditative reflection and the updating:
i) The first attitude which the Word of Jesus makes evident is that man has “to listen”. This verb in Biblical language is rich and relevant: it implies joyous adherence to the content of what is listened to, obedience to the person who speaks, the choice of life of the one who addresses us. Are you a man immersed in listening to God? Are there spaces and moments in your daily life which you dedicate, in a particular way, to listening to the Word of God?

ii) The dialogue or intimate and profound communication between Christ and you has been defined by the Gospel in today’s Liturgy by a great Biblical verb, “to know” This involves the whole being of man: the mind, the heart, the will. Is your consciousness of Christ firm at a theoretical-abstract level or do you allow yourself to be transformed and guided by his voice on the journey of your life?

iii) The man who has listened and known God “follows” Christ as the only guide of his life. Is your following daily, continuous? Even when in the horizon one foresees the threat or nightmare of other voices or ideologies which try to snatch us from communion with God?

iv) In the meditation of today’s Gospel two other verbs emerged: we will never be “lost, damned” and nobody will be able to “snatch” us from the presence of Christ who protects our life. This is the foundation and motivation of our daily assurance. This idea is expressed in such a luminous way by Paul: “For I am certain that nothing can separate us from his love: neither death nor life, neither angels nor other heavenly rulers or powers, neither the present nor the future, neither the world above nor the world below – there is nothing in all creation that will ever be able to separate us from the love of God which is ours through Christ Jesus, our Lord” (Rm 8,38-39). When between the believer and the Person of Jesus is established a relation made by calls and listening, then life proceeds assured to attain spiritual maturity and success. The true foundation of this assurance lies in discovering every day the divine identity of this Shepherd who is the assurance of our life. Do you experience this security and this serenity when you feel threatened by evil?

v) The words of Jesus “I give them eternal life” assure you that the end of your journey as believer, is not dark and uncertain. For you, does eternal life refer to the number of years that you can live or instead does it recall your communion of life with God himself? Is the experience of the company of God in your life a reason for joy?

a) Psalm 100, 2; 3; 5
Serve the Lord with gladness!
Come into his presence with singing!
Know that the Lord is God!
It is he that made us, and we are his;
we are his people, and the sheep of his pasture.
For the Lord is good; his steadfast love endures for ever,
and his faithfulness to all generations.

b) Final Prayer:
Lord, we ask you to manifest yourself to each one of us as the Good Shepherd, who by the force of the Paschal Mystery reconstitutes, animates your own, with your delicate presence, with all the force of your Spirit. We ask you to open our eyes, so as to be able to know how you guide us, support our will to follow you any place where you want to lead us. Grant us the grace of not being snatched from your hands of Good Shepherd and of not being in the power of evil which threatens us, from the divisions which hide or lurk within our heart. You, oh Christ, be the Shepherd, our guide, our example, our comfort, our brother. Amen!

Contemplate the Word of the Good Shepherd in your life. The preceding stages of the Lectio Divina, important in themselves, become practical, if orientated to lived experience. The path of the “Lectio” cannot be considered ended if it does not succeed to make of the Word a school of life for you. Such a goal is attained when you experience in you the fruits of the Spirit. These are: interior peace which flourishes in joy and in the relish for the Word; the capacity to discern between that which is essential and work of God and that which is futile and work of the evil; the courage of the choice and of the concrete action, according to the values of the Biblical page that you have read and meditated on.

Reference: Courtesy of Order of Carmelites,


Featured Item of the Day from Litany Lane


Saint of the Day:  Saint Anselm of Canterbury

Feast DayApril 21

Patron Saint:  Saint Anselm College
Attributes:  Portrayed with a ship, representing the spiritual independence of the Church

Saint Anselm of Canterbury
Saint Anselm of Canterbury (c. 1033 – 21 April 1109), also called of Aosta for his birthplace, and of Bec for his home monastery, was a Benedictine monk, a philosopher, and a prelate of the Church who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. Called the founder of scholasticism, he has been a major influence in Western theology and is famous as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God and the satisfaction theory of atonement.

Born into the House of Candia, he entered the Benedictine order at the Abbey of Bec at the age of 27, where he became abbot in 1079. He became Archbishop of Canterbury under William II of England, and was exiled from England from 1097 to 1100, and again from 1105 to 1107 under Henry I of England as a result of the investiture controversy, the most significant conflict between Church and state in Medieval Europe. Anselm was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church in 1720 by a Papal Bull of Pope Clement XI.


Early life

Anselm was born under the name "Anselmus Candiae Genavae" (Italian: Anselmo di Candia Ginevra, French: Anselme de Candie Genève) at[1] or near[2] Aosta in the Kingdom of Arles (currently the capital of the Aosta Valley region in North-Western Italy) around 1033.[1] His family was noble (they were related by blood to the ascendant House of Savoy[3]) and owned considerable property. His parents were from a noble lineage and holders of fiefdoms within the Burgundian territories. His father, Gundulf de Candia, was by birth a Lombard of the House of Candia; he seems to have been harsh. His mother, Ermenberga of Geneva, was regarded as prudent and virtuous; she was related to Otto, Count of Savoy.

At the age of fifteen, Anselm desired to enter a monastery but could not obtain his father's consent, and so the abbot refused him.[1] Disappointment brought on apparent psychosomatic illness. After recovery, he gave up his studies and lived a carefree life. During this period, his mother died and his father's harshness became unbearable.

When he was twenty-three, Anselm left home, crossed the Alps and wandered through Burgundy and France.[2] Attracted by the fame of his countryman Lanfranc (then prior of the Benedictine Abbey of Bec), Anselm arrived in Normandy in 1059. The following year, after some time at Avranches, he entered the abbey as a novice at the age of twenty-seven; in doing so he submitted himself to the Rule of Saint Benedict, which was to reshape his thought over the next decade.[4]

Years at Bec and accession to Canterbury

Statue of Saint Anselm in Aosta, Xavier de Maistre street. On the background, the bell towers of the Aosta Cathedral, on the right the wall of the Grand séminaire.
In 1063, Lanfranc was made abbot of Caen and Anselm was elected prior of the abbey of Bec.[5] Anselm held this office for fifteen years before he became abbot at the death of Herluin, the abbey's founder, in 1078. He was consecrated abbot 22 February 1079 by the bishop of Évreux.[6] This consecration was rushed, because at the time the archdiocese of Rouen (wherein Bec lay) was sede vacante (vacant). Had Anselm been consecrated by the archbishop of Rouen, he would have been under pressure to profess obedience to him, which would compromise Bec's independence.

Under Anselm's jurisdiction, Bec became the foremost seat of learning in Europe, attracting students from France, Italy and elsewhere,[7] even though study and scholarly research were of secondary importance in the monasticism of the time.[8] It was during his time at Bec that he wrote his first works of philosophy, the Monologion (1076) and the Proslogion (1077–8). These were followed by The Dialogues on Truth, Free Will and Fall of the Devil. During his time at Bec, Anselm worked to maintain its freedom from lay and archiepiscopal control.[9] Later in his abbacy Anselm worked to ensure Bec's independence from Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and from the archbishop of Rouen.

Anselm occasionally visited England to see the abbey's property there, as well as to visit Lanfranc—who, in 1070, had been installed as Archbishop of Canterbury--until the latter's death in 1089.[10] He made a good impression while there, and was the natural successor to Lanfranc as Archbishop.

Upon Lanfranc's death, however, William II of England seized the possessions and revenues of the see, and made no new appointment. In 1092, at the invitation of Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester, Anselm crossed to England. He was detained there by business for nearly four months and then refused permission to return to Bec by the king. The latter suddenly fell seriously ill at Alveston the following year, and spurred on by his wish to make amends for his sinful behaviour which he believed had caused his illness,[11] he allowed the nomination of Anselm to the vacant see, on 6 March 1093.[12] That month Anselm wrote the monks of Bec, telling them to accept his nomination to the see. Over the course of the following months, Anselm tried to refuse, on the grounds of age and ill-health,[1] and being unfit as a monk for secular affairs.[10] On 24 August, Anselm gave William the conditions under which he would accept the see, which amounted to an agenda of the Gregorian Reform: that William return the see's land which he had seized; that William accept the pre-eminence of Anselm's spiritual counsel; and that William acknowledge Pope Urban II as pope (in opposition to Antipope Clement III).[13] Anselm's professions of refusal aided his bargaining position as he discussed terms with William. William was exceedingly reluctant to accept these conditions; he would only grant the first.[14] A few days after this, William tried to rescind even this; he suspended the preparations for Anselm's investiture. Under public pressure William was forced to carry out the appointment. In the end Anselm and William settled on the return of Canterbury's lands as the only concession from William.[15] Finally, the English bishops thrust the crosier into his hands and took him to the church to be inducted.[16] He did homage to William, and on 25 September 1093 he received the lands of the see,[14] and was enthroned,[17] after obtaining dispensation from his duties in Normandy. He was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury on 4 December.[14]

It has been argued whether or not Anselm's reluctance to take the see was sincere. Scholars such as Southern maintain that his preference would have been to stay at Bec.[18] However, reluctance to accept important ecclesiastical positions was a Medieval trope. Vaughn states that Anselm could not have expressed a desire for the position, because he would be regarded as an ambitious careerist. She further states that Anselm recognized William's political situation and goals, and acted at the moment that would gain him the most leverage in the interests of his expected see, and of the reform movement.

Archbishop of Canterbury under William

Anselm as Archbishop. Depiction in an English glass window of 19th century
One of Anselm's first conflicts with William came the very month he was consecrated. William was preparing to fight his elder brother, Robert II, Duke of Normandy, and needed funds for doing so.[19] Anselm was among those expected to pay him, and he offered £500; rather less than he was expected to pay. William refused the offer, insisting on a greater sum. Later on, a group of bishops suggested that William might now settle for the original sum, but Anselm told them he had already given the money to the poor. In this episode Anselm was careful, and managed to both avoid charges of simony, and be generous.

Anselm continued to agitate for reform and the interests of Canterbury.[20] His vision of the Church was one of a universal Church with its own internal authority, which countered with William's vision of royal control over both Church and state.[21] Consequently, he has been viewed alternatively as a contemplative monastic or as a man politically engaged, committed to maintaining the privileges of the episcopal see of Canterbury.[22]

The Church's rule stated that metropolitans could not be consecrated without receiving the pallium from the hands of the pope. Anselm, accordingly, insisted that he must proceed to Rome to receive the pallium, but William would not permit it; he had not acknowledged Urban as pope and maintained his right to prevent a pope's acknowledgment by an English subject.

On 25 February 1095, the bishops and nobles of England held a council at Rockingham to discuss the issue. The bishops sided with the king, with William de St-Calais, the bishop of Durham, even advising William to depose Anselm. The nobles chose Anselm's position, and the conference ended in deadlock.
Immediately following this William sent secret messengers to Rome.[23] They prevailed on Urban to send a legate (Walter of Albano) to the king bearing the archiepiscopal pallium.[24] Walter and William then negotiated in secret. William agreed to acknowledge Urban as pope, and secured the right to give permission before clerics could receive and obey papal letters; Walter, negotiating for Urban, conceded that Urban would send no legates without William's invitation. William's greatest desire was that Anselm be deposed and another given the pallium. Walter said that "there was good reason to expect a successful issue in accordance with the king’s wishes”. William then openly acknowledged Urban as pope, but Walter refused to depose Anselm. William then tried to extract money from Anselm for the pallium, and was refused. William also tried to personally hand over the pallium to Anselm, and was refused again. He compromised, and Anselm took the pallium from the altar at Canterbury on 10 June 1095.
Over nearly the next two years, no overt dispute between Anselm and William is known. However, William blocked Anselm's efforts at church reform. The issues came to a head in 1097, after William put down a Welsh rebellion.[25] He charged Anselm with having given him insufficient knights for the campaign and tried to fine him. Anselm resolved to proceed to Rome and seek the counsel of the pope because William had refused to fulfill his promise of Church reform,[21] but William denied him permission.[26] The negotiations ended with William declaring that if Anselm left, he would take back the see, and never again receive Anselm as archbishop. If Anselm were to stay, William would fine him and force him to swear never again to appeal to Rome: "Anselm was given the choice of exile or total submission."[26]

First exile

As an exile, in October 1097 Anselm set out for Rome. William immediately seized the revenues of the see and retained them until his death, though Anselm retained the archbishopric.[27] Anselm went into exile to defend his vision of the universal Church, displaying William's sins against that vision.[21] Though he had done homage to William, Anselm qualified that homage by his higher duty towards God and the papacy. Anselm was received with high honour by Urban at the Siege of Capua, where he garnered high praise from the Saracen troops of Roger I of Sicily. The pope, however, did not wish to become deeply involved in Anselm's dispute with the king.

At a large provincial council held at Bari in 1098, which 183 bishops attended, Anselm was asked to defend, against representatives of the Greek Church, the Filioque and the practice of using unleavened bread for the Eucharist.

In 1099 Urban renewed the ban on lay investiture and on clerics doing homage.[21] That year Anselm moved to Lyon.

Conflicts with King Henry I

William was killed on 2 August 1100. His successor, Henry I of England, invited Anselm to return, writing that he committed himself to be counseled by Anselm.[28] Henry was courting Anselm because he needed his support for the security of his claim to the throne; Anselm could have thrown his support behind Henry's elder brother instead.

When Anselm returned, Henry requested that Anselm do him homage for the Canterbury estates[29] and receive from him investiture in his office of archbishop.[30] The papacy had recently banned clerics doing homage to laymen,[29] as well as banning lay investiture; thus started Anselm's conflicts with Henry.

Henry refused to relinquish the privilege possessed by his predecessors, and proposed that the matter be laid before the pope. Two embassies were sent to Pope Paschal II regarding the legitimacy of Henry's investiture, but Paschal reaffirmed the papal rule on both occasions. In the meantime, Anselm did work with Henry. Henry was threatened with invasion by his brother, Robert Curthose, and Anselm publicly supported Henry, wooing the wavering barons and threatening Curthose with excommunication.[31] For his part, Henry granted Anselm authority over all the Church in England, and agreed to obey the papacy.

However, because Paschal had reaffirmed the papal rules on lay investiture and homage, Henry turned once more against Anselm.[31] In 1103, Anselm himself and an envoy from the king (William Warelwast) set out for Rome,[32] Anselm in exile.[31] In response, Paschal excommunicated the bishops whom Henry had invested.

Second exile

Exiled from England, Anselm withdrew to Lyon after this ruling and awaited further action from Paschal. On 26 March 1105 Paschal excommunicated Henry's chief advisor (Robert of Meulan) for urging Henry to continue lay investiture,[33] as well as prelates invested by Henry and other counselors,[34] and threatened Henry with the same.[35] In April Anselm threatened to excommunicate Henry himself, probably to force Henry's hand in their negotiations.[36] In response Henry arranged a meeting with Anselm, and they managed a compromise at Laigle on 22 July 1105. Part of the agreement was that Robert's (and his associates') excommunication be lifted (given that they counsel the king to obey the papacy); Anselm lifted the excommunications on his own authority, an act which he later had to justify to Paschal.[37][38] Other conditions of the agreement were that Henry would forsake lay investiture if Anselm obtained Paschal's permission for clerics to do homage for their nobles; that the revenues of his see be given back to Anselm; and that priests not be allowed to marry. Anselm then insisted on having the Laigle agreement sanctioned by Paschal before he would consent to return to England. By letter Anselm also asked that the pope accept his compromise on doing homage to the king, because he had secured a greater victory in Henry's forsaking lay investiture.[39] On 23 March 1106 Paschal wrote Anselm accepting the compromise, though both saw this as a temporary compromise, and intended to later continue pushing for the Gregorian reform, including the custom of homage.[40]

Even after this, Anselm still refused to return to England.[41] Henry traveled to Bec and met with him on 15 August 1106. Henry made further concession, restoring to Anselm all the churches that had been seized by William; he promised that nothing more would be taken from the churches; prelates who had paid his controversial tax (which had started as a tax on married clergy)[42] would be exempt from taxes for three years; and he promised to restore all that had been taken from Canterbury during Anselm's exile, even giving Anselm security for this promise. These compromises on Henry's part strengthened the rights of the Church against the king. Anselm returned to England following this.

By 1107, the long dispute regarding investiture was finally settled. The Concordat of London announced the compromises that Anselm and Henry had made at Bec.[43] The final two years of Anselm's life were spent in the duties of his archbishopric. As archbishop, Anselm maintained his monastic ideals, which included stewardship, prudence, and fitting instruction to his flock, as well as prayer and contemplation.[44] During his service as archbishop, Anselm maintained a habit of pressing on his monarchs at expedient times (when they needed his help, and when he would have public support) to advance his Church reforms.[21] Anselm died on Holy Wednesday, 21 April 1109.


Vaughn reads Anselm's motivation in the lay investiture conflict as advancing the interests of the see of Canterbury, rather than those of the Church at large.[45] Other historians had seen Anselm as aligned with the papacy against the English monarchs, but Vaughn asserts that he acted on his own, as a third pole in the controversy, his aim being to promote the primacy of the archdiocese of Canterbury. His view of Canterbury's primacy is demonstrated in his charter of c. 3 September 1101, in which he called himself "Archbishop of Canterbury and primate of Great Britain and Ireland and vicar of the High Pontiff Paschal".[31] By the end of his life he had secured the primatial status of Canterbury in relation to the papacy, and he had freed Canterbury from submission to the English king.[43] In addition to securing the archbishop of Canterbury's role as primate of the English bishops, Anselm also initiated Canterbury's permanent control over the Welsh bishops, and gained strong authority over the Irish bishops during his lifetime.[46]

He continued to work for the primacy of Canterbury, managing to force Paschal into sending the pallium for the archbishop of York to himself, so that the archbishop-elect would have to profess obedience to Canterbury before receiving it.[47] From his deathbed he anathematized all who failed to recognize Canterbury's primacy over York, as Thomas II of York was doing.[48] This anathema forced Henry to order Thomas to confess obedience to Canterbury.

During Henry's reign Anselm tried to advance another part of the Gregorian reform (which Henry actually supported): clerical celibacy. At Michaelmas of 1102, Anselm held a council in London in which he prohibited marriage and concubinage to those in holy orders[49] (as well as condemning simony and reforming regulations on clerical dress and sobriety).[31] In the previous two centuries, attempts at enforcing clerical celibacy had been made, but with little success. Anselm's council was disobeyed en masse as well. In 1106 Henry levied a tax on married clergy, ostensibly to enforce the council's canons,[50] but really in an effort to raise money for his war in Normandy.[51] Another council was held in 1108, which focused on enforcing the canons of the 1102 council by creating incentives for the archdeacons who in practice were in charge of enforcing such rules.


His great predecessor, Johannes Scotus Eriugena, was more speculative and mystical in his writings. Anselm's writings represent a recognition of the relationship of reason to revealed truth, and an attempt to elaborate a rational system of faith.


Anselm sought to understand Christian doctrine through reason and develop intelligible truths interwoven with the Christian belief. He believed that the necessary preliminary for this was possession of the Christian faith. He wrote, "Neque enim quaero intelligere ut credam, sed credo ut intelligam. Nam et hoc credo, quia, nisi credidero, non intelligam." ("Nor do I seek to understand that I may believe, but I believe that I may understand. For this, too, I believe, that, unless I first believe, I shall not understand.") This is possibly drawn from Augustine of Hippo's Ten Homilies on the First Epistle of John Tractate XXIX on John 7:14-18, §6: "Therefore do not seek to understand in order to believe, but believe that thou mayest understand." Anselm held that faith precedes reason, but that reason can expand upon faith.[52]

The groundwork of Anselm's theory of knowledge is contained in the tract De Veritate, where he affirms the existence of an absolute truth in which all other truth participates. This absolute truth, he argues, is God, who is the ultimate ground or principle both of things and of thought. The notion of God becomes the foreground of Anselm's theory, so it is necessary first to make God clear to reason and be demonstrated to have real existence.

Anselm's world-view was broadly that of Neoplatonism, which he inherited from his primary influence, Augustine of Hippo, as well as from Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite and possibly Scotus.[53] He also inherited a rationalist way of thinking from Aristotle and Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius.


An 12th century illumination from the Meditations of St. Anselm
Anselm wrote many proofs within Monologion and Proslogion. In the first proof, Anselm relies on the ordinary grounds of realism, which coincide to some extent with the theory of Augustine. He argues that "things" are called "good" in a variety of ways and degrees, which would be impossible were there not some absolute standard and some good in itself, in which all relative goods participate. The same applies to adjectives like "great" and "just", whereby things involve a certain greatness and justice. Anselm uses this thought process to state that the very existence of things is impossible without some one Being, by whom they come to exist. This absolute Being, this goodness, justice and greatness, is God. Anselm is not thoroughly satisfied with this reasoning, however, because it begins from a posteriori grounds, meaning that the reasoning is inductive. The philosophy also contains several converging lines of proof.

In his Proslogion, Anselm put forward a proof of the existence of God called the "ontological argument". The term itself was first applied by Immanuel Kant to the arguments of Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century rationalists. Anselm defined his belief in the existence of God using the phrase "that than which nothing greater can be conceived". He reasoned that, if "that than which nothing greater can be conceived" existed only in the intellect, it would not be "that than which nothing greater can be conceived", since it can be thought to exist in reality, which is greater. It follows, according to Anselm, that "that than which nothing greater can be conceived" must exist in reality. The bulk of the Proslogion is taken up with Anselm's attempt to establish the identity of "that than which nothing greater can be conceived" as God, and thus to establish that God exists in reality.

Anselm's ontological proof has been the subject of controversy since it was first published in the 1070s. It was opposed at the time by the monk Gaunilo, in his Liber pro Insipiente, on the grounds that humans cannot pass from intellect to reality. Anselm replied to the objections in his Responsio.

Gaunilo's criticism is repeated by several later philosophers, among whom are Thomas Aquinas and Kant. Anselm wrote a number of other arguments for the existence of God, based on cosmological and teleological grounds.

Further works

In Anselm's other works, he strove to state the rational grounds of the Christian doctrines of creation and the Trinity. He discussed the Trinity first by stating that human beings could not know God from Himself but only from analogy. The analogy that he used was the self-consciousness of man.

The peculiar double-nature of consciousness, memory and intelligence represent the relation of the Father to the Son. The mutual love of these two (memory and intelligence), proceeding from the relation they hold to one another, symbolizes the Holy Spirit. The further theological doctrines of man, such as original sin and free will, are developed in the Monologion and other treatises.

Cur Deus Homo and Satisfaction Atonement

Statue of Anselm
The Satisfaction (or Commercial) theory of the atonement was formulated by Anselm of Canterbury in his book, Cur Deus Homo (lit. ‘Why the God-Man?’).[54] He has introduced the idea of satisfaction as the chief demand of the nature of God, of punishment as a possible alternative of satisfaction and equally fulfilling the requirements of justice thus opening the way to the assertion of punishment as the true satisfaction of the law. In his view, God’s offended honor and dignity could only be satisfied by the sacrifice of the God-man, Jesus Christ. Anselm undertook to explain the rational necessity of the Christian mystery of the atonement. His philosophy rests on three positions—first, that satisfaction is necessary on account of God's honour and justice; second, that such satisfaction can be given only by the peculiar personality of the God-man Jesus; and, third, that such satisfaction is really given by this God-man's voluntary death.

According to this view, sin incurs a debt to Divine justice, a debt that must be paid somehow. Thus, no sin, according to Anselm, can be forgiven without satisfaction. However, the incurred debt is something far greater than a human being is capable of paying. All the service that a person can offer to God is already obligated on other debts to God.[54] By Anselm's time the suggestion has been made that some innocent person, or angel, might possibly pay the debt incurred by sinners. That, however, we would put the sinner under obligation to that deliverer and the sinner would become indebted to a "mere creature."

The only way in which the satisfaction could be made─that humans could be set free from their sin─was by the coming of a Redeemer who is both God and man. He himself would have to be sinless, thus having no debt that he owed. His death is something greater than all the sins of all humanity. His death makes a superabundant satisfaction to the Divine Justice.

Anselm's satisfaction theory has often been used by modern theologians in their genealogical critiques of Christian theology. For example, George Foley, a professor of pastoral care, wrote in 1908 that while the 'traditional' statement of Anselm's doctrine has inspired the development of much devout and consecrated life, its power has come from the fact that it is an emotional witness to the fundamental reality of Incarnate love and sacrifice. Foley thus claims that the doctrine is not a positive theory and has brought "grievous harm" down through the centuries. Although Foley cites no clear examples of the 'grievous harm' caused by Anselm's theory, he does link it with the satisfaction theory of the Reformation. It was made the test of some Protestant forms orthodoxy and continued to be so until near the end of the 19th century. Foley believes that "Anselm's adoption of a purely objective interpretation of Christ's work, and his assumption of and ability to penetrate into the esoteric relations of the Trinity, made him primarily responsible for the intrusive prying into Divine mysteries, and for the confident familiarity with the unrevealed portions of truth that issued in the dogmatic tyranny so conspicuous in the Protestant churches."

Anselm denied the belief which is now referred to as the Immaculate Conception, though his thinking laid the groundwork for the doctrine's development in the West. In De virginali conceptu et de peccato originali, he gave two principles which became fundamental for thinking about the Immaculate Conception. The first is that it was proper that Mary should be so pure that no purer being could be imagined, aside from God.

The second innovation in Anselm's thinking which opened the way for the Immaculate Conception was his understanding of original sin. Anselm affirmed that original sin is simply human nature without original justice, and that it is transmitted because parents cannot give original justice if they do not have it themselves; original sin is the transmission of fallen human nature. In contrast, Anselm's contemporaries held that the transmission of original sin had to with the lustful nature of the act of sexual intercourse. Anselm was the first thinker to separate original sin from the lust of intercourse.

"Dilecto dilectori"

It was reported that Anselm wrote many letters to monks, male relatives and others that contained passionate expressions of attachment and affection. These letters were typically addressed "dilecto dilectori", sometimes translated as "to the beloved lover." While there is wide agreement that Anselm was personally committed to the monastic ideal of celibacy, some academics, including Brian P. McGuire and John Boswell have characterized these writings as expressions of a homosexual inclination. Others, such as Glenn Olsenand Richard Southern describe them as representing a "wholly spiritual" affection, "nourished by an incorporeal ideal".


The anniversary of Anselm's death on 21 April is celebrated in the Roman Catholic Church, much of the Anglican Communion, and in parts of Lutheranism, as Anselm's memorial.

Anselm's canonization was requested by Thomas Becket in 1163. Anselm may have been formally canonized at some point before Becket's death in 1170, but no explicit record has survived, even though Anselm was henceforth included among the saints at Canterbury and elsewhere. Some scholars contend that Anselm's canonization was only executed in 1494 by Pope Alexander VI Borgia. He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church in 1720 by Pope Clement XI. On 21 April 1909, 800 years after his death, Pope Pius X issued an encyclical "Communium Rerum", praising Anselm, his ecclesiastical career, and his writings. His symbol in hagiography is the ship, representing the spiritual independence of the church.

Recently, Saint Anselm Abbey and its college, Saint Anselm College, held a celebration commemorating the 900th anniversary of Anselm's death. An image of the college is to the right.


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  3. ^ R. Southern. St. Anselm: Portrait in a Landscape. (Cambridge University Press: 1992), pp. 8.,M1
  4. ^ R. Southern. St. Anselm: Portrait in a Landscape. (Cambridge University Press: 1992), pp. 32.,M1
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  25. ^ Vaughn, Sally. "St Anselm of Canterbury: the philosopher-saint as politician." Journal of Medieval History. 1 (1975), 279–306: 291.
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  48. ^ Vaughn, Sally. "St Anselm of Canterbury: the philosopher-saint as politician." Journal of Medieval History. 1 (1975), 279–306: 298.
  49. ^ Partner, Nancy. "Henry of Huntingdon: Clerical Celibacy and the Writing of History." Church History. 42:4 (December, 1973) 467–475: 468.
  50. ^ Vaughn, Sally. "St. Anselm and the English Investiture Controversy Reconsidered". Journal of Medieval History 6 (1980): 61–86, pp. 78-9.
  51. ^ Vaughn, Sally. "St Anselm of Canterbury: the philosopher-saint as politician." Journal of Medieval History. 1 (1975), 279–306: 296.
  52. ^ Hollister, C. Warren. Medieval Europe: A Short History. (John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1982): 302.
  53. ^ Charlesworth, M. J., trans. and ed. St. Anselm's Proslogion. (University of Notre Dame Press: Notre Dame, 2003), pp. 23–4.
  54. ^ a b Anselm of Canterbury, Archbishop of Canterbury. Cur Deus Homo or Why God Was Made Man. Oxford and London: John Henry and James Parker, 1865. Accessed Oct. 23, 2009 online:
  55. ^ a b c Foley, George C. Anselm's Theory of the Atonement." 1909. Online access Oct. 23, 2009. <>
  56. ^ Janaro, John. "Saint Anselm and the Development of the Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception: Historical and Theological Perspectives." The Saint Anselm Journal. 3.2 (Spring 2006) 48–56: 51.
  57. ^ Janaro, John. "Saint Anselm and the Development of the Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception: Historical and Theological Perspectives." The Saint Anselm Journal. 3.2 (Spring 2006) 48–56: 52.
  58. ^ McGuire, Brian P. (1985). "Monastic Friendship and Toleration in Twelfth Century Cistercian Life". Monks, Hermits and the Ascetic Tradition: Papers Read at the 1984 Summer Meeting and the 1985 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-14351-3.,
    opinion re. Anselm noted at: "Faithful to the Truth; Chapter 2: Homosexuality and Tradition". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25.[dead link]
  59. ^ Boswell, John (1980). Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. University Of Chicago Press. pp. 218, 219. ISBN 0-226-06711-4.
  60. ^ Anglican Bishop Michael Doe has speculated that Anselm's refusal in 1102 to publish the edict of the Council of London (1102), which proclaimed that sodomy must be confessed as a Sin, is further evidence{fact} in favour of Anselm's alleged homosexuality (Seeking the Truth in Love: The Church and Homosexuality;by Michael Doe; Pub. Darton, Longman and Todd (2000), p. 18. ISBN 978-0-232-52399-7).
  61. ^ Olsen, Glenn (1988). "St. Anselm and Homosexuality". Anselm Studies, II: Proceedings of the Fifth International Saint Anselm Conference. pp. 93–141.
  62. ^ Southern, Richard W. (1992). St. Anselm : A Portrait in a Landscape. Cambridge University Press. p. 157. ISBN 0-521-43818-7.
  63. ^ John K. Roth, Saint Anselm (2000), Salem Press, ISBN 978-0-89356-878-8 [1]; Richard William Southern, Saint Anselm: a portrait in a landscape, Cambridge University Press, 1992 (repring), ISBN 978-0-521-43818-6, p. xxix
  64. ^ Walsh, Michael, ed. Butler's Lives of the Saints. (HarperCollins Publishers: New York, 1991), pp. 119.
Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Anselm". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Saint Anselm entry by Thomas Williams in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • "St. Anselm of Canterbury (1033—1109)" article by Greg Sadler in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • Christoph Zimmer: Logik der Ratio Anselmi. 2005


        Featured Items Panel from Litany Lane



        Today's Snippet I:  Kingdom of Burgundy

        First Burgundian Kingdom, Savoy from 443.
        Burgundy is a historic region in Western Europe, now Southern France, named after its founders, the Burgundians. The Burgundians originated from mainland Scandinavia, and then settled on the island of Bornholm, whose name in Old Norse was Burgundarholmr (the Island of the Burgundians), and from there moved again to mainland Europe.

        Burgundy itself has existed as a political entity in a number of forms with different boundaries. Two of these entities - the first around the 6th century, the second around the 11th century - have been called the Kingdom of Burgundy; a third was very nearly created—as was more than one noble state of Burgundy—including a County and duchy, almost all of them being influential and fairly wealthy.

        In the last stages of the later house of Burgundy, Burgundy had become one of the most influential and powerful states in Europe and a great prize as a duchy, with possessions obtained by marriage and inheritance extending from and encompassing the Netherlands (then including modern Belgium), and extensive lands from Lorraine and encompassing the entire surrounds of the valley of the Rhone River, nearly to the Rhine abutting western Switzerland extending down the Rhone Valley to the Mediterranean coast.

        The area correlates with today's border regions between France, Italy and Switzerland; in other words a country-sized region roughly centered on Lyons or Geneva. The later-period Duchy of Burgundy, eventually failed of a male heir and became assimilated into Habsburg lands by the marriage of Duchess Marie to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. With the marriage of their son Philip to Juana, heiress of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, it was eventually inherited by their son Charles I of Spain (Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor), and became part of the Spanish Empire of his son, Philip II of Spain.

        First Kingdom of Burgundy (4th century - 534 AD)

        Frankish Empire 534-933
        The first documented, though not historically verified King of the Burgundians was Gjúki (Gebicca), who lived in the late 4th century. In the course of the Crossing of the Rhine in 406, the Burgundians, an East Germanic tribe, settled as foederati in the Roman province of Germania Secunda along the Middle Rhine. Their situation worsened when about 430 the Burgundian King Gunther started several campaigns into neighbouring Gallia Belgica, which led to a crushing defeat by joined Roman and Hunnic troops under Flavius Aetius in 436 near Worms—the origin of the mediæval Nibelungenlied poem.

        The remaining Burgundians from 443 onwards settled in the Sapaudia (i.e. Savoy) region, again as foederati in the Roman Maxima Sequanorum province. Their efforts to enlarge their kingdom down the Rhone river brought them into conflict with the Visigothic Kingdom in the south. After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476, King Gundobad allied with the mighty Frankish king Clovis I against the threat of Theoderic the Great. He was thereby able to secure the Burgundian acquisitions, leaving the Lex Burgundionum, an Early Germanic law code.

        The decline of the kingdom began when they came under attack from their former Frankish allies. In 523 the sons of King Clovis campaigned the Burgundian lands, instigated by their mother Clotilde, whose father King Chilperic II had been killed by Gundobad. In 532 the Burgundians were decisively defeated by the Franks at Autun, whereafter King Godomar was killed and finally Burgundy was annexed by the Frankish Empire in 534.

        Between 561 and 584 as well as between 639 and 737 several rulers of the Frankish Merovingian dynasty bore the title of a "King of Burgundy". In the course of the 843 partition by the Treaty of Verdun, Burgundy became part of Middle Francia (Lotharii Regnum) ruled by Emperor Lothair I, except for its northwestern part, the Duchy of Burgundy (Bourgogne), which fell to West Francia.


        Second Kingdom of Burgundy (933 - 1378)

        Kingdom of Arles
         The second Kingdom of Burgundy, also called the Kingdom of Arles (alternatively spelled as Kingdom of Arelat), existed from 933-1033 as an independent entity and from then (when it was absorbed into the Holy Roman Empire) to 1378 when it was succeeded by the Duchy of Burgundy. It had incrementally come into existence by the merger of several short lived states which themselves came into existence in power vacuums along the Rhone River within the region of the First Kingdom of Burgundy.

        These smaller states gradually coalesced into two states known as Upper Burgundy and Lower Burgundy (which began as the Kingdom of Provence and Burgundy), which had been sundered by the division of Middle Francia upon Lothair I's death, were united as the Second Kingdom of Burgundy.

        Location in brief

        The Kingdom of Arles came to occupy most of Provence and Burgundy, the southern lands of the former kingdom of Middle Francia (or Lotharingia — which only lasted 14 years — but excluding Emperor Louis I's inheritance in the Kingdom of Italy). Middle Francia (or Lotharingia) was the central slice of the great Franks' Empire of Charlemagne, created by the three way division of the Frankish Empire after the death of Louis the Pious gave rise to the civil war (840-843) between his three sons by the 843 Treaty of Verdun.

        Prelude-Carolingian maneuverings 840-931

        In failing health, shortly before his death in 855 at Prüm Abbey, Emperor Lothair I bequeathed the southern part of his realm of Middle Francia, consisting of the larger southeastern part of the former Kingdom of Burgundy and the Provence, to his youngest son Charles of Provence (sometimes called "Charles of Burgundy" or "Charles of Burgundy and Provence").

        Lothair's brothers Charles the Bald and Louis the German intervened and prevented the inheritance and succession of their late brother's dignities as a Monarchy, preventing any of their Frankish nephews from elevating themselves and eliminating the Kingdom of Lotharingia. The two instead partitioned the middle realm's lands between East and West Francia, although allowing their nephews to retain their respective duchies, accepting that part of the king's arrangements.

        According to the 870 Treaty of Meerssen, the northern part of First Burgundy was allotted to Charles's uncle King Louis the German of East Francia, while the southern lands with Provence fell to King Charles the Bald of West Francia until 875.

        Results of the partition

        Upon Charles's death in 877, followed by that of his incapable son Louis the Stammerer two years later, the Frankish noble Boso of Provence proclaimed himself a "King of Burgundy and Provence" at Vienne in 879.
        • Boso thereby established the Kingdom of Lower Burgundy ruling over those former Middle Frankish parts of Burgundy which King Charles had inherited in 875. Boso however could only prevail in the Provence and the Cisjuranian parts of Burgundy.
        • Transjurane Burgundy (which was centered in what is now western Switzerland, and included some neighboring territories now in France and Italy and some which later became the Franche-Comté) on the contrary remained under the influence of the East Frankish king Charles the Fat.


        • Upon his deposition in 887, these northern territories formed the Kingdom of Upper Burgundy, proclaimed by the Welf noble Rudolph I of Burgundy at Saint-Maurice, Switzerland. When his son and heir Rudolph II finally acquired Lower Burgundy from Hugh of Arles in 933, the Kingdom of Burgundy was re-united.
        This second Kingdom of Burgundy was absorbed into the Holy Roman Empire under Conrad II in 1033, as the Kingdom of Arles. It was one of the three kingdoms within the medieval Empire, the others being the Kingdom of Germany and the Kingdom of Italy. The Kingdom of Burgundy or Arles gradually lost its territorial integrity as sons inherited pieces over time, and other pieces were dispersed through diplomacy. Large parts were already held by the Counts of Savoy when Arelat ceased to exist in 1378, after the remnants were ceded to the French Dauphin Charles VI by Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg (Dauphiné).

        The Burgundian lands

        The House of Burgundy was a dynasty that ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1032 to 1361, and the Free County of Burgundy from 1330, when the wife of Eudes IV inherited it from her mother, until 1361. It did not rule the Kingdom of Burgundy.

        From 1361 to 1477 both the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy were ruled by a cadet branch of the House of Valois (see Dukes of Burgundy). By the mid-15th century this dynasty also ruled most of the provinces in the Low Countries, making it one of the most powerful ruling houses in Western Europe.

        The territories of the House of Valois-Burgundy in the Low Countries were never part of ancient Burgundy proper, but the combined territories of the ruling house are sometimes referred to as the Burgundian Lands or the Burgundian Netherlands. However all of these lands were notionally held by the House of Valois-Burgundy as feudal vassals of either the King of France or the Holy Roman Emperor.

        Duke Charles the Bold conceived the project of combining his territories into a third kingdom of Burgundy with himself as its fully independent monarch, and even persuaded the Emperor Frederick to assent to crown him king at Trier. The ceremony, however, did not take place owing to the Emperor's precipitate flight by night (September 1473), occasioned by his displeasure at the Duke's attitude, and ultimately ended the duchy as an independent realm with the defeat and mutilation of Charles, also called 'the brash', at the Battle of Nancy.

        Other entities called Burgundy

        • The Duchy of Burgundy which in 843 was allotted to West Francia, became a feudal fief within the Kingdom of France. It roughly conforms to the modern French region of Bourgogne.
        • The Free County of Burgundy (Freigrafschaft Burgund) was the neighbouring entity within the Holy Roman Empire from 867 to 1678, which since 1384 was held as an Imperial fief by the Burgundian duke Philip the Bold. Ceded to France in the Treaties of Nijmegen, it has been the French region (originally province) of Franche-Comté since then.


          • Davies, Norman (2011) Vanished Kingdoms: The History of Half-Forgotten Europe (ISBN 978-1846143380)


            Today's Snippet II:  Canterbury Cathedral

            Canterbury Cathedral
            Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. It is the cathedral of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England and symbolic leader of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Its formal title is the Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Christ at Canterbury.

            Founded in 597, the cathedral was completely rebuilt from 1070 to 1077. The east end was greatly enlarged at the beginning of the twelfth century, and largely rebuilt in the Gothic style following a fire in 1174, with significant eastward extensions to accommodate the flow of pilgrims visiting the shrine of Thomas Becket, the archbishop who was murdered in the cathedral in 1170. The Norman nave and transepts survived until the late fourteenth century, when they were demolished to make way for the present structures.


            Foundation by Augustine

            The cathedral's first archbishop was Augustine of Canterbury, previously abbot of St. Andrew's Benedictine Abbey in Rome. He was sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 as a missionary to the Anglo-Saxons. Augustine founded the cathedral in 597 and dedicated it to Jesus Christ, the Holy Saviour.

            Augustine also founded the Abbey of St. Peter and Paul outside the city walls. This was later rededicated to St. Augustine himself and was for many centuries the burial place of the successive archbishops. The abbey is part of the World Heritage Site of Canterbury, along with the cathedral and the ancient Church of St. Martin.

            Anglo-Saxon cathedral

            Bede recorded that Augustine reused a former Roman church. The oldest remains found during excavations beneath the present nave in 1993 were, however, parts of the foundations of an Anglo-Saxon building, which had been constructed across a Roman road. They indicate that the original church consisted of a nave, possibly with a narthex, and side-chapels to the north and south. A smaller subsidiary building was found to the south-west of these foundations.During the ninth or tenth century this church was replaced by a larger structure (49 m. by 23 m.) with a squared west end. It appears to have had a square central tower. The eleventh century chronicler Eadmer, who had known the Saxon cathedral as a boy, wrote that, in its arrangement, it resembled St Peter's in Rome, indicating that it was of basilican form, with an eastern apse.
            During the reforms of Archbishop Dunstan (c909-988), a Benedictine abbey named Christ Church Priory was added to the cathedral. But the formal establishment as a monastery seems to date only to c.997 and the community only became fully monastic from Lanfranc's time onwards (with monastic constitutions addressed by him to prior Henry). Dunstan was buried on the south side of the High Altar.

            The cathedral was badly damaged during Danish raids on Canterbury in 1011. The Archbishop, Alphege, was taken hostage by the raiders and eventually killed at Greenwich on 19 April 1012, the first of Canterbury's five martyred archbishops. After this a western apse was added as an oratory of St. Mary, probably during the archbishopric of Lyfing (1013–1020) or Aethelnoth (1020–1038).

            The 1993 excavations revealed that the new western apse was polygonal, and flanked by hexagonal towers, forming a westwork. It housed the archbishop's throne, with the altar of St Mary just to the east. At about the same time that the westwork was built, the arcade walls were strengthened and towers added to the eastern corners of the church.

            Norman period

            The cathedral was destroyed by fire in 1067, a year after the Norman Conquest. Rebuilding began in 1070 under the first Norman archbishop, Lanfranc (1070–77). He cleared the ruins and reconstructed the cathedral to a design based closely on that of the Abbey of St. Etienne in Caen, where he had previously been abbot, using stone brought from France. The new church, its central axis about 5m south of that of its predecessor, was a cruciform building, with an aisled nave of nine bays, a pair of towers at the west end, aiseless transepts with apsidal chapels, a low crossing tower, and a short choir ending in three apses. It was dedicated in 1077.

            After this time, the responsibility for the rebuilding or improvement of the cathedral's fabric was largely left in the hands of the priors. Following the election of Prior Ernulf in 1096, Lanfranc's inadequate east end was demolished, and replaced with an eastern arm 198 feet long, doubling the length of the cathedral. It was raised above a large and elaborately decorated crypt. Ernulf was succeeded in 1107 by Conrad, who completed the work by 1126. The new choir took the form of a complete church in itself, with its own transepts; the east end was semicircular in plan, with three chapels opening off an ambulatory. A free standing campanile was built on a mound in the cathedral precinct in about 1160.

            As with many Romanesque church buildings, the interior of the choir was richly embellished. William of Malmesbury wrote: "Nothing like it could be seen in England either for the light of its glass windows, the gleaming of its marble pavements, or the many-coloured paintings which led the eyes to the panelled ceiling above."
            Though named after the sixth century founding archbishop, The Chair of St. Augustine may date from the Norman period. Its first recorded use is in 1205.

            Martyrdom of Thomas Becket

            Image of Thomas Becket from a stained glass window
            A pivotal moment in the history of the Cathedral was the murder of the archbishop, Thomas Becket, in the north-west transept (also known as the Martyrdom) on Tuesday 29 December 1170 by knights of King Henry II. The king had frequent conflicts with the strong-willed Becket and is said to have exclaimed in frustration, "Who will rid me of this turbulent priest?" The knights took it literally and murdered Becket in his own cathedral. Becket was the second of four Archbishops of Canterbury who were murdered (see also Alphege).

            The posthumous veneration of Becket made the cathedral a place of pilgrimage. This brought both the need to expand the cathedral, and the wealth that made it possible.

            Rebuilding of the choir

            In September 1174 the choir was severely damaged by fire, necessitating a major reconstruction, the progress of which was recorded in detail by a monk named Gervase. The crypt survived the fire intact, and it was found possible to retain the outer walls of the choir, which were increased in height by 12 feet (3.7 m) in the course of the rebuilding, but with the round-headed form of their windows left unchanged Everything else was replaced in the new Gothic style, with pointed arches, rib vaulting and flying buttresses. The limestone used was imported from Caen in Normandy, and Purbeck marble was used for the shafting. The choir was back in use by 1180, and in that year the remains of St Dunstan and St Alphege were moved there from the crypt.

            The master-mason appointed to rebuild the choir was a Frenchman, William of Sens. Following his injury in a fall from the scaffolding in 1179 he was replaced by one of his former assistants, known as "William the Englishman.

            In 1180-4, in place of the old, square-ended, eastern chapel, the present Trinity chapel was constructed, a broad extension with an ambulatory, designed to house the shrine of St Thomas Becket. A further chapel, circular in plan, was added beyond that, which housed further relics of Becket,  widely believed to have included the top of his skull, struck off in the course of his assassination. This latter chapel became known as the "Corona" or "Beckett's Crown". These new parts east of the choir transepts were raised on a higher crypt than Ernulf's choir, necessitating flights of steps between the two levels. Work on the chapel was completed in 1184,  but Becket's remains were not moved from his tomb in the crypt until 1220. Further significant interments in the Trinity Chapel included those of Edward Plantagenet (The "Black Prince") and King Henry IV.

            Shrine of Thomas Becket

            The shrine in the Trinity Chapel was placed directly above Becket's original tomb in the crypt. A marble plinth, raised on columns, supported what an early visitor, Walter of Coventry, described as "a coffin wonderfully wrought of gold and silver, and marvellously adorned with precious gems". Other accounts make clear that the gold was laid over a wooden chest, which in turn contained an iron-bound box holding Becket's remains. Further votive treasures were added to the adornments of the chest over the years, while others were placed on pedestals or beams nearby, or attached to hanging drapery. For much of the time the chest (or "ferotory") was kept concealed by a wooden cover, which would be theatrically raised by ropes once a crowd of pilgrims had gathered. Erasmus, who visited in 1512–4, recorded that, once the cover was raised, "the Prior ... pointed out each jewel, telling its name in French, its value, and the name of its donor; for the principal of them were offerings sent by sovereign princes."

            The income from pilgrims (such as those portrayed in Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales) who visited Becket's shrine, which was regarded as a place of healing, largely paid for the subsequent rebuilding of the Cathedral and its associated buildings. This revenue included the profits from the sale of pilgrim badges depicting Becket, his martyrdom, or his shrine.

            The shrine was removed in 1538. Henry VIII summoned the dead saint to court to face charges of treason. Having failed to appear, he was found guilty in his absence and the treasures of his shrine were confiscated, carried away in two coffers and twenty-six carts.

            Monastic buildings

            Plan of Canterbury Cathedral
            A bird's-eye view of the cathedral and its monastic buildings, made in about 1165 and known as the "waterworks plan" is preserved in the Eadwine Psalter in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge. It shows that Canterbury employed the same general principles of arrangement common to all Benedictine monasteries, although, unusually, the cloister and monastic buildings were to the north, rather than the south of the church. There was a separate chapter-house.

            The buildings formed separate groups around the church. Adjoining it, on the north side, stood the cloister and the buildings devoted to the monastic life. To the east and west of these were those devoted to the exercise of hospitality. To the north a large open court divided the monastic buildings from menial ones, such as the stables, granaries, barn, bakehouse, brew house and laundries, inhabited by the lay servants of the establishment. At the greatest possible distance from the church, beyond the precinct of the monastery, was the eleemosynary department. The almonry for the relief of the poor, with a great hall annexed, formed the paupers' hospitium.

            The group of buildings devoted to monastic life included two cloisters. The great cloister was surrounded by the buildings essentially connected with the daily life of the monks,-- the church to the south, with the refectory placed as always on the side opposite, the dormitory, raised on a vaulted undercroft, and the chapter-house adjacent, and the lodgings of the cellarer, responsible for providing both monks and guests with food, to the west. A passage under the dormitory lead eastwards to the smaller or infirmary cloister, appropriated to sick and infirm monks.

            The hall and chapel of the infirmary extended east of this cloister, resembling in form and arrangement the nave and chancel of an aisled church. Beneath the dormitory, overlooking the green court or herbarium, lay the "pisalis" or "calefactory," the common room of the monks. At its north-east corner access was given from the dormitory to the necessarium, a building in the form of a Norman hall, 145 ft (44 m) long by 25 broad (44.2 m × 7.6 m), containing fifty-five seats. It was constructed with careful regard to hygiene, with a stream of water running through it from end to end.

            A second smaller dormitory for the conventual officers ran from east to west. Close to the refectory, but outside the cloisters, were the domestic offices connected with it: to the north, the kitchen, 47 ft (14 m) square (200 m2), with a pyramidal roof, and the kitchen court; to the west, the butteries, pantries, etc. The infirmary had a small kitchen of its own. Opposite the refectory door in the cloister were two lavatories, where the monks washed before and after eating.

            The buildings devoted to hospitality were divided into three groups. The prior's group were "entered at the south-east angle of the green court, placed near the most sacred part of the cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or nobility who were assigned to him." The cellarer's buildings, where middle class visitors were entertained, stood near the west end of the nave. The inferior pilgrims and paupers were relegated to the north hall or almonry, just within the gate.

            Priors of Christ Church Priory included John of Sittingbourne (elected 1222, previously a monk of the priory) and William Chillenden, (elected 1264, previously monk and treasurer of the priory). The monastery was granted the right to elect their own prior if the seat was vacant by the pope, and — from Gregory IX onwards — the right to a free election (though with the archbishop overseeing their choice). Monks of the priory have included Æthelric I, Æthelric II, Walter d'Eynsham, Reginald fitz Jocelin (admitted as a confrater shortly before his death), Nigel de Longchamps and Ernulf. The monks often put forward candidates for Archbishop of Canterbury, either from among their number or outside, since the archbishop was nominally their abbot, but this could lead to clashes with the king and/or pope should they put forward a different man — examples are the elections of Baldwin of Forde and Thomas Cobham.

            Fourteenth to sixteenth centuries

            The Perpendicular style nave
            Early in the fourteenth century, Prior Eastry erected a stone choir screen and rebuilt the chapter house, and his successor, Prior Oxenden inserted a large five-light window into St Anselm's chapel. 

            The cathedral was seriously damaged by an earthquake of 1382, losing its bells and campanile.

            From the late fourteenth century the nave and transepts were rebuilt, on the Norman foundations in the Perpendicular style under the direction of the noted master mason Henry Yevele. In contrast to the contemporary rebuilding of the nave at Winchester, where much of the existing fabric was retained and remodelled, the piers were entirely removed, and replaced with less bulky Gothic ones, and the old aisle walls completely taken down except for a low "plinth" left on the south side. More Norman fabric was retained in the transepts, especially in the east walls, and the old apsidal chapels were not replaced until the mid-15th century. The arches of the new nave arcade were exceptionally high in proportion to the clerestory. The new transepts, aisles and nave were roofed with lierne vaults, enriched with bosses. Most of the work was done during the priorate of Thomas Chillenden (1391–1411): Chillenden also built a new choir screen at the east end of the nave, into which Eastry's existing screen was incorporated. The Norman stone floor of the nave, however survived until its replacement in 1786.
            From 1396 the cloisters were repaired and remodelled by Yevele's pupil Stephen Lote who added the lierne vaulting. It was during this period that the wagon-vaulting of the chapter house was created.
            A shortage of money, and the priority given to the rebuilding of the cloisters and chapter-house meant that the rebuilding of the west towers was neglected. The south-west tower was not replaced until 1458, and the Norman north-west tower survived until 1834, when it was replaced by a replica of its Perpendicular companion.

            In about 1430 the south transept apse was removed to make way for a chapel, founded by Lady Margaret Holland and dedicated to St Michael and All Angels. The north transept apse was replaced by a Lady Chapel, built in 1448-55.

            The 235 foot crossing tower was begun in 1433, although preparations had already been made during Chillenden's priorate, when the piers had been reinforced. Further strengthening was found necessary around the beginning of the sixteenth century, when buttressing arches were added under the southern and western tower arches. The tower is often known as the "Angel Steeple", after a gilded angel that once stood on one of its pinnacles.

            Dissolution of the monastery

            The cathedral ceased to be an abbey during the Dissolution of the Monasteries when all religious houses were suppressed. Canterbury surrendered in March 1539, and reverted to its previous status of 'a college of secular canons'. The New Foundation came into being on 8 April 1541.

            Eighteenth century to the present

            The original Norman northwest tower, which had a lead spire until 1705,  was demolished in 1834, due to structural concerns. It was replaced with a Perpendicular-style twin of the southwest tower, now known as the "Arundel Tower"'. This was the last major structural alteration to the cathedral to be made.
            The cathedral is the Regimental Church of the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment.


            In 1688, the joiner Roger Davis, citizen of London, removed the 13th century misericords and replaced them with two rows of his own work on each side of the choir. Some of Davis's misericords have a distinctly medieval flavour and he may have copied some of the original designs. When Sir George Gilbert Scott carried out renovations in the 19th century, he replaced the front row of Davis' misericords, with new ones of his own design, which seem to include many copies of those at Gloucester Cathedral, Worcester Cathedral and New College, Oxford.


            The Norman crypt
            The Foundation is the authorised staffing establishment of the cathedral, few of whom are clergy. The head of the cathedral is the dean, currently the Very Reverend Robert Willis, who is assisted by a chapter of 24 canons, four of whom are residentiary, the others being honorary appointments of senior clergy in the diocese. There are also a number of lay canons who altogether form the greater chapter which has the legal responsibility both for the cathedral itself and also for the formal election of an archbishop when there is a vacancy-in-see. By English law and custom they may only elect the person who has been nominated by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister. The Foundation also includes the choristers, lay clerks, organists, King's Scholars, the Six Preachers and a range of other officers; some of these posts are moribund, such as that of the cathedral barber. The cathedral has a full-time work force of 300, and approximately 800 volunteers.


            Great Dunstan
            The cathedral has a total of twenty one bells in the three towers:

            The South West Tower (Oxford Tower) contains the cathedral’s main ring of bells, hung for change ringing in the English style. There are fourteen bells – a ring of twelve with two semi-tones, which allow for ringing on ten, eight or six bells while still remaining in tune. All of the bells were cast in 1981 by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry from seven bells of the old peal of twelve with new metal added, and re-hung in a new frame. The length (draught) of the ropes was increased by lowering the floor of the ringing chamber to the level of the south aisle vault at the same time. The heaviest bell of this ring weighs 34cwt (1.72 tonnes). The ringers practice on Thursday at 7.30pm.

            The North West Tower (Arundel Tower) contains the cathedral’s clock chime. The five quarter chimes were taken from the old peal of twelve in the Oxford Tower (where the clock was originally), and hung from beams in the Arundel Tower. The chimes are stuck on the eighth Gregorian tone, which is also used at Merton College, Oxford. The hour is struck on Great Dunstan, the largest bell in Kent 63cwt (3.2 tonnes), which is also swung on Sunday mornings for Matins.

            In 1316 Prior Henry of Eastry gave a large bell dedicated to St Thomas, which weighed 71½ cwt (3.63 tonnes). Later, in 1343, Prior Hathbrand gave bells dedicated to Jesus and St Dunstan. At this time the bells in campanile were rehung and their names recorded as “Jesus”, “Dunstan”, “Mary”, “Crundale”, “Elphy” (Alphege) and “Thomas”. In the great earthquake of 1382 the campanile fell, destroying the first three named bells. Following its reconstruction, the other three bells were rehung, together with two others, of whose casting no record remains.

            The oldest bell in the cathedral is Bell Harry, which hangs in a cage atop the central tower to which the bell lends its name. This bell was cast in 1635, and is struck at 8am and 9pm every day to announce the opening and closing of the cathedral, and also occasionally for services as a Sanctus bell.


            The cathedral library has a collection of about 30,000 books and pamphlets printed before the 20th century and about 20,000 later books and serials. Many of the earlier books were acquired as part of donated collections. It is rich in church history, older theology, British history (including local history), travel, science and medicine, and the anti-slavery movement. The library's holdings are included in the online catalogue of the library of the University of Kent.


            Icon of the Melanesian Martyrs at Canterbury Cathedral
            Icon of the Melanesian Martyrs at Canterbury Cathedral
            In 2006, a new fundraising appeal to raise £50 million was launched to much media attention under the dramatic banner "Save Canterbury Cathedral".

            The Canterbury Cathedral Appeal was launched to protect and enhance Canterbury Cathedral's future as a religious, heritage and cultural centre. Every five years the cathedral carries out a major structural review. The last so-called Quinquennial made it very clear that a combination of centuries of weathering, pollution and constant use had taken its toll on the building and there were some serious problems at Canterbury Cathedral that needed urgent action.

            Much of the cathedral's stonework is damaged and crumbling, the roofs are leaking and much of the stained glass is badly corroded. It is thought that if action is not taken now, the rate of decay and damage being inflicted on the building will increase dramatically with potentially disastrous results, including closure of large sections of the cathedral in order to guarantee the safety of the million plus worshippers, pilgrims and tourists who visit the cathedral every year.

            As well as restoring much of the historic fabric of the cathedral, the appeal aims to fund enhancements to visitor facilities and investment to build on the cathedral's musical tradition. By November 2008, the appeal had raised more than £9 million. Previous major appeals were run in the 1950s and 1970s.

            In the summer of 2009, stones in the South West Transept were discovered to have cracked around several iron braces surrounding the Great South Window. The cracks are presumed to be the result of the metal expanding and contracting in hot and cold weather, and have severely compromised the structure of the window. The transept was closed while scaffolding was erected, and the area immediately in front of the inside of the window was closed off and covered, to maintain access via the south door beneath it. This area was given restoration priority immediately after the structural damage was discovered.


            • Dean – The Very Revd Robert Willis (since 1 July 2001 installation)
            • Canon Pastor – The Revd Canon Clare Edwards (since June 2004)
            • Canon Chancellor – The Revd Canon Christopher Irvine (since 2007)
            • Archdeacon – The Ven Sheila Watson (since 28 April 2007 installation)
            • Canon Treasurer – The Revd Canon Nicholas Papadopulos (since 10 March 2013 installation) 



            The organ at Canterbury is of three manuals with cases in the choir gallery and the north choir aisle. It was built in 1886 by Henry Willis and subsequently rebuilt by the same firm in the mid 20th century. It was rebuilt by N.P. Mander in 1978 and reduced to three manuals at about that time. There are plans to replace the current Organ and work starts in 2014.


            Organists and Assistant Organists at Canterbury Cathedral have included composers Clement Charlton Palmer, Gerald Hocken Knight and Philip Moore (organist) and musical directors Allan Wicks and Stephen Darlington. The current Organist and Master of the Choristers is David Flood and his Assistant Organist is David Newsholme. The present organ scholar is Ed Hewes.


            There has been a choral tradition at Canterbury Cathedral for 1400 years. There are seven choral services a week, sung by 25 boy choristers and 12 lay clerks. There is generally Choral Evensong at 5.30pm on Monday-Friday with the boys alone on Thursday and Men on Wednesday. On Saturday and Sunday there is evensong at 3.15pm and Eucharist on Sunday at 11am. There are numerous extra services especially at Christmas, Easter and Pentecost. The boys are aged eight to thirteen. They receive scholarships and attend St Edmund's School, Canterbury.


            • Babington, Margaret (1955). The Romance of Canterbury Cathedral. Raphael Tuck.
            • Blick, Sarah (2005). "Reconstructing the Shrine of St. Thomas
            Becket, Canterbury Cathedral". In Blick, Sarah and Tekippe, Rita. Art and architecture of late medieval pilgrimage in Northern Europe and the British Isles. Leiden and Boston: Brill.
            • Cook, G. H. (1949). Portrait of Canterbury Cathedral. London: Phoenix House.
            • Iremonger, F. A. (1948). William Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury - his life and letters. Oxford University Press.
            • Purcell, William (1969). Fisher of Lambeth: a portrait from life. Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-02938-2.
            • Willis, Robert (1845). The Architectural History of Canterbury Cathedral. London: Longman.
            • Withers, Hartley (1897). The Cathedral Church of Canterbury. Bell's Cathedral Series (2nd revised ed.). London: George Bell.
            • Collinson, Patrick; Ramsay, Nigel & Sparks, Margaret, ed. (2002) [1995]. A History of Canterbury Cathedral (revised ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820051-X.


            Catechism of the Catholic Church

            Part Two: The Celebration of the Christian Mystery, 

            Section Two: The Seven Sacraments of the Church 

            Article 3:4  Sacrament of the Eucharist

            SECTION TWO

            Article 3

            V. The Sacramental Sacrifice Thanksgiving, Memorial, Presence
            1356 If from the beginning Christians have celebrated the Eucharist and in a form whose substance has not changed despite the great diversity of times and liturgies, it is because we know ourselves to be bound by the command the Lord gave on the eve of his Passion: "Do this in remembrance of me." 1 Cor 11:24-25
            1357 We carry out this command of the Lord by celebrating the memorial of his sacrifice. In so doing, we offer to the Father what he has himself given us: the gifts of his creation, bread and wine which, by the power of the Holy Spirit and by the words of Christ, have become the body and blood of Christ. Christ is thus really and mysteriously made present.
            1358 We must therefore consider the Eucharist as: - thanksgiving and praise to the Father;
            - the sacrificial memorial of Christ and his Body;
            - the presence of Christ by the power of his word and of his Spirit.

            Thanksgiving and praise to the Father
            1359 The Eucharist, the sacrament of our salvation accomplished by Christ on the cross, is also a sacrifice of praise in thanksgiving for the work of creation. In the Eucharistic sacrifice the whole of creation loved by God is presented to the Father through the death and the Resurrection of Christ. Through Christ the Church can offer the sacrifice of praise in thanksgiving for all that God has made good, beautiful, and just in creation and in humanity.
            1360 The Eucharist is a sacrifice of thanksgiving to the Father, a blessing by which the Church expresses her gratitude to God for all his benefits, for all that he has accomplished through creation, redemption, and sanctification. Eucharist means first of all "thanksgiving."
            1361 The Eucharist is also the sacrifice of praise by which the Church sings the glory of God in the name of all creation. This sacrifice of praise is possible only through Christ: he unites the faithful to his person, to his praise, and to his intercession, so that the sacrifice of praise to the Father is offered through Christ and with him, to be accepted in him.

            The sacrificial memorial of Christ and of his Body, the Church
            1362 The Eucharist is the memorial of Christ's Passover, the making present and the sacramental offering of his unique sacrifice, in the liturgy of the Church which is his Body. In all the Eucharistic Prayers we find after the words of institution a prayer called the anamnesis or memorial.
            1363 In the sense of Sacred Scripture the memorial is not merely the recollection of past events but the proclamation of the mighty works wrought by God for men.Ex 13:3 In the liturgical celebration of these events, they become in a certain way present and real. This is how Israel understands its liberation from Egypt: every time Passover is celebrated, the Exodus events are made present to the memory of believers so that they may conform their lives to them.
            1364 In the New Testament, the memorial takes on new meaning. When the Church celebrates the Eucharist, she commemorates Christ's Passover, and it is made present the sacrifice Christ offered once for all on the cross remains ever present.Heb 7:25-27 "As often as the sacrifice of the Cross by which 'Christ our Pasch has been sacrificed' is celebrated on the altar, the work of our redemption is carried out."1 Cor 5:7
            1365 Because it is the memorial of Christ's Passover, the Eucharist is also a sacrifice. the sacrificial character of the Eucharist is manifested in the very words of institution: "This is my body which is given for you" and "This cup which is poured out for you is the New Covenant in my blood."Lk 22:19-20 In the Eucharist Christ gives us the very body which he gave up for us on the cross, the very blood which he "poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins."Mt 26:28
            1366 The Eucharist is thus a sacrifice because it re-presents (makes present) the sacrifice of the cross, because it is its memorial and because it applies its fruit: [Christ], our Lord and God, was once and for all to offer himself to God the Father by his death on the altar of the cross, to accomplish there an everlasting redemption. But because his priesthood was not to end with his death, at the Last Supper "on the night when he was betrayed," [he wanted] to leave to his beloved spouse the Church a visible sacrifice (as the nature of man demands) by which the bloody sacrifice which he was to accomplish once for all on the cross would be re-presented, its memory perpetuated until the end of the world, and its salutary power be applied to the forgiveness of the sins we daily commit.Council of Trent (1562): DS 1740; cf. 1 Cor 11:23; Heb 7:24, 27

            1367 The sacrifice of Christ and the sacrifice of the Eucharist are one single sacrifice: "The victim is one and the same: the same now offers through the ministry of priests, who then offered himself on the cross; only the manner of offering is different." "In this divine sacrifice which is celebrated in the Mass, the same Christ who offered himself once in a bloody manner on the altar of the cross is contained and is offered in an unbloody manner."Council of Trent (1562): DS 1743; cf. Heb 9:14, 27

            1368 The Eucharist is also the sacrifice of the Church. the Church which is the Body of Christ participates in the offering of her Head. With him, she herself is offered whole and entire. She unites herself to his intercession with the Father for all men. In the Eucharist the sacrifice of Christ becomes also the sacrifice of the members of his Body. the lives of the faithful, their praise, sufferings, prayer, and work, are united with those of Christ and with his total offering, and so acquire a new value. Christ's sacrifice present on the altar makes it possible for all generations of Christians to be united with his offering. In the catacombs the Church is often represented as a woman in prayer, arms outstretched in the praying position. Like Christ who stretched out his arms on the cross, through him, with him, and in him, she offers herself and intercedes for all men.
            1369 The whole Church is united with the offering and intercession of Christ. Since he has the ministry of Peter in the Church, the Pope is associated with every celebration of the Eucharist, wherein he is named as the sign and servant of the unity of the universal Church. the bishop of the place is always responsible for the Eucharist, even when a priest presides; the bishop's name is mentioned to signify his presidency over the particular Church, in the midst of his presbyterium and with the assistance of deacons. the community intercedes also for all ministers who, for it and with it, offer the Eucharistic sacrifice: Let only that Eucharist be regarded as legitimate, which is celebrated under [the presidency of] the bishop or him to whom he has entrusted it.St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Smyrn. 8:1; SCh 10, 138  Through the ministry of priests the spiritual sacrifice of the faithful is completed in union with the sacrifice of Christ the only Mediator, which in the Eucharist is offered through the priests' hands in the name of the whole Church in an unbloody and sacramental manner until the Lord himself comes.PO 2 # 4

            1370 To the offering of Christ are united not only the members still here on earth, but also those already in the glory of heaven. In communion with and commemorating the Blessed Virgin Mary and all the saints, the Church offers the Eucharistic sacrifice. In the Eucharist the Church is as it were at the foot of the cross with Mary, united with the offering and intercession of Christ.

            1371 The Eucharistic sacrifice is also offered for the faithful departed who "have died in Christ but are not yet wholly purified,"Council of Trent (1562) DS 1743 so that they may be able to enter into the light and peace of Christ: Put this body anywhere! Don't trouble yourselves about it! I simply ask you to remember me at the Lord's altar wherever you are.St. Monica, before her death, to her sons, St. Augustine and his brother; Conf. 9, 11, 27: PL 32, 775. Then, we pray [in the anaphora] for the holy fathers and bishops who have fallen asleep, and in general for all who have fallen asleep before us, in the belief that it is a great benefit to the souls on whose behalf the supplication is offered, while the holy and tremendous Victim is present.... By offering to God our supplications for those who have fallen asleep, if they have sinned, we . . . offer Christ sacrificed for the sins of all, and so render favorable, for them and for us, the God who loves man.St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catech. myst. 5, 9. 10 PG 33, 1116-1117
            1372 St. Augustine admirably summed up this doctrine that moves us to an ever more complete participation in our Redeemer's sacrifice which we celebrate in the Eucharist: This wholly redeemed city, the assembly and society of the saints, is offered to God as a universal sacrifice by the high priest who in the form of a slave went so far as to offer himself for us in his Passion, to make us the Body of so great a head.... Such is the sacrifice of Christians: "we who are many are one Body in Christ" the Church continues to reproduce this sacrifice in the sacrament of the altar so well-known to believers wherein it is evident to them that in what she offers she herself is offered.St. Augustine, De civ Dei, 10, 6: PL 41, 283; cf. Rom 12:5

            The presence of Christ by the power of his word and the Holy Spirit
            1373 "Christ Jesus, who died, yes, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes for us," is present in many ways to his Church:Rom 8:34; cf. LG 48 in his word, in his Church's prayer, "where two or three are gathered in my name,"Mt 18:20 in the poor, the sick, and the imprisoned, Mt 25:31-46 in the sacraments of which he is the author, in the sacrifice of the Mass, and in the person of the minister. But "he is present . . . most especially in the Eucharistic species."SC 7

            1374 The mode of Christ's presence under the Eucharistic species is unique. It raises the Eucharist above all the sacraments as "the perfection of the spiritual life and the end to which all the sacraments tend."St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 73, 3c In the most blessed sacrament of the Eucharist "the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ and, therefore, the whole Christ is truly, really, and substantially contained."Council of Trent (1551): DS 1651 "This presence is called 'real' - by which is not intended to exclude the other types of presence as if they could not be 'real' too, but because it is presence in the fullest sense: that is to say, it is a substantial presence by which Christ, God and man, makes himself wholly and entirely present."Paul VI, MF 39

            1375 It is by the conversion of the bread and wine into Christ's body and blood that Christ becomes present in this sacrament. the Church Fathers strongly affirmed the faith of the Church in the efficacy of the Word of Christ and of the action of the Holy Spirit to bring about this conversion. Thus St. John Chrysostom declares:It is not man that causes the things offered to become the Body and Blood of Christ, but he who was crucified for us, Christ himself. the priest, in the role of Christ, pronounces these words, but their power and grace are God's. This is my body, he says. This word transforms the things offered.St. John Chrysostom, prod. Jud. 1:6: PG 49, 380 and St. Ambrose says about this conversion: Be convinced that this is not what nature has formed, but what the blessing has consecrated. the power of the blessing prevails over that of nature, because by the blessing nature itself is changed.... Could not Christ's word, which can make from nothing what did not exist, change existing things into what they were not before? It is no less a feat to give things their original nature than to change their nature.St. Ambrose, De myst. 9, 50; 52: PL 16, 405-407

            1376 The Council of Trent summarizes the Catholic faith by declaring: "Because Christ our Redeemer said that it was truly his body that he was offering under the species of bread, it has always been the conviction of the Church of God, and this holy Council now declares again, that by the consecration of the bread and wine there takes place a change of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord and of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood. This change the holy Catholic Church has fittingly and properly called transubstantiation." Council of Trent (1551): DS 1642; cf. Mt 26:26 ff.; Mk 14:22 ff.; Lk 22:19 ff.; 1 Cor 11:24 ff

            1377 The Eucharistic presence of Christ begins at the moment of the consecration and endures as long as the Eucharistic species subsist. Christ is present whole and entire in each of the species and whole and entire in each of their parts, in such a way that the breaking of the bread does not divide Christ. Council of Trent: DS 1641

            1378 Worship of the Eucharist. In the liturgy of the Mass we express our faith in the real presence of Christ under the species of bread and wine by, among other ways, genuflecting or bowing deeply as a sign of adoration of the Lord. "The Catholic Church has always offered and still offers to the sacrament of the Eucharist the cult of adoration, not only during Mass, but also outside of it, reserving the consecrated hosts with the utmost care, exposing them to the solemn veneration of the faithful, and carrying them in procession."Paul VI, MF 56

            1379 The tabernacle was first intended for the reservation of the Eucharist in a worthy place so that it could be brought to the sick and those absent outside of Mass. As faith in the real presence of Christ in his Eucharist deepened, the Church became conscious of the meaning of silent adoration of the Lord present under the Eucharistic species. It is for this reason that the tabernacle should be located in an especially worthy place in the church and should be constructed in such a way that it emphasizes and manifests the truth of the real presence of Christ in the Blessed Sacrament.

            1380 It is highly fitting that Christ should have wanted to remain present to his Church in this unique way. Since Christ was about to take his departure from his own in his visible form, he wanted to give us his sacramental presence; since he was about to offer himself on the cross to save us, he wanted us to have the memorial of the love with which he loved us "to the end,"Jn 13:1 even to the giving of his life. In his Eucharistic presence he remains mysteriously in our midst as the one who loved us and gave himself up for us,Gal 2:20 and he remains under signs that express and communicate this love: The Church and the world have a great need for Eucharistic worship. Jesus awaits us in this sacrament of love. Let us not refuse the time to go to meet him in adoration, in contemplation full of faith, and open to making amends for the serious offenses and crimes of the world. Let our adoration never cease.John Paul II, Dominicae cenae, 3

            1381 "That in this sacrament are the true Body of Christ and his true Blood is something that 'cannot be apprehended by the senses,' says St. Thomas, 'but only by faith, which relies on divine authority.' For this reason, in a commentary on Luke 22:19 ('This is my body which is given for you.'), St. Cyril says: 'Do not doubt whether this is true, but rather receive the words of the Savior in faith, for since he is the truth, he cannot lie.'"St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 75, 1; cf. Paul VI, MF 18; St. Cyril of Alexandria, In Luc. 22, 19: PG 72, 912; cf. Paul VI, MF 18
            Godhead here in hiding, whom I do adore
            Masked by these bare shadows, shape and nothing more,
            See, Lord, at thy service low lies here a heart
            Lost, all lost in wonder at the God thou art.

            Seeing, touching, tasting are in thee deceived;
            How says trusty hearing? that shall be believed;
            What God's Son has told me, take for truth I do;
            Truth himself speaks truly or there's nothing true. St. Thomas Aquinas (attr.), Adoro te devote; tr. Gerard Manley Hopkins